|Department of the Taoiseach|
Irish: A Thaoisigh
|Seat|| Government Buildings,|
Merrion Street, Dublin, Ireland
|Appointer||President of Ireland|
|Term length||While commanding the confidence of the majority of Dáil Éireann. No term limits are imposed on the office.|
|Inaugural holder||Éamon de Valera|
|Formation||29 December 1937|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
the Republic of Ireland
The Taoiseach ( // (
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.
The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. "Head of government" is often differentiated from "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
Ireland, also known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island. Around a third of the country's population of 4.8 million people resides in the greater Dublin area. The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.
The word taoiseach means "chief" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister".Taoiseach is the official title of the head of government in both English and Irish, and is not used for other countries' prime ministers (who are referred to in Irish as Príomh Aire). The Irish form, An Taoiseach, is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach". Outside of Ireland, the Taoiseach is sometimes referred to as the Prime Minister of Ireland.
Irish is a Goidelic language of the Celtic and Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath, and a few other locations, and as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. A speaker of the Irish language is known as a Gaeilgeoir.
The Constitution of Ireland is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland. It asserts the national sovereignty of the Irish people. The constitution falls broadly within the tradition of liberal democracy, being based on a system of representative democracy. It guarantees certain fundamental rights, along with a popularly elected non-executive president, a bicameral parliament based on the Westminster system, a separation of powers and judicial review.
Leo Varadkar TD is the current Taoiseach; he took office on 14 June 2017,following his election as leader of Fine Gael on 2 June 2017. Varadkar is the youngest Taoiseach in the history of the Irish state, having taken office at the age of 38; he is also the first openly LGBT person, and the first person of Indian descent to lead the Irish government.
Leo Eric Varadkar is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as Taoiseach, Minister for Defence and Leader of Fine Gael since June 2017. He has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin West constituency since 2007. He previously served as Minister for Social Protection from 2016 to 2017, Minister for Health from 2014 to 2016 and Minister for Transport, Tourism and Sport from 2011 to 2014.
A TD is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas. It is the equivalent of terms such as 'Member of Parliament' (MP) or 'Member of Congress' used in other countries. The official translation of the term is 'Deputy to the Dáil', although a more literal translation is "Assembly Delegate".
Fine Gael is a liberal-conservative political party in Ireland. Fine Gael is currently the governing and largest party in Ireland in terms of members of the Oireachtas and Irish members of European Parliament. The party has a membership of 21,000 and is the senior partner governing in a minority coalition with several independent politicians, with party leader Leo Varadkar serving as Taoiseach. Varadkar succeeded Enda Kenny as party leader on 2 June 2017 and as Taoiseach on 14 June; Kenny had been leader since 2002, and Taoiseach since 2011.
Under the Constitution of Ireland, the Taoiseach is nominated by a simple majority of Dáil Éireann from among its members. He/she is then formally appointed to office by the President, who is required to appoint whomever the Dáil designates, without the option of declining to make the appointment. For this reason, it is often said that the Taoiseach is "elected" by Dáil Éireann.
If the Taoiseach loses the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann, he/she is not automatically removed from office but, rather, is compelled either to resign or to persuade the President to dissolve the Dáil. The President may refuse to grant a dissolution and, in effect, force the Taoiseach to resign; to date, no president has exercised this prerogative, though the option arose in 1944 and 1994, and twice in 1982. The Taoiseach may lose the support of Dáil Éireann by the passage of a vote of no confidence, or implicitly through the failure of a vote of confidence; or alternatively, the Dáil may refuse supply.In the event of the Taoiseach's resignation, he/she continues to exercise the duties and functions of his/her office until the appointment of a successor.
Loss of supply occurs where a government in a parliamentary democracy using the Westminster System or a system derived from it is denied a supply of treasury or exchequer funds, by whichever house or houses of parliament or head of state is constitutionally entitled to grant and deny supply. A defeat on a budgetary vote is one way by which supply can be denied. Loss of supply is typically interpreted as indicating a loss of confidence in the government. Not all "money bills" are necessarily supply bills. For instance, in Australia, supply bills are defined as "bills which are required by the Government to carry on its day-to-day business".
