Tarragona

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Tarragona
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Tarragona
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Tarragona
Coordinates: 41°06′56.51″N1°14′58.54″E / 41.1156972°N 1.2495944°E / 41.1156972; 1.2495944 Coordinates: 41°06′56.51″N1°14′58.54″E / 41.1156972°N 1.2495944°E / 41.1156972; 1.2495944
CountryFlag of Spain.svg  Spain
Autonomous Community Flag of Catalonia.svg  Catalonia
Province Tarragona
Comarca Tarragonès
Founded5th century BC
Government
   Mayor Pau Ricomà (ERC)
Area
[1]
  Total57.9 km2 (22.4 sq mi)
Elevation
 (AMSL)
68 m (223 ft)
Population
 (2018) [2]
  Total132,299
  Density2,300/km2 (5,900/sq mi)
Postal code
43001 - 43008
Area code(s) +34 (E) + 977 (T)
Climate Csa
Website www.tarragona.cat

Tarragona (English: /ˌtɑːrəˈɡnə/ , Catalan:  [tərəˈɣonə] , Spanish:  [taraˈɣona] ; Phoenician: Tarqon; Latin : Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea. Founded before the 5th century BC, it is the capital of the Province of Tarragona, and part of Tarragonès and Catalonia. Geographically, it is bordered on the north by the Province of Barcelona and the Province of Lleida. The city has a population of 201,199 (2014).

Phoenician language extinct Semitic language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan", "Phoenicia", and "Pūt". It is a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic languages. Other members of the family are Hebrew, Ammonite, Moabite, and Edomite.

Spain Kingdom in Southwest Europe

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a country mostly located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory also includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco). Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory. The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay; and to the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean.

Costa Daurada coastal region in Catalonia, Spain

The Costa Daurada is an area on the coast of Catalonia, Spain, between Cunit and Alcanar on the Mediterranean Sea. It is entirely included in the province of Tarragona.

Contents

History

Inscribed marble base of the Roman Consul Tiberius Claudius Candidus, unearthed in Tarragona and now in the British Museum, 195-199 AD. CIL II 4114.jpg
Inscribed marble base of the Roman Consul Tiberius Claudius Candidus, unearthed in Tarragona and now in the British Museum, 195-199 AD.

One Catalan legend holds that it was named for Tarraho, eldest son of Tubal in c. 2407 BC; another (derived from Strabo and Megasthenes) attributes the name to 'Tearcon the Ethiopian', a 7th-century BC pharaoh who campaigned in Spain. [3] The real founding date of Tarragona is unknown.

Tubal, in Genesis 10, was the name of a son of Japheth, son of Noah.

Megasthenes was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period. He described India in his book Indika, which is now lost, but has been partially reconstructed from the writings of the later authors.

Taharqa Egyptian Pharaoh

Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo, was a pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt and qore (king) of the Kingdom of Kush.

The city may have begun as an Iberic town called Kesse or Kosse, named for the Iberic tribe of the region, the Cossetans, though the identification of Tarragona with Kesse is not certain. [4] William Smith suggests that the city was probably founded by the Phoenicians, who called it Tarchon, which, according to Samuel Bochart, means a citadel. This name was probably derived from its situation on a high rock, between 75–90 m (250–300 ft) above the sea; whence we find it characterised as arce potens Tarraco. [5] It was seated on the river Sulcis or Tulcis (modern Francolí), on a bay of the Mare Internum (Mediterranean), between the Pyrenees and the river Iberus (modern Ebro). [6] Livy mentions a portus Tarraconis; [7] and according to Eratosthenes it had a naval station or roads (Ναύσταθμον); [8] but Artemidorus Ephesius says with more probability that it had none, and scarcely even an anchoring place; and Strabo himself calls it ἀλίμενος. [9] This better reflects its present condition; for though a mole was constructed in the 15th century with the materials of the ancient amphitheatre, and another subsequently by an Irishman named John Smith Sinnot, it still affords but little protection for shipping. [10]

William Smith (lexicographer) English lexicographer

Sir William Smith was an English lexicographer. He also made advances in the teaching of Greek and Latin in schools.

