Tartonne

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Tartonne
Eglise de Tartonne.jpg
The church in Tartonne
Blason Tartonne.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Tartonne
Tartonne
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Tartonne
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'azur region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tartonne
Coordinates: 44°04′15″N6°23′20″E / 44.0708°N 6.3889°E / 44.0708; 6.3889 Coordinates: 44°04′15″N6°23′20″E / 44.0708°N 6.3889°E / 44.0708; 6.3889
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Arrondissement Castellane
Canton Riez
Intercommunality Alpes Provence Verdon-Sources de Lumière
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Jean-Louis Silvy
Area
1
44.88 km2 (17.33 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [1]
133
  Density3.0/km2 (7.7/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
04214 /04330
Elevation879–2,285 m (2,884–7,497 ft)
(avg. 945 m or 3,100 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Tartonne (French pronunciation:  [taʁtɔn] ; Occitan : Tartona) is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.

Contents

The name of the inhabitants is Tartonnais. [2]

Geography

Tartonne and neighboring municipalities Map commune FR insee code 04214.png
Tartonne and neighboring municipalities

Site and climate

The village of Tartonne is located bottom of Valley, 945 metres (3,100 ft) altitude, [3] greatly influencing the climate; the differences of temperatures on the same day are very important: in 2004, the mean amplitude of temperature was 27 °C.

The landscape is marked by robine  [ fr ], a sedimentary rock of black color which is very soft and crumbly to air, but which is very strong in the subsoil.

Hydrography

The river Asse de Clumanc has its source in the north of the commune.

Environment

The commune has 200 hectares (490 acres) of woods and forests, though only 4.5% of its area. [2]

Habitat and hamlets

Like its neighbour Clumanc, Tartonne does not correspond to a specific agglomeration, which is quite unusual. The habitat is very dispersed, and one can distinguish five groups of hamlets which are very distant from each other (up to 10 km):

This distance is due to the poverty of the soil, and the difficulty of building: the strong gradients, the presence of numerous watercourses, and the instability of the land, means that more than 85% of the territory of the commune is unbuildable.

Major hazards

None of the 200 communes of the Department is in the zero seismic risk zone. The Canton of Barrême, to which Tartonne belongs, is in zone 1b (low seismicity) according to the deterministic classification of 1991, based on the historical earthquakes, [4] and in zone 4 (medium risk) according to the EC8 probabilistic classification of 2011. [5] The municipality of Tartonne is also exposed to three other natural risks: [5]

The municipality of Tartonne is exposed to any of the risks of technological origin identified by the prefecture [7] and a foreseeable natural risk prevention plan  [ fr ] (PPR) for the district exists; [7] the DICRIM  [ fr ] has existed since 2011. [8]

The commune was subject to orders of disaster for flooding and mudslides of mud in 1994 and 2011. [5]

Toponymy

The name of the locality (Tortona in 1199, Tartona in 1200), would be formed on the pre-Celtic root *Tortona, of unknown origin and meaning according to Ernest Nègre, [9] though according to Charles Rostaing rooted in *Tar, designating stone [10] and by the Fénie couple in an oronym (mountain toponym). [11] Negre is disputed by Raymond Sindou, who considers unlikely a lack of change of the name for 1,500 years, and offers a comparison, without a sense of moving forward, Tortona to Dertosa in Hispania Tarraconensis and Dertona in Cisalpine Gaul. [12]

The name of the Summit of Cucuyon at 1,886 metres (6,188 ft), is formed on the pre-Celtic root *Kug-, another oronym, with repetition and addition of a diminutive suffix. [13]

History

Antiquity

The first traces of occupation date back to the Gallo-Roman at the current location of the hamlet of Petit Defend. Augustus made the conquest of the Asses Valley, while that of the Alps he completed in 14 BC. It is difficult to know the name of the Gallic tribe that inhabited the valley, and the name of the civitas which Tartonne depended on in the early Empire: Eturamina (Thorame) or Sanitensium (Senez). At the end of the Roman Empire, the connection to that of Sanitensium, and its diocese, was proved with the disappearance of the bishopric of Thorame. [14]