The Taoiseach nominates the remaining members of the Government, who are then, with the consent of the Dáil, appointed by the President. The Taoiseach also has authority to advise the President to dismiss cabinet ministers from office, advice the President is required to follow by convention. The Taoiseach is further responsible for appointing eleven members of the Seanad.
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.
Seanad Éireann is the upper house of the Oireachtas, which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann.
The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department which supports and advises the Taoiseach in carrying out his/her various duties.
Since 2013, the Taoiseach's annual salary is €185,350.It was cut from €214,187 to €200,000 when Enda Kenny took office, before being cut further to €185,350 under the Haddington Road Agreement in 2013.
A proposed increase of €38,000 in 2007 was deferred when Brian Cowen became Taoiseachand in October 2008, the government announced a 10% salary cut for all ministers, including the Taoiseach. However this was a voluntary cut and the salaries remained nominally the same with both ministers and Taoiseach essentially refusing 10% of their salary. This courted controversy in December 2009 when a salary cut of 20% was based on the higher figure before the refused amount was deducted. The Taoiseach is also allowed an additional €118,981 in annual expenses.
There is no official residence of the Taoiseach. In 2008 it was reported speculatively that the former Steward's Lodge at Farmleigh adjoining the Phoenix Park would become the official residence of the Taoiseach; however no official statements were made nor any action taken.The house, which forms part of the Farmleigh estate acquired by the State in 1999 for €29.2m, was renovated at a cost of nearly €600,000 in 2005 by the Office of Public Works. Former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern did not use it as a residence, but his successor Brian Cowen used it "from time to time".
The words Taoiseach (Irish: [ˈt̪ˠiːʃəx] ) and Tánaiste (the title of the deputy prime minister) are both from the Irish language and of ancient origin. Though the Taoiseach is described in the Constitution of Ireland as "the head of the Government or Prime Minister", its literal translation is chieftain or leader. Although Éamon de Valera, who introduced the title in 1937, was neither a Fascist nor a dictator, it has sometimes been remarked that the meaning leader in 1937 made the title similar to the titles of Fascist dictators of the time, such as Führer (Hitler), Duce (Mussolini) and Caudillo (Franco). Tánaiste, in turn, refers to the system of tanistry, the Gaelic system of succession whereby a leader would appoint an heir apparent while still living.
In Scottish Gaelic, tòiseach translates as clan chief and both words originally had similar meanings in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland.The related Welsh language word tywysog (current meaning: prince) has a similar origin and meaning. It is hypothesized that both derive ultimately from the proto-Celtic * towissākos "chieftain, leader".
The plural of taoiseach is taoisigh (Irish: [t̪ˠiːʃiː] ).
Although the Irish form An Taoiseach is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach",the English version of the Constitution states that he or she "shall be called ... the Taoiseach". In the 2010s "The Teesh" neologism has emerged as a more jocular form.
In 1937 when the draft Constitution of Ireland was being debated in the Dáil, Frank MacDermot, an opposition politician, moved an amendment to substitute "Prime Minister" for the proposed "Taoiseach" title in the English text of the Constitution. It was proposed to keep the "Taoiseach" title in the Irish language text. The proponent remarked:
It seems to me to be mere make-believe to try to incorporate a word like "Taoiseach" in the English language. It would be pronounced wrongly by 99 percent of the people. I have already ascertained it is a very difficult word to pronounce correctly. That being so, even for the sake of the dignity of the Irish language, it would be more sensible that when speaking English we should be allowed to refer to the gentleman in question as the Prime Minister... It is just one more example of the sort of things that are being done here as if for the purpose of putting off the people in the North. No useful purpose of any kind can be served by compelling us, when speaking English, to refer to An Taoiseach rather than to the Prime Minister.
