Tashkent

Last updated

Tashkent
Toshkent  (Uzbek)
Capital
Toshkent
International Business Center. Tashkent city.jpg
Tashkent skyline 2019.jpg
Downtown. Tashkent 2019.jpg
Uspenskii kafedral'nyi sobor v Tashkente.JPG
Humo Arena.jpg
Tashkent, Paque Navoi 3.jpg
Timur Lane Museum, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.JPG
Clockwise from top: Skyline of Tashkent, Hilton Tashkent City, Humo Ice Dome, Amir Timur Museum, Tashkent Supreme Assembly Building, Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, Tashkent at night.
Coat of Arms of Tashkent.svg
Nickname(s): 
Tash (A rock)
Motto(s): 
Kuch Adolatdadir!
("Strength is in Justice!")
Relief Map of Uzbekistan.png
Red pog.svg
Tashkent
Location in Uzbekistan
West Asia non political with water system.jpg
Red pog.svg
Tashkent
Tashkent (West and Central Asia)
Asia laea relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Tashkent
Tashkent (Asia)
Coordinates: 41°18′N69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E / 41.300; 69.267 Coordinates: 41°18′N69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E / 41.300; 69.267
Country Uzbekistan
Settled5th to 3rd centuries BC
Government
  TypeCity Administration
   Hakim (Mayor)Jahongir Ortiqhojaev
Area
  Total334.8 km2 (129.3 sq mi)
Elevation
455 m (1,493 ft)
Population
 (1 January 2020)
  Total2,571,668 [1]
Time zone UTC+5 ( )
Area code(s) 71
HDI (2017)0.793 [2]
high
Website tashkent.uz

Tashkent ( /tæʃˈkɛnt/ , US also /tɑːʃ-/ ), or Toshkent ( /tɒʃˈkɛnt/ ; Uzbek : Toshkent/Тошкент/تاشکند, IPA:  [tɒʃˈkent] ), and also historically known as Chach (Persian : چاچ), is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan, as well as the most populous city in Central Asia, with a population in 2018 of 2,485,900. [3] It is in northeastern Uzbekistan, near the border with Kazakhstan.

Contents

Before Islamic influence started in the mid 8th century AD, Tashkent was influenced by the Sogdian and Turkic cultures. After Genghis Khan destroyed it in 1219, it was rebuilt and profited from the Silk Road. From the 18th to the 19th century, the city became an independent city-state, before being re-conquered by the Khanate of Kokand. In 1865, Tashkent fell to the Russian Empire, and became the capital of Russian Turkestan. In Soviet times, it witnessed major growth and demographic changes due to forced deportations from throughout the Soviet Union. Much of Tashkent was destroyed in the 1966 Tashkent earthquake, but it was rebuilt as a model Soviet city. It was the fourth-largest city in the Soviet Union at the time, after Moscow, Leningrad and Kyiv. [4]

Today, as the capital of an independent Uzbekistan, Tashkent retains a multiethnic population, with ethnic Uzbeks as the majority. In 2009, it celebrated its 2,200 years of written history. [5]

History

Etymology

During its long history, Tashkent has had various changes in names and political and religious affiliations. Abu Rayhan Biruni wrote that the city of Shash comes from the Turkic name Tash - Stone, Kent - city, that is, "Stone City ". [6]

Early history

Tashkent was founded 2,200 years ago. Tashkent was settled by ancient people as an oasis on the Chirchik River, near the foothills of the West Tian Shan Mountains. In ancient times, this area contained Beitian, probably the summer "capital" of the Kangju confederacy. [7] Some scholars believe that a "Stone Tower" mentioned by Ptolemy and by other early accounts of travel on the Silk Road referred to this settlement ("Tashkent" means "stone city"). This tower is said to have marked the midway point between Europe and China. Other scholars, however, disagree with this identification, though it remains one of four most probable sites for the Stone Tower. [8]

History as Chach

Ambassadors from Chaganian (central figure, inscription of the neck), and Chach (modern Tashkent) to king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand. Ambassadors from Chaganian (central figure, inscription of the neck), and Chach (modern Tashkent) to king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab, Samarkand.jpg
Ambassadors from Chaganian (central figure, inscription of the neck), and Chach (modern Tashkent) to king Varkhuman of Samarkand. 648-651 CE, Afrasiyab murals, Samarkand.

In pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, the town and the province were known as Chach. The Shahnameh of Ferdowsi also refers to the city as Chach.

The principality of Chach had a square citadel built around the 5th to 3rd centuries BC, some 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the Syr Darya River. By the 7th century AD, Chach had more than 30 towns and a network of over 50 canals, forming a trade center between the Sogdians and Turkic nomads. The Buddhist monk Xuanzang (602/603? – 664 AD), who travelled from China to India through Central Asia, mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí (赭時). The Chinese chronicles History of Northern Dynasties , Book of Sui , and Old Book of Tang mention a possession called Shí ("stone") or Zhěshí赭時 with a capital of the same name since the fifth century AD. [11]

In 558–603, Chach was part of the Turkic Kaganate. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Turkic Kaganate, as a result of internecine wars and wars with its neighbors, disintegrated into the Western and Eastern Kaganates. The Western Turkic ruler Tong Yabghu Qaghan (618-630) set up his headquarters in the Ming-bulak area to the north of Chach. Here he received embassies from the emperors of the Tang Empire and Byzantium. [12] In 626, the Indian preacher Prabhakaramitra arrived with ten companions to the kagan. In 628, a Buddhist Chinese monk Xuanzang arrived in Ming Bulak.

The Turkic rulers of Chach minted their coins with the inscription on the obverse side of the "lord of the Khakan money" (mid-8th century); with an inscription in the ruler Turk (VII century), in Nudjket in the middle of the VIII century, coins were issued with the obverse inscription “Nanchu (Banchu) Ertegin sovereign". [13]

Islamic history

Tashkent was conquered by the Arabs at the beginning of the 8th century. [14]

According to the descriptions of the authors of the X century. Shash was structurally divided into a citadel, an inner city (madina) and two suburbs - an inner (rabad-dahil) and an outer (rabad-harij). The citadel, surrounded by a special wall with two gates, contained the ruler's palace and the prison. [15]

Under the Samanid Empire (819–999), whose founder Saman Khuda was a Persian Zoroastrian convert to Islam, the city came to be known as Binkath. However, the Arabs retained the old name of Chach for the surrounding region, pronouncing it ash-Shash (الشاش) instead. Kand, qand, kent, kad, kath, kud—all meaning a city—are derived from the Persian/Sogdian کنده kanda, meaning a town or a city. They are found in city names such as Samarkand, Yarkand, Panjakent, Khujand etc.). Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ali ash-Shashi, known as al-Kaffal ash-Shashi (904-975), was born in Tashkent - an Islamic theologian, scholar, jurist of the Shafi'i madhhab, hadith scholar and linguist.[ citation needed ]

After the 11th century, the name evolved from Chachkand/Chashkand to Tashkand. The modern spelling of "Tashkent" reflects Russian orthography and 20th-century Soviet influence.

At the end of the 10th century, Tashkent became part of the possessions of the Turkic state of the Karakhanids. In 998/99 the Tashkent oasis went to the Karakhanid Ahmad ibn Ali, who ruled the north-eastern regions of Mavarannahr. In 1177/78, a separate khanate was formed in the Tashkent oasis. Its center was Banakat, where dirhams Mu'izz ad-dunya wa-d-din Qilich-khan were minted, in 1195-1197 - Jalal ad-dunya wa-d-din Tafgach-khakan, in 1197-1206 - 'Imad ad-dunya va-d-din Ulug Egdish Chagry-khan. [16]

Mongol conquest

The city was destroyed by Genghis Khan in 1219 and lost much of its population as a result of the Mongols' destruction of the Khwarezmid Empire in 1220.