Samuel Bochart French Protestant theologian

Samuel Bochart was a French Protestant biblical scholar, a student of Thomas Erpenius and the teacher of Pierre Daniel Huet. His two-volume Geographia Sacra seu Phaleg et Canaan exerted a profound influence on seventeenth-century Biblical exegesis.

Francolí (river) river in Catalonia, Spain

The Francolí is a river in Catalonia. Its source is in the Prades Mountains and it flows into the Mediterranean Sea at Tarragona.

During the Roman Republic, the city was fortified and much enlarged as a Roman colony by the brothers Publius Cornelius Scipio and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, who converted it into a fortress and arsenal against the Carthaginians. The city was first named Colonia Iulia Urbs Triumphalis Tarraco and was capital of the province of Hispania Citerior. Subsequently, it became the capital of the province named after it, Hispania Tarraconensis, in the Roman Empire [11] and conventus iuridicus. [12]

Roman Republic Period of ancient Roman civilization (509–27 BC)

The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Publius Cornelius Scipio General and statesman of the Roman Republic

Publius Cornelius Scipio was a general and statesman of the Roman Republic and the father of Scipio Africanus.

Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus was a Roman noble, general and statesman during the third century BC. He played a major part in the Second Punic War establishing Roman Rule in the east of the Iberian Peninsula and tying up several Carthaginian armies keeping them from reinforcing Hannibal.

Augustus wintered at Tarraco after his Cantabrian campaign, and bestowed many marks of honour on the city, among which were its honorary titles of Colonia Victrix Togata and Colonia Julia Victrix Tarraconensis. Tarraco lies on the main road along the southeastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. [13]

Augustus First emperor of the Roman Empire

Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history. The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was largely free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession.

According to Mela it was the richest town on that coast, [14] and Strabo represents its population as equal to that of Carthago Nova (now Cartagena). [14] Its fertile plain and sunny shores are celebrated by Martial and other poets; and its neighbourhood is described as producing good wine and flax. [15] The city also minted coins. [16]

Cartagena, Spain Municipality in Murcia, Spain

Cartagena is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain. As of January 2018, it has a population of 213,943 inhabitants, being the Region’s second-largest municipality and the country’s sixth-largest non-Province-capital city. The metropolitan area of Cartagena, known as Campo de Cartagena, has a population of 409,586 inhabitants.

Martial 1st-century Latin poet from Hispania

Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets.

Flax species of plant

Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in cooler regions of the world. Textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, underclothes, and table linen. Its oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word "flax" may refer to the unspun fibers of the flax plant. The plant species is known only as a cultivated plant, and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne, called pale flax

An inscribed stone base for a now lost statue of Tiberius Claudius Candidus was found in Tarragona during the nineteenth century. The 24-line Latin inscription describes the Governor and Senator's career as an ally of the future Roman emperor Septimius Severus, who fought in the civil war following the assassination of Commodus in 192 AD. This important marble block was purchased by the British Museum in 1994. [17]

From the demise of the Romans to the Union of Spain

After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, it was captured first by the Vandals and then by the Visigoths. The Visigothic Kingdom's rule of Tarracona was ended by the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 714. It was an important border city of the Caliphate of Córdoba between 750 and 1013. After the demise of the Caliphate, it was part of the Taifa of Zaragoza between 1013 and 1110 and under the control of the Almoravid dynasty between 1110 and 1117. It was taken by the County of Barcelona in 1117. After the dynastic union of Aragon and Barcelona, it was part of the Kingdom of Aragon from 1164-1412. After dynastic union of Aragon and the Crown of Castile, it remained a part of Aragon until the foundation of the Spanish Empire in 1516.

During the Catalan revolt, Tarragon was captured by Catalan insurgents with French support in 1641, but it was retaken by Spanish troops in 1644. It was captured by allied Portuguese, Dutch, and British troops in 1705 during the War of the Spanish Succession and remained in their hands until Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During the war, the Catalans supported the unsuccessful claim of Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen against the victorious Bourbon Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain. He signed the Nueva Planta decrees, which abolished the Crown of Aragon and all remaining Catalan institutions and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language on 16 January 1716.