The President of the Executive Council, Éamon de Valera, gave the term's meaning as "chieftain" or "Captain". He said he was "not disposed" to support the proposed amendment and felt the word "Taoiseach" did not need to be changed. The proposed amendment was defeated on a vote and "Taoiseach" was included as the title ultimately adopted by plebiscite of the people.
The modern position of Taoiseach was established by the 1937 Constitution of Ireland and is the most powerful role in Irish politics. The office replaced the position of President of the Executive Council of the 1922–1937 Irish Free State.
The positions of Taoiseach and President of the Executive Council differed in certain fundamental respects. Under the Constitution of the Irish Free State, the latter was vested with considerably less power and was largely just the chairman of the cabinet, the Executive Council. For example, the President of the Executive Council could not dismiss a fellow minister on his own authority. Instead, the Executive Council had to be disbanded and reformed entirely in order to remove a member. The President of the Executive Council also did not have the right to advise the Governor-General to dissolve Dáil Éireann on his own authority, that power belonging collectively to the Executive Council.
In contrast, the Taoiseach created in 1937 possesses a much more powerful role. He can both advise the President to dismiss ministers and dissolve Parliament on his own authority—advice that the President is almost always required to follow by convention.His role is greatly enhanced because under the Constitution, he is both de jure and de facto chief executive. In most other parliamentary democracies, the head of state is at least the nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In Ireland, however, executive power is explicitly vested in the Government, of which the Taoiseach is the leader.
Since the Taoiseach is the head of government, and may remove ministers at will, many of the powers specified, in law or the constitution, to be exercised by the government as a collective body, are in reality at the will of the Taoiseach. The Government almost always backs the Taoiseach in major decisions, and in many cases often merely formalizes that decision at a subsequent meeting after it has already been announced. Nevertheless the need for collective decision making on paper acts as a safeguard against an unwise decision made by the Taoiseach.
Historically, where there have been multi-party or coalition governments, the Taoiseach has been the leader of the largest party in the coalition. One exception to this was John A. Costello, who was not leader of his party, but an agreed choice to head the government, because the other parties refused to accept then Fine Gael leader Richard Mulcahy as Taoiseach. In 2010 Taoiseach Brian Cowen, in the midst of highly unpopular spending cuts after the global financial crash, maintained his position as Taoiseach until new elections, but stood down as leader of Fianna Fáil and allowed Micheál Martin (who had resigned in protest at the way Cowen responded to the crises) to succeed him.
Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution, the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council. This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1922–32, and then by Éamon de Valera of Fianna Fáil from 1932–37. By convention, Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave;for example, Leo Varadkar is considered the 14th Taoiseach, not the 13th.
President of the Executive Council
|Term of office||Party||Exec. Council|
|1|| W. T. Cosgrave |
TD for Carlow–Kilkenny until 1927
TD for Cork Borough from 1927
| Sinn Féin|
