Tarn-et-Garonne

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Tarn-et-Garonne
Tarn e Garona  (Occitan)
Prefecture du Tarn-et-Garonne (Montauban).jpg
Prefecture building in Montauban
Official flag of Tarn et Garonne.png
Blason departement fr Tarn-et-Garonne.svg
Tarn-et-Garonne-Position.svg
Location of Tarn-et-Garonne in France
Coordinates: 44°0′N1°20′E / 44.000°N 1.333°E / 44.000; 1.333 Coordinates: 44°0′N1°20′E / 44.000°N 1.333°E / 44.000; 1.333
Country France
Region Occitanie
Prefecture Montauban
Subprefectures Castelsarrasin
Government
   President of the Departmental Council Michel Weill (PRG)
Area
1
  Total3,718 km2 (1,436 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)
  Total256,897
  Rank 80th
  Density69/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number 82
Arrondissements 2
Cantons 15
Communes 195
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries, and lakes, ponds, and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Tarn-et-Garonne (French pronunciation:  [taʁn e ɡaʁɔn] ; Occitan : Tarn e Garona [ˈtaɾ e ɣaˈɾɔnɔ] ) is a department Southwestern France. It is traversed by the rivers Tarn and Garonne, from which it takes its name. This area was originally part of the former provinces of Quercy and Languedoc. The department was created in 1808 by Napoleon, with territory being taken from the departments of Lot, Haute-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne, Gers and Aveyron.

Contents

The department is mostly rural with fertile agricultural land in the broad river valley, but there are hilly areas to the south, east and north. The departmental prefecture is Montauban, and some of the other large communes include Castelsarrasin, Molières, Caussade, Valence-d'Agen and the medieval town of Lauzerte. In 2016, it had a population of 256,897.

History

History of the region

Quercy was part of Aquitania prima under the Romans; Christianity was introduced during the 4th century. Early in the 6th century the area fell under the authority of the Franks, and in the 7th century became part of the autonomous Duchy of Aquitaine. At the end of the 10th century its rulers were the powerful counts of Toulouse. During the hostilities between England and France in the reign of Henry II of England, the English placed garrisons in the county, and by the 1259 Treaty of Paris lower Quercy came under the control of England. [1]

The kings of both England and France around this time tried to curry favour by adding to the privileges of the towns and the district. In 1360, the Treaty of Brétigny was signed and the whole of Quercy passed to England. However, in the 1440s the English were finally expelled by the newly created army of Charles VII of France. [2] In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, and the scene of fierce religious conflicts. The civil wars of the reign of Louis XIII largely took place around Montauban.

After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the monarchy was re-established in France, but the discredited Bourbon Dynasty was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848. During this time the divide between the rich and poor increased; in Montauban, hundreds turned to begging as wages fell, factories closed and food prices rose; rioting was widespread and the home of the mayor was stoned by building workers in 1847. [3]

History of the department

Map of the region before the creation of the department Tarn-et-Garonne department evolution map-fr.svg
Map of the region before the creation of the department

Before the department's formation in the nineteenth century, the northern half formed part of the old province of Quercy and the southern half, part of Languedoc. The department was created on 4 November 1808 during the First French Empire by a decision of Napoleon. [4] The emperor had been invited to visit the town of Montauban, an important industrial and commercial centre at the time, whose populace thought the town was central enough and sufficiently important to be the capital of a new department. He was impressed by their loyalty and granted their request. [4]

The department was formed out of territories that had previously been part of neighbouring areas. More than half of the territory was taken from the Department of Lot (including Montauban and Moissac), over one-third was taken from Haute-Garonne (including Castelsarrasin), and the rest from the departments of Lot-et-Garonne, Gers, and Aveyron. The first prefect was Félix Le Peletier d'Aunay, who was installed in his post on 31 December 1808. [4]