Peninsular War

During the Peninsular War, in the first siege of Tarragona from 5 May to 29 June 1811, Louis-Gabriel Suchet's Army of Aragon of the First French Empire laid siege to a Spanish garrison led by Lieutenant general Juan Senen de Contreras. A British naval squadron commanded by Admiral Edward Codrington harassed the French besiegers with cannon fire and transported large numbers of reinforcements into the city by sea. Nevertheless, Suchet's troops stormed into the defenses and killed or captured almost all the defenders. It became a subprefecture center in Bouches-de-l'Èbre department of French empire.

In the second siege of Tarragona (3–11 June 1813), an overwhelming Anglo-Spanish force under the command of Lieutenant General John Murray, 8th Baronet failed to wrest Tarragona from a small Franco-Italian garrison led by Brigadier general Antoine Marc Augustin Bertoletti. Murray was subsequently removed from command for his indecisive and contradictory leadership. The Anglo-Spanish forces finally captured Tarragona on 19 August.

Spanish Civil War

During the Spanish Civil War, Tarragona was in the hands of the Second Spanish Republic until captured by Franco's Nationalist troops on 15 January 1939 during the Catalonia Offensive.

Main sights

Ancient remains

Amphitheatre of Tarragona and the Mediterranean Sea Amphitheatre de Tarragona.jpg
Amphithéâtre of Tarragona and the Mediterranean Sea

The Roman ruins of Tarraco have been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

Part of the bases of large Cyclopean walls near the Cuartel de Pilatos are thought to pre-date the Romans. The building just mentioned, a prison in the 19th century, is said to have been the palace of Augustus. The second century Tarragona Amphitheatre near the seashore was extensively used as a quarry after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and but few vestiges of it now remain. A circus c. 450 metres (1,480 ft) long, was built over in the area now called Plaça de la Font, though portions of it are still to be traced. Throughout the town Latin, and even apparently Phoenician, inscriptions on the stones of the houses mark the material used for buildings in the town.

Two ancient monuments, at some little distance from the town, have, however, fared rather better. The first of these is Les Ferreres Aqueduct, which spans a valley about 4 kilometres (2 miles) north of the city. It is 217 m (712 ft) in length, and the loftiest arches, of which there are two tiers, are 26 m (85 ft) high. There is a monument about 6 km (4 mi) along the coast road east of the city, commonly called the "Tower of the Scipios"; but there is no authority for assuming that they were buried here. [18]

Other Roman buildings include:

The city is also home to the National Archaeological Museum of Tarragona.

Religious buildings

Tarragona Cathedral. Cathedral of Tarragona 01.jpg
Tarragona Cathedral.

The seminary of Sant Pau and Santa Tecla was founded in 1570 by the cardinal archbishop, Gaspar Cervantes de Gaeta, and was the first to comply with the decrees of the Council of Trent. In 1858 Archbishop José Domingo Costa y Borrás built a fourth wing. Benito Villamitjana built a new seminary behind the cathedral in 1886, in the courtyard of which stands the old chapel of Sant Pau. Pope Leo XIII raised this to the rank of a pontifical university.

50 km (31.07 mi) north of the city is Poblet Monastery, founded in 1151 by Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, which was used for sepultures of the kings.

Modern Tarragona

Placa del Forum. Plaza del Forum, Tarragona.jpg
Plaça del Fòrum.

Tarragona is home to a large port and the Rovira i Virgili University. Much of its economic activity comes from a large number of chemical industries located south of the city.

The main living heritage is the Popular Retinue, a great parade of dances, bestiary and spoken dances- and the human towers. They specially participate in Santa Tecla Festival. They are so popular in Tarragona and also in all Catalonia that they have got their own home. It is called "Casa de la Festa", Festivities House, where you can visit them all year. [20]

A number of beaches, some awarded a Blue Flag designation, line the Mediterranean coast near the city.