Timurids period

Under the Timurid and subsequent Shaybanid dynasties, the city's population and culture gradually revived as a prominent strategic center of scholarship, commerce and trade along the Silk Road. During the reign of Amir Timur (1336-1405), Tashkent was restored and in the 14th-15th centuries Tashkent was part of Timur's empire. For Timur, Tashkent was considered a strategic city. In 1391 Timur set out in the spring from Tashkent to Desht-i-Kipchak to fight the Khan of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh Khan. Timur returned from this victorious campaign through Tashkent. [17]

Zangi ata shrine Mausoleum Zangiata 15-12.JPG
Zangi ata shrine

The most famous saint Sufi of Tashkent was Sheikh Khovendi at-Takhur (13th - first half of the 14th century). According to legend, Amir Timur, who was treating his wounded leg in Tashkent with the healing water of the Zem-Zem spring, ordered to build a mausoleum for the saint. By order of Timur, the Zangiata mausoleum was built.

Uzbek Shaybanid's dynasty period

In the 16th century, Tashkent was ruled by the Shaybanid dynasty. [18] [19]

Barak khan madrasa, Shaybanids, 16th century Barakhan Madrasah Tashkent.jpg
Barak khan madrasa, Shaybanids, 16th century

Shaybanid Suyunchkhoja Khan was an enlightened Uzbek ruler and, following the traditions of his ancestors Mirzo Ulugbek and Abul Khair Khan, gathered famous scientists, writers and poets at his court, among them: Vasifi, Abdullah Nasrullahi, Masud bin Osmani Kuhistani. Since 1518 Vasifi was the educator of the son of Suyunchhoja Khan Keldi Muhammad, with whom, after the death of his father in 1525, he moved to Tashkent. And after the death of his former pupil, he became the educator of his son - Abu-l-Muzaffar Hasan-Sultan. [20]

Later the city was subordinated to Shaybanid Abdullah Khan II (the ruler actually from 1557, officially in 1583–1598), who issued his coins here [21] From 1598 to 1604 Tashkent was ruled by the Shaybanid Keldi Muhammad, who issued silver and copper coins on his behalf. [22]

17th - the first half of 18th centuries

In 1598, Kazakh Taukeel Khan was at war with the Khanate of Bukhara. The Bukhara troops sent against him were defeated by Kazakhs in the battle between Tashkent and Samarkand. During the reign of Yesim-Khan, a peace treaty was concluded between Bukhara and Kazakhs, according to which Kazakhs abandoned Samarkand, but left behind Tashkent, Turkestan and a number of Syr Darya cities. Yesim-Khan ruled the Kazakh khanate from 1598 to 1628, his main merit was that he managed to unite the Kazakh khanate.Under him, the city of Tashkent became the capital of the Kazakh khanate. Maslikhat remained the highest representative-legislative power of the khanate, which included all representatives, leaders of Kazakh communities and influential sultans. Maslikhat gathered once a year, mostly in the autumn at the place of "Khanabad" in the tract of Kul-Tobe (near Tashkent) and solved state affairs. Tole-bi Alibekuly (1663-1756), judge of the Senior Juz, who was the ruler of Tashkent for 6 years from 1743 to 1749, is buried in the mausoleum on the territory of Sheikhontaur cemetery.

Tashkent state

In 1784, Yunus Khoja, the ruler of the dakha (district) Shayhantahur, united the entire city under his rule and created an independent Tashkent state (1784-1807), which by the beginning of the 19th century seized vast lands. [23]

Kokand khanate

In 1809, Tashkent was annexed to the Khanate of Kokand. [24] At the time, Tashkent had a population of around 100,000 and was considered the richest city in Central Asia.

Under the Kokand domination, Tashkent was surrounded by a moat and an adobe battlement (about 20 kilometers long) with 12 gates. [25]

It prospered greatly through trade with Russia but chafed under Kokand's high taxes. The Tashkent clergy also favored the clergy of Bukhara over that of Kokand. However, before the Emir of Bukhara could capitalize on this discontent, the Russian army arrived.

Tsarist period

Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the Russian Orthodox Church in Tashkent. Khram Aleksandra Nevskogo