Geography

Map of Tarn-et-Garonne Tarn-et-Garonne-routes.svg
Map of Tarn-et-Garonne
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1801228,000    
1806228,420+0.04%
1821238,143+0.28%
1831242,250+0.17%
1841239,297−0.12%
1851237,553−0.07%
1861232,551−0.21%
1872221,610−0.44%
1881217,056−0.23%
1891206,596−0.49%
1901195,669−0.54%
1911182,537−0.69%
1921159,559−1.34%
1931164,259+0.29%
1936164,629+0.05%
1946167,664+0.18%
1954172,379+0.35%
1962175,847+0.25%
1968183,572+0.72%
1975183,314−0.02%
1982190,485+0.55%
1990200,220+0.62%
1999206,034+0.32%
2006226,844+1.38%
2011244,545+1.51%
2016256,897+0.99%
Source: [5]

Tarn-et-Garonne constitutes part of the Occitanie region in Southern France. It borders on the departments of Lot to the north, Aveyron to the northeast, Tarn to the east, Haute-Garonne to the south, and Gers and Lot-et-Garonne to the west. The capital of the department is Montauban which lies about 50 km (31 mi) north of Toulouse. Montauban is situated on the right bank of the river Tarn at its confluence with the river Tescou, and the Tarn is joined by the Aveyron about 10 km (6.2 mi) further downstream. The second largest commune in the department is Castelsarrasin which stands near the confluence of the Tarn and River Garonne. [6] Montauban is connected to the Garonne via the 11 km (7 mi) Canal de Montech. [7]

The central part of the department is a broad river valley that does not exceed 150 m (492 ft) in altitude, but near the commune of Valence-d'Agen, in the extreme west of the department, the valley narrows as the hilly regions of Bas-Quercy to the north and Lomagne to the south draw closer together. In the northeast of the department is higher land in the form of limestone plateaus known as the Causses, part of the Massif Central. [6] The highest point in the department, at 510 m (1,673 ft), is the Pech Maurel, situated in the commune of Castanet. [8]

Economy

The economy of the department depends mainly on agriculture but there is also some industry, and it benefits from its proximity to Toulouse. The commercial importance of Montauban is mainly due to its trade in agricultural products, horses, game and poultry, but it does have some manufacturing industries, which include cloth-weaving, cloth-dressing, flour-milling, wood-sawing, and the manufacture of furniture, silk-gauze and straw hats. The surrounding countryside supports nursery-gardening, wine-making and the growing of maize, olives and mulberries. This area is approximately at the northern limit for the commercial production of the latter two crops because of the vagaries of the climate. [9]

Politics

Departmental Council of Tarn-et-Garonne

The Departmental Council of Tarn-et-Garonne has 30 seats.

Groupes Conseil departemental 82 en 2021.svg
Political groupPartySeatsPosition
Radicaux et apparentés PRG 11Majority
Tarn-et-Garonne en commun PS 5
Le Tarn-et-Garonne d'abord DVC 6Opposition
Engagés pour le Tarn-et-Garonne LR 4
Non-inscrits RN (2) - DVG (2)4

Members of the National Assembly

Tarn-et-Garonne elected the following members of the National Assembly during the 2017 legislative election:

ConstituencyMember [10] Party
Tarn-et-Garonne's 1st constituency Valérie Rabault Socialist Party
Tarn-et-Garonne's 2nd constituency Sylvia Pinel Radical Party of the Left

Tourism

See also

Related Research Articles

Lot (department) Department of France in Occitanie

Lot is a department in the Occitanie region of France. Named after the Lot River, it lies in the southwestern part of the country and had a population of 173,758 in 2013. Its prefecture is Cahors; its subprefectures are Figeac and Gourdon.

Haute-Garonne Department of France in Occitanie

Haute-Garonne is a department in the Occitanie region of Southwestern France. Named after the Garonne River, which flows through the department. its prefecture and main city is Toulouse, the country's fourth-largest. In 2016, it had a population of 1,348,183.