Tarragona is located near the resort of Salou and the PortAventura World (PortAventura Park, the most visited theme park in Spain [21] , Ferrari Land and also the PortAventura Caribe Aquatic Park).

The city is served by Tarragona railway station, and is located a few kilometres away from Reus Airport, which has many low-cost destinations and charter-flights (over a million passengers per year). The port is an export hub for the Spanish car industry. [22]

Reus is the second city of the Tarragona area (101,767 inhabitants in 2006), known by its commercial activity and for being the place where the architect Antoni Gaudí was born.

The city is going to host the 2018 Mediterranean Games, one year later than planned, because of political and economical instability. [23]

Food and drink outlets

Tarragona contains a number of small bars, restaurants, and cafes serving tapas and sandwiches, and local seafood and Catalan dishes like "pa amb tomàquet" or "neules i torrons". Many such outlets are found in the historic centre, including those at the Plaça de la Font, Plaça del Rei and Plaça del Fòrum. The neighbourhood of El Serrallo, at the harbour, specialises in seafood cuisine.

Between 1903 and 1989 the French liqueur made by the Carthusian Monks, Chartreuse, was distilled in Tarragona, following the monks' expulsion from France. [24]

Climate

The climate of Tarragona can be described as a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa) bordering on a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), since August has more rainfall than winter months, which receive near or less than 30 mm (1.2 in). Winters are mildly cool and summers are hot and sultry, while the rainiest seasons are autumn and spring.

Climate data for Reus Airport (1981-2010) (between Reus - 3 km (1.86 mi) and Tarragona - 7 km (4.35 mi))
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)24.2
(75.6)
25.0
(77.0)
27.7
(81.9)
30.2
(86.4)
32.8
(91.0)
36.8
(98.2)
37.4
(99.3)
38.0
(100.4)
33.8
(92.8)
32.5
(90.5)
28.8
(83.8)
22.6
(72.7)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F)14.1
(57.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
22.2
(72.0)
26.3
(79.3)
29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
26.3
(79.3)
22.3
(72.1)
17.5
(63.5)
14.6
(58.3)
21.1
(70.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)9.0
(48.2)
9.7
(49.5)
11.9
(53.4)
13.8
(56.8)
17.2
(63.0)
21.2
(70.2)
24.2
(75.6)
24.6
(76.3)
21.5
(70.7)
17.5
(63.5)
12.6
(54.7)
9.7
(49.5)
16.1
(61.0)
Average low °C (°F)3.9
(39.0)
4.5
(40.1)
6.6
(43.9)
8.6
(47.5)
12.1
(53.8)
16.1
(61.0)
19.1
(66.4)
19.7
(67.5)
16.6
(61.9)
12.7
(54.9)
7.6
(45.7)
4.7
(40.5)
11.1
(52.0)
Record low °C (°F)−7.6
(18.3)
−8.0
(17.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
1.0
(33.8)
3.6
(38.5)
7.4
(45.3)
10.5
(50.9)
10.8
(51.4)
5.5
(41.9)
0.2
(32.4)
−4.0
(24.8)
−7.5
(18.5)
−8.0
(17.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)29
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
28
(1.1)
37
(1.5)
54
(2.1)
25
(1.0)
15
(0.6)
42
(1.7)
77
(3.0)
75
(3.0)
53
(2.1)
36
(1.4)
500
(19.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)44455324564450
Mean monthly sunshine hours 1571621972222512743062652091821571452,527
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología [25]
Climate data for Vila-seca (1971-2000) (14 km (8.70 mi) south west of Tarragona
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)20.8
(69.4)
24.0
(75.2)
28.2
(82.8)
29.1
(84.4)
30.6
(87.1)
31.3
(88.3)
34.5
(94.1)
35.2
(95.4)
33.3
(91.9)
30.7
(87.3)
25.5
(77.9)
21.0
(69.8)
35.2
(95.4)
Average high °C (°F)12.4
(54.3)
15.2
(59.4)
17.8
(64.0)
19.5
(67.1)
22.1
(71.8)
25.6
(78.1)
29.3
(84.7)
30.2
(86.4)
27.6
(81.7)
22.4
(72.3)
16.4
(61.5)
12.7
(54.9)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)10.0
(50.0)
11.9
(53.4)
14.1
(57.4)
15.9
(60.6)
18.8
(65.8)
22.5
(72.5)
25.9
(78.6)
26.7
(80.1)
24.0
(75.2)
19.1
(66.4)
13.9
(57.0)
10.7
(51.3)
17.8
(64.0)
Average low °C (°F)7.5
(45.5)
8.7
(47.7)
10.4
(50.7)
12.2
(54.0)
15.5
(59.9)
19.4
(66.9)
22.5
(72.5)
23.2
(73.8)
20.3
(68.5)
15.8
(60.4)
11.3
(52.3)
8.7
(47.7)
14.7
(58.5)
Record low °C (°F)−1.6
(29.1)
−1.0
(30.2)
0.6
(33.1)
4.5
(40.1)
9.0
(48.2)
12.6
(54.7)
16.0
(60.8)
14.3
(57.7)
13.0
(55.4)
7.3
(45.1)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)37.2
(1.46)
19.1
(0.75)
36.6
(1.44)
38.2
(1.50)
53.2
(2.09)
33.3
(1.31)
15.7
(0.62)
52.8
(2.08)
68.2
(2.69)
63.7
(2.51)
46.9
(1.85)
44.7
(1.76)
509.0
(20.04)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)5.03.54.85.86.13.92.74.34.85.85.05.156.8
Source: Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya [26]