Middle Ages

The two communities, La Peine and Tartonne, were reported in charters in the 13th century. [15] In 1342, the two communities of Tartonne and La Peine are attached to the Viguerie of Castellane by the Comte of Provence. [16] It is from the 12th century that the village began to develop, where the village is located on the road from Digne-les-Bains to Colmars passing by Thorame, and that a salt water source had been found, enabling the inhabitants not to pay the gabelle. The village was mainly agricultural (crops,[ citation needed ] sheep) and the harvesting of salt through the salt source was granted by Queen Jeanne in 1402. [17]

During the Middle Ages, the village was cut back several times. The community of La Pène (or La Peine) was heavily depopulated by the crisis of the 14th century (the Black Death and the Hundred Years' War) and was annexed by Tartonne in 15th century, [18] but continued to be a separate fief. [19] It consisted of civilian buildings and a monastery abandoned before the Revolution. The only trace of this monastic presence is the Saint-Gervais oratory that was installed at the entrance to the hamlet, at the square where the villagers had installed a wooden cross of the chapel of the monastery, after its dismantling. This monastery and civilian buildings belonged to the family of the famous Digne philosopher Gassendi. Tartonne is not untouched by the Wars of Religion (with looting in 1574): [3] population increased from about 200 to 500 inhabitants. The modest Château of Maladrech was built in 1642, near the road leading to Digne.

Early Modern period

The successive Lords of Baux (13th century to 15th century), the d'Agoults  [ fr ] in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Villeneuves  [ fr ] in the 16th and 17th centuries, and finally Gassendi until the French Revolution. [18] At the end of the Ancien Régime, the community is linked to the viguerie of Val de Barrême. [15]

French Revolution

During the Revolution, the town had a patriotic society  [ fr ], created after the end of 1792. [20]

Contemporary era

The Revolution and the Empire brought many improvements, including a land value tax equal to all, and proportional to the value of the assets of each. To put it in place on specific grounds, the lifting of a cadastre is determined. The Finance Act  [ fr ] on 15 September 1807 specified its terms, but its realisation took a long time to implement, officials of the cadastre dealing with the communes in successive geographical groups. It is only in 1837 that the Napoleonic cadastre  [ fr ] of Tartonne was completed. [21]

In the 19th century, the drilling of the clue of La Peine allowed the passage of most important convoys, and shortened the journey (30 km instead of 55 km). This road was abandoned in the second half of the 20th century with the arrival of the car and the creation of departmental roads.[ citation needed ]

As many municipalities of the Department, Tartonne acquired a school well before the Jules Ferry laws: in 1863, it already had a school which provides primary education to the boys at the main settlement. [22] No instruction was given to girls: nor by the Falloux law (1851), which required the opening of a girls school in the communes with more than 800 inhabitants, [23] neither did the first Duruy law  [ fr ] (1867), which lowered the threshold to 500 inhabitants, concern Tartonne. [24] It was only with Ferry laws that the daughters of the municipality are regularly educated.

Tartonne was occupied during World War II by the Italian forces in 1940. In the area, many airdrops of weapons and the establishment of STO (which led many young people to come to the vicinity) allowed the resistance to carry out actions against the German army, which occupied the region from 1942. In retaliation, many houses were burned and destroyed, along with the Château of Maladrech, which served as a cache.

Heraldry

Arms of Tartonne Blason Tartonne.svg
Arms of Tartonne
The arms of Tartonne are blazoned  :
Gold to three roundels of gules, two in chief and one at point, and an azure fleur-de-lis at heart. [25]

Politics and administration

List of mayors of Tartonne
StartEndNamePartyOther details
May 1945Jean Maurel [26] ResistanceFormer Resistance, is presented under this label
...
December 1981March 1989Serge Dho [27] PCF General Counsel of the Canton of Barrême (1979-1992)
March 1989March 2008Guénolé Vallon [28] [29] PCF [30]
March 2008CurrentFrançois Serra [31] [32]

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
2006138    
2007139+0.7%
2008140+0.7%
2009136−2.9%
2010132−2.9%
2011135+2.3%
2012137+1.5%
2013140+2.2%
2014140+0.0%
2015138−1.4%
2016136−1.4%

.