|1st||SF (PT) (minority)||Kevin O'Higgins||3 (1922)|
|Cumann na nGaedheal||2nd||CnG (minority)||4 (1923)|
|3rd||Ernest Blythe||5 (Jun.1927)|
|2|| Éamon de Valera |
TD for Clare
|Fianna Fáil||6th||FF (minority)||Seán T. O'Kelly||7 (1932)|
|Term of office||Party||Government|
|(2)|| Éamon de Valera |
TD for Clare
|Fianna Fáil||1st||FF (minority)||Seán T. O'Kelly||9 ( ···· )|
|3rd||FF (minority)||11 (1943)|
|4th||FF||Seán Lemass||12 (1944)|
|3|| John A. Costello |
TD for Dublin South-East
|Fine Gael||5th||FG–Lab–CnP–CnT–NL–Ind||William Norton||13 (1948)|
|(2)|| Éamon de Valera |
TD for Clare
|Fianna Fáil||6th||FF (minority)||Seán Lemass||14 (1951)|
|(3)|| John A. Costello |
TD for Dublin South-East
|Fine Gael||7th||FG–Lab–CnT||William Norton||15 (1954)|
|(2)|| Éamon de Valera |
TD for Clare
|Fianna Fáil||8th||FF||Seán Lemass||16 (1957)|
|4|| Seán Lemass |
TD for Dublin South-Central
|Fianna Fáil||9th||FF||Seán MacEntee|
|10th||FF (minority)||17 (1961)|
|11th||FF||Frank Aiken||18 (1965)|
|5|| Jack Lynch |
TD for Cork Borough until 1969
TD for Cork City North-West from 1969
|13th||FF||Erskine H. Childers||19 (1969)|
|6|| Liam Cosgrave |
TD for Dún Laoghaire and Rathdown
|Fine Gael||14th||FG–Lab||Brendan Corish||20 (1973)|
|(5)|| Jack Lynch |
TD for Cork City
|Fianna Fáil||15th||FF||George Colley||21 (1977)|
|7|| Charles Haughey |
TD for Dublin Artane
|8|| Garret FitzGerald |
TD for Dublin South-East
|Fine Gael||17th||FG–Lab (minority)||Michael O'Leary||22 (1981)|
|(7)|| Charles Haughey |
TD for Dublin North-Central
|Fianna Fáil||18th||FF (minority)||Ray MacSharry||23 (Feb.1982)|
|(8)|| Garret FitzGerald |
TD for Dublin South-East
|Fine Gael||19th|| FG–Lab |
FG (minority) from Jan 1987
|Dick Spring||24 (Nov.1982)|
|(7)|| Charles Haughey |
TD for Dublin North-Central
|Fianna Fáil||20th||FF (minority)||Brian Lenihan||25 (1987)|
|9|| Albert Reynolds |
TD for Longford–Roscommon
|Fianna Fáil||22nd|| FF–PD |
FF (minority) from Nov 1992
|23rd|| FF–Lab |
FF (minority) from Nov 1994
|Dick Spring||27 (1992)|
|10|| John Bruton |
TD for Meath
|Fine Gael||24th||FG–Lab–DL||Dick Spring|
|11|| Bertie Ahern |
TD for Dublin Central
|Fianna Fáil||25th||FF–PD (minority)||Mary Harney||28 (1997)|
|27th||FF–Green–PD||Brian Cowen||30 (2007)|
|12|| Brian Cowen |
TD for Laois–Offaly
|Fianna Fáil||28th|| FF–Green–PD |
FF–Green–Ind from Nov 2009
FF (minority) from Jan 2011
|13|| Enda Kenny |
TD for Mayo
|Fine Gael||29th||FG–Lab||Eamon Gilmore||31 (2011)|
|30th||FG–Ind (minority)||Frances Fitzgerald||32 (2016)|
|14|| Leo Varadkar |
TD for Dublin West
|Incumbent||Fine Gael||31st||FG–Ind (minority)|
There are four living former taoisigh as of July 2019:
|Taoiseach||Term of office||Date of birth|
|John Bruton||1994–1997||18 May 1947|
|Bertie Ahern||1997–2008||12 September 1951|
|Brian Cowen||2008–2011||10 January 1960|
|Enda Kenny||2011–2017||24 April 1951|
The most recent Taoiseach to die was Liam Cosgrave (served 1973–1977) on 4 October 2017, aged 97.
As we cannot name the first Celtic chieftain who consented to change his style of Toshach and his patriarchal sway for the title and stability of King's Thane of Cawdor, so it is impossible to fix the precise time when their ancient property and offices were acquired.
Toshach is an early Celtic title given to minor territorial chiefs in Scotland (note Eire Prime Minister's official title is this).
An early word meaning 'leader' appears on a 5th- or 6th-century inscribed stone as both ogam Irish and British genitive TOVISACI: tywysog now means 'prince' in Welsh, the regular descriptive title used for Prince Charles, for example; while in Ireland, the corresponding Taoiseach is now the correct title, in both Irish and English, for the Prime Minister of the Irish Republic (Éire).
Éamon de Valera was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland. His political career spanned over half a century, from 1917 to 1973; he served several terms as head of government and head of state. He also led the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland.
The President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State was the head of government or prime minister of the Irish Free State which existed from 1922 to 1937. The president was appointed by the Governor-General, upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann and had to enjoy the confidence of the Dáil to remain in office. The office was succeeded by that of Taoiseach, though subsequent Taoisigh are numbered from the first President of the Executive.
William Thomas Cosgrave was an Irish Fine Gael politician who served as President of the Executive Council from 1922 to 1932, Leader of the Opposition from 1932 to 1944, Leader of Fine Gael from 1934 to 1944, Leader of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1923 to 1933, Chairman of the Provisional Government from August 1922 to December 1922, President of Dáil Éireann from September 1922 to December 1922, Minister for Finance from 1922 to 1923 and Minister for Local Government from 1919 to 1922. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1921 to 1944. He was a Member of Parliament (MP) for the North Kilkenny constituency from 1918 to 1922.
Patrick John Hillery was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the sixth President of Ireland from December 1976 to December 1990. He also served as Vice-President of the European Commission and European Commissioner for Social Affairs from 1973 to 1976, Minister for External Affairs from 1969 to 1973, Minister for Labour from 1966 to 1969, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1965 to 1969 and Minister for Education from 1959 to 1965. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Clare constituency from 1951 to 1973.
Charles James Haughey was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach on three different occasions, 1979 to 1981, March 1982 to December 1982 and 1987 to 1992. He was also Minister for the Gaeltacht from 1987 to 1992, Leader of the Opposition from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1979 to 1992, Minister for Social Welfare and Minister for Health from 1977 to 1979, Minister for Finance from 1966 to 1970, Minister for Agriculture from 1964 to 1966, Minister for Justice from 1961 to 1964 and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Justice from 1959 to 1961. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1957 to 1992.
The president of Dáil Éireann was the leader of the revolutionary Irish Republic of 1919–1921. The office, also known as príomh aire, was created in the Dáil Constitution adopted by Dáil Éireann, the parliament of the Republic, at its first meeting in January 1919. This provided that the president was elected by the Dáil as head of a cabinet called the 'Ministry'. During the period of the Republic there were two office-holders, Cathal Brugha and Éamon de Valera.
President of the Republic was the title given to the head of the Irish ministry or Aireacht in August 1921 by an amendment to the Dáil Constitution, which replaced the previous title, Príomh Aire or president of Dáil Éireann. Unlike the previous offices, which were simply head of government or prime minister, the president of the Republic was explicitly declared to be the Irish Republic's head of state.
Erskine Hamilton Childers was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as the fourth President of Ireland from June 1973 until his death in November 1974. He is the only Irish president to have died in office. He also served as Tánaiste and Minister for Health from 1969 to 1973, Minister for Transport and Power from 1959 to 1969, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs from 1951 to 1954 and 1966 to 1969, Minister without portfolio in July 1959, Minister for Lands from 1957 to 1959 and Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Local Government from 1944 to 1948. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1938 to 1973.
Garret Desmond FitzGerald was an Irish economist, barrister, lecturer, public intellectual and Fine Gael politician who served as Taoiseach from 1981 to 1982 and 1982 to 1987, Leader of Fine Gael from 1977 to 1987, Leader of the Opposition from 1977 to 1981 and March 1982 to December 1982 and Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1973 to 1977. He served as a Teachta Dála (TD) from 1969 to 1992. He was a Senator for the Industrial and Commercial Panel from 1965 to 1969.
The 1959 Irish presidential election was held on 17 June 1959. Éamon de Valera, then Taoiseach, was elected as president of Ireland. A referendum proposed by de Valera to replace the electoral system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote with first-past-the-post voting which was held on the same day was defeated by 48.2% to 52.8%.