Events

Carrer Major during Santa Tecla Festival. Carrer Major, Tarragona.jpg
Carrer Major during Santa Tecla Festival.
Torre dels Escipions. TarragonaTorreScipioni.jpg
Torre dels Escipions.

Tarragona was also a candidate to be the Spanish representative as European Capital of Culture in 2016.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Tarragona is twinned with:

Tarragona had partnerships with:

Notable people

See also

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Tarragona Amphitheatre is an amphitheatre from the Roman city of Tarraco, now Tarragona, in the Catalonia region of north-east Spain. It was built in the 2nd century AD, sited close to the forum of this provincial capital.

Salou Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Salou is a municipality of the comarca of Tarragonès, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. The city is approximately 10 km from Tarragona and Reus on the Costa Daurada and 112 km from Barcelona. Aside from its string of beaches interrupted by rocky coves, and its landscaped promenade, one of its main attractions is the PortAventura World resort. The Dutch movie Costa! and the television series with the same title were both filmed in Salou.

Rail transport in Catalonia

Rail transport in Catalonia operates on three rail gauges and services are operated by a variety of public operators:

Public transport in Barcelona is operated by several companies, most of which are part of the Autoritat del Transport Metropolità, a transport authority managing services in the Barcelonès and the rest of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. This article is a summary with transport facilities and services strictly within the municipality of Barcelona, and contains links to more specific articles.

The Vegueria of Tarragona was a historical territorial entity of Catalonia that agglutinated the counties of Tarragona. In all the moments of validity of this territorial division, the capital of the Vegueria of Tarragona has been the city of Tarragona. This city has been the genesis of all the territory.

La Canonja Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

La Canonja is a municipality of the comarca of Tarragonès, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. La Canonja was segregated from Tarragona on 15 April 2010 by a decision of the Parliament of Catalonia. It borders with Tarragona, Reus and Vila-seca.

Altafulla Municipality in Catalonia, Spain

Altafulla is a municipality in the comarca of the Tarragonès in Catalonia, Spain. The town of Altafulla has a beautifully intact old quarter crowned by the Castle of Altafulla, an additional medieval castle on a small promontory overlooking the sea and an old fishing quarter dating back to the 18th century along the beach, called "Baixamar" or "Les Botigues del Mar". Beyond the Castle of Tamarit is one of the last remaining forests stretching along the sea in Catalonia, part of which is a small nature preserve. It is also home to the remains of the Roman Villa of Els Munts, which is part of a larger UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Gaià River "empties" into the sea here, its last stretch being a small nature preserve and haven for songbirds, though due to damming upriver, it carries very little water at this last section, forming a tiny salt marsh separated from the sea by a bar of sand. This wildlife preserve is run by L'Hort de la Sínia, an ecological agriculture, learning and activities center.