Sites and monuments

Our Lady of Entraigues

Notre-Dame-d'Entraigues [Our Lady of Entraigues] Vue de l'eglise de Tartonne.jpg
Notre-Dame-d'Entraigues [Our Lady of Entraigues]

The parish church is placed under the patronage of Our Lady of Entraigues and under the patronage of Saint Michel. [15] It is built away from the village, and surrounded by the cemetery. [15] The bell tower dates from 1564, except for the top floor which was added in 1865. The nave, built in the 12th century, has three bays covered with a barrel vault, rebuilt in the 17th century and in 1830. The chancel, in a short span, above the rounded apse (13th century); some capitals are carved, including an Atlas. An aisle on the south side has been abandoned; on the north side, two chapels date from the 17th century. It is an historical monument since 12 April 1972. [33] It was restored in the 1970s (particularly with the casting of a concrete slab on the roof, which tended to deform). [34] [35] Other works have been carried out by an association for the safeguarding of the building, including to the floor, roof, wall, and sundial. [36]

The furniture includes a bell that dates from 1571. [37] The Church has several paintings, including a Donation of the Rosary of Patritti (19th century), a saint Blaise of Sebaste (19th century also) and a saint Michel slaying the dragon, as well as the statue of Our Lady of Entraigues from the 18th century. [36]

Other monuments

The Château of Maladrech, with two round pigeonniers (1644); Maladrech means bad place. A chapel had been added to it between 1764 and 1779, but fell into ruins at the end of the 19th century. [15] The rest of the building was partially destroyed in the 19th century. [38] Consisting of two buildings, it also has a farm. The interior decoration includes the French ceilings, fireplace plaster; from the outside, you can see a cross and a sundial from 1642. [38]

Other places

The chapel of Sainte-Anne at Thouron, was built in the mid-17th century by the inhabitants of village, [15] [39] and restored in the 1830s. Small dimensions, the nave is 8.65 metres (28.4 ft) long, 4.8 metres (16 ft) high, and 5.4 metres (18 ft) wide. [39]