Midi-Pyrénées Region of France

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Communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department

The following is a list of the 195 communes of the Tarn-et-Garonne department of France.

Tarn (river) River in southern France

The Tarn is a 380.2-kilometre (236.2 mi) long river in the administrative region of Occitanie in southern France. It is a right tributary of the Garonne.

Quercy

Quercy is a former province of France located in the country's southwest, bounded on the north by Limousin, on the west by Périgord and Agenais, on the south by Gascony and Languedoc, and on the east by Rouergue and Auvergne.

Moissac Commune in Occitanie, France

Moissac is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France. The town is situated at the confluence of the rivers Garonne and Tarn at the Canal de Garonne. Route nationale N113 was constructed through the town and between Valence-d'Agen and Castelsarrasin.

Arrondissements of the Tarn-et-Garonne department

The 2 arrondissements of the Tarn-et-Garonne department of France are:

  1. Arrondissement of Castelsarrasin, with 103 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 77,423 in 2016.
  2. Arrondissement of Montauban, with 92 communes. The population of the arrondissement was 179,474 in 2016.
Arrondissement of Castelsarrasin Arrondissement in Occitanie, France

The arrondissement of Castelsarrasin is an arrondissement of France in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region. It has 103 communes. Its population is 77,423 (2016), and its area is 1,601.5 km2 (618.3 sq mi).

Arrondissement of Montauban Arrondissement in Occitanie, France

The arrondissement of Montauban is an arrondissement of France in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region. It has 92 communes. Its population is 179,474 (2016), and its area is 2,116.8 km2 (817.3 sq mi).

The following is a list of the 15 cantons of the Tarn-et-Garonne department, in France, following the French canton reorganisation which came into effect in March 2015:

A62 autoroute Road in trans-European E-road network

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Golfech Commune in Occitanie, France

Golfech is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

Canal Latéral de la Garonne Canal in France

The Canal de Garonne, formerly known as Canal latéral à la Garonne, is a French canal dating from the mid-19th century which connects Toulouse to Castets-en-Dorthe. The remainder of the route to Bordeaux uses the river Garonne. It is the continuation of the Canal du Midi which connects the Mediterranean with Toulouse.

La Bastide or Labastide is the name or part of the name of many communes in France:

Lamagistère Commune in Occitanie, France

Lamagistère is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France. Inhabitants of the district are known as les Magistériens.

Caussade Commune in Occitanie, France

Caussade is a commune in the district of Montauban, located in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in the south of France.

Lauzerte Commune in Occitanie, France

Lauzerte is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

Molières, Tarn-et-Garonne Commune in Occitanie, France

Molières is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

Bordeaux–Sète railway

The railway from Bordeaux to Sète is an important French 476-kilometre long railway line, that connects the southwestern port city Bordeaux to the southern port Sète via Toulouse and Narbonne. The railway was opened in several stages between 1855 and 1858.

References

  1. Harry Rothwell (Editor) English Historical Documents 1189-1327, Routledge, 1996, ISBN   0-415-14368-3
  2. Haine, W. Scott (2000). The History of France . Greenwood Publishing Group. p.  45. ISBN   978-0-313-30328-9.
  3. Fenby, Jonathan (2015). The History of Modern France: From the Revolution to the Present Day. Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN   978-1-4711-2931-5.
  4. 1 2 3 Pascale Marouseau. "Création du département de Tarn-et-Garonne". Archives de France (in French). Archives départementales de Tarn-et-Garonne. Retrieved 2015-09-18.
  5. Site sur la Population et les Limites Administratives de la France
  6. 1 2 Philips' Modern School Atlas. George Philip and Son, Ltd. 1973. p. 43. ISBN   0-540-05278-7.
  7. Fluviacarte, Canal de Montech
  8. Castanet IGN
  9. Michelet, Jules (1847). History of France. D. Appleton. p.  150.
  10. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/