The 13th Dáil was elected at the 1948 general election on 4 February 1948 and first met on 18 February when the 5th Government of Ireland was appointed. The 13th Dáil lasted for 1,211 days.
The Taoiseach is the head of government of Ireland. Prior to the enactment of the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council. This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave from 1922 to 1932, and then by Éamon de Valera from 1932 to 1937. By convention Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave, for example Leo Varadkar is considered the 14th Taoiseach not the 13th.
In Ireland, direct elections by universal suffrage are used for the President, the ceremonial head of state; for Dáil Éireann, the house of representatives of the Oireachtas or parliament; for the European Parliament; and for local government. All elections use the proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote (PR-STV) in constituencies returning three or more members, except that the presidential election and by-elections use the single-winner analogue of STV, elsewhere called instant-runoff voting or the alternative vote. Members of Seanad Éireann, the second house of the Oireachtas, are partly nominated, partly indirectly elected, and partly elected by graduates of particular universities.
The Leader of the Seanad is a member of Seanad Éireann appointed by the Taoiseach to direct government business. Since June 2016, the incumbent is Jerry Buttimer of Fine Gael.
Fianna Fáil was founded on 23 March 1926 when a group of Dail deputies led by Éamon de Valera split from Sinn Féin. This happened because de Valera's motion calling for elected members be allowed to take their seats in the Dáil, if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed, failed to pass at the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis. The new party adopted its name on 2 April of the same year. From the formation of the first Fianna Fáil government on 9 March 1932 until the 2011 general election, the party was in power for 61 of 79 years. Its longest continuous period in office was 15 years and 11 months. Its single longest period out of office, in that time, has been four years and four months. Seven of the party's eight leaders have served as Taoiseach. It was the largest party in Dáil Éireann at every general election from the 1932 general election until the 2011 general election, when it suffered the worst defeat of a sitting government in the history of the Irish state.
The Leader of Fianna Fáil is the most senior politician within the Fianna Fáil political party in Ireland. Since 26 January 2011, the office has been held by Micheál Martin, following the resignation of Taoiseach Brian Cowen as leader of the party.
While Taoiseach itself carried with it some initially unpleasant assonances with Caudillo, Fuhrer and Duce, all but one of the 12 men who wielded the prime ministerial sceptre have managed to keep their megalomaniacal tendencies in check.
Eamon de Valera is An Taoiseach or “boss Gael.” That title goes considerably beyond the English “prime minister” or the American “president.” It is the Gaelic equivalent of the German “Fuehrer,” the Italian “Duce” and the Spanish “Caudillo.Published in New York, 1944 (publisher not identified); Original from University of Minnesota; Digitized 6 May 2016
... and let alone the names of the Prime Minister (the Taoiseach, a word that is related to Duce, Fuhrer, and Caudillo) (translated from the original Irish: ... agus fiú amháin ainmeacha an Phríomh-Aire (An Taoiseach, focal go bhfuil gaol aige le Duce, Fuhrer, agus Caudillo)Original from the University of California; Digitized 6 Dec 2006
The Taoiseach has learnt with regret ...
The book Chairman or Chief: The Role of the Taoiseach in Irish Government (1971) by Brian Farrell provides a good overview of the conflicting roles for the Taoiseach. Though long out of print, it may still be available in libraries or from booksellers. Biographies are also available of de Valera, Lemass, Lynch, Cosgrave, FitzGerald, Haughey, Reynolds and Ahern. FitzGerald wrote an autobiography, while an authorised biography was produced of de Valera. There is a chapter by Garret FitzGerald on the role of the Taoiseach in a festschrift to Brian Farrell. There is a chapter by Eoin O'Malley on the Taoiseach and cabinet in Governing Ireland: From cabinet government to delegated governance (Eoin O'Malley and Muiris MacCarthaigh eds.) Dublin: IPA 2012.
Some biographies of former Taoisigh and Presidents of the Executive Council:
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