Catalunya en Miniatura

Catalunya en Miniatura is miniature park inaugurated in 1983 in Torrelles de Llobregat, 17 km from Barcelona. With 60.000 square meters, 35.000 of them devoted to the scale models, it is one of the largest miniature parks in the world, and the largest of the 14 miniature building exhibitions present in Europe. It displays 147 models of palaces, churches, bridges and other buildings from Catalonia and Mallorca and it includes all the major works by the renowned architect Antoni Gaudí.

Outline of Barcelona Overview of and topical guide to Barcelona

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Barcelona:

References

Notes
  1. "El municipi en xifres: Tarragona". Statistical Institute of Catalonia . Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  2. "Municipal Register of Spain 2018". National Statistics Institute . Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  3. https://archive.org/stream/bub_gb_ya_kSC4IsiEC#page/n137/mode/2up/search/taraco
  4. Silvia Orvietani Busch (2001). Medieval Mediterranean Ports: The Catalan and Tuscan Coasts, 1100 to 1235. BRILL. p. 53. ISBN   90-04-12069-6.
  5. Ausonius Class. Urb. 9; cf. Mart. x. 104.
  6. Mela, ii. 6; Pliny the Elder iii. 3. s. 4.
  7. xxii. 22
  8. ap. Strabo iii. p. 159
  9. ap. Strab. l. c.; Polybius iii. 76
  10. Ford's Handbook of Spain, p. 222.
  11. Ptolemy, ii. 6. § 17
  12. Pliny l. c.; Tacitus Ann. i. 78; Gaius Julius Solinus 23, 26; Polybius x. 34; Livy xxi. 61; Stephanus of Byzantium p. 637.
  13. Antonine Itinerary pp. 391, 396, 399, 448, 452.
  14. 1 2 l. c.
  15. Mart. x. 104, xiii. 118; Sil. Ital. iii. 369, xv. 177; Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8, xix. 1. s. 2.
  16. Grut. Inscr. p. 382; Orelli, no. 3127; coins in Eckhel, i. p. 27; Enrique Flórez, Med. ii. p. 579; Théodore Edme Mionnet, i. p. 51, Suppl. i. p. 104; Sestini, p. 202.
  17. CIL II, 4114; British Museum Collection
  18. (Cf. Ford, Handbook, p. 219, seq.; Florez, Esp. Sagr. xxix. p. 68, seq.; Miñano, Diccion. viii. p. 398.)
  19. Comisión de Antigüedades de la Real Academia de la Historia: catálogo e índices, Cataluña. Page 256. Published in Spanish, 2000.
  20. Themed Entertainment Association; Economics Research Associates (2013). "Global Attractions Attendance Report" (PDF). AECOM. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
  21. "Tarragona port's five-year high means more room for Bergé". Automotive Logistics. 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  22. "Confirmat l'ajornament dels Jocs Mediterranis de Tarragona fins al 2018". Diari Ara. Agència Catalan de Notícies. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  23. https://www.chartreuse.fr/en/histoire/the-chartreuse-distilleries/
  24. "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Tarragona - Reús / Aeropuerto".
  25. "Climatologica. El Tarragones. 1971-2000" (PDF).
  26. "Jumelages et Relations Internationales - Avignon". Avignon.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 16 July 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  27. "Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Ministère des affaires étrangères (in French). Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  28. "45 ans de jumelage : Histoire de cités Le jumelage à Voiron" [45 years of twinning: The history of Voiron's twin towns]. Voiron Hôtel de Ville [Voiron council] (in French). Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  29. "Tarragone (Espagne) : une ville amie Des liens noués autour de la Chartreuse" [Tarragona, Spain: Friendship town of Voiron]. Voiron Hôtel de Ville [Voiron council] (in French). Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
Sources