Notable people

See also

Bibliography

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References

  1. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. 1 2 "Canton de Barrême, Le Trésor des régions". Roger Brunet.
  3. 1 2 de La Torre, Michel (1989). Alpes-de-Haute-Provence : le guide complet des 200 communes. Villes et villages de France. Paris: Deslogis-Lacoste. ISBN   2-7399-5004-7. Relié.
  4. "Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Dossier départemental sur les risques majeurs dans les Alpes-de-Haute-Provence". DDRM. 2008. p. 39. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.
  5. 1 2 3 "Notice communale". Gaspar. Ministère de l’Écologie, du développement durable, des transports et du logement. 27 May 2011. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
  6. Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, DDRM, p. 37
  7. 1 2 Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, DDRM, op. cit., p. 98
  8. "Document". Dicrim. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013.
  9. Ernest Nègre, Toponymie générale de la France : étymologie de 35 000 noms de lieux, Genève : Librairie Droz, 1990. Volume I : Formations préceltiques, celtiques, romanes. Notice 1187, p 57
  10. Charles Rostaing, Essai sur la toponymie de la Provence (depuis les origines jusqu’aux invasions barbares, Laffite Reprints, Marseille, 1973 (1re édition 1950), p 268
  11. Bénédicte Fénié, Jean-Jacques Fénié, Toponymie provençale, Éditions Sud-Ouest, 2002 (réédition), ISBN   978-2-87901-442-5, p. 25
  12. Sindou, Raymond (1993). Toponymie générale de la France. Étymologie de 35000 noms de lieux, 1990/91, 3 vol., Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. 36. p. 419. Ernest Nègre.
  13. Fénié & Fénié, op. cit., p. 20
  14. Brigitte Beaujard, "Les cités de la Gaule méridionale du IIIe au VIIe s.", Gallia, 63, 2006, CNRS éditions, p. 22-23
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Tartonne". 22 December 2011. Daniel Thiery, Aux origines des églises et chapelles rurales des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
  16. "Histoire de la Sous-Préfecture de Castellane". Archived from the original on 2012-12-18. Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Préfecture des Alpes de Haute-Provence
  17. 1 2 Base Mérimée : Source salée , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  18. 1 2 Atlas historique de la Provence, p.202.
  19. Baratier, Duby & Hildesheimer, opcit, p. 189
  20. Alphand, Patrice. Les Sociétés populaires», La Révolution dans les Basses-Alpes. Annales de Haute-Provence. Société scientifique et littéraire des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. pp. 296–298. 1st trimestre 1989, 108th year.
  21. Laurent, Alexeï. Paysages ruraux de la première moitié du XIXe siècle dans le sud-est des Basses-Alpes. p. 10. ISBN   978-2-86004-016-7. Jean-Christophe Labadie (directeur éditorial), La matière et le bâti en Haute-Provence, XVIIIe-XXIe siècle, actes de la première Journée d'études d'histoire de la Haute-Provence, Digne, 13 octobre 2012. Digne-les-Bains : Archives départementales des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, 2013.
  22. Jean-Christophe Labadie (directeur), Les Maisons d’école, Digne-les-Bains, Archives départementales des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, 2013, ( ISBN   978-2-86-004-015-0), p. 9.
  23. Labadie, op. cit., p. 16.
  24. Labadie, op. cit., p. 18.
  25. Louis de Bresc, Armorial des communes de Provence, 1866. Réédition : Marcel Petit CPM, Raphèle-lès-Arles, 1994
  26. Thébault, Sébastien; Dumont, Thérèse. "La Libération".Basses-Alpes 39-45, publié le 31 mars 2014
  27. Serge Dho est l’un des 500 élus qui ont parrainé la candidature d’André Lajoinie à l’élection présidentielle de 1988, cf Conseil constitutionnel, "liste des citoyens ayant présenté les candidats à l'élection du Président de la République"., Journal officiel de la République française du 12 avril 1988, page 4803
  28. Guénolé Vallon est l’un des 500 élus qui ont parrainé la candidature de Robert Hue (PCF) à l’élection présidentielle de 2002, "Parrainages élection présidentielle 2002"., and "Liste des citoyens ayant présenté les candidats à l'élection du Président de la République de 2002".
  29. Guénolé Vallon est l’un des 500 élus qui ont parrainé la candidature de Marie-George Buffet (PCF) à l’élection présidentielle de 2007, "Parrainages élection présidentielle 2007"., and "Liste des citoyens ayant présenté les candidats à l'élection du Président de la République de 2007".
  30. Parti communiste français, "liste des maires communistes". 6 March 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  31. Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, "De Sourribes à Volx (liste 8)".
  32. "Liste des maires" (PDF). Préfecture des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-22.
  33. Base Mérimée : Eglise Notre-Dame d'Entraigues , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  34. Raymond Collier, La Haute-Provence monumentale et artistique, Digne, Imprimerie Louis Jean, 1986, 559 p., p. 115
  35. 1 2 Base Mérimée : Église paroissiale Notre-Dame-d'Entraigues , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  36. 1 2 "Notre-Dame-d'Entraigues a besoin d'aide", La Provence, 14 April 2013, p. 10
  37. Base Palissy : Cloche , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  38. 1 2 Base Mérimée : Notice no IA04000727 , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
  39. 1 2 Base Mérimée : Notice no IA04000722 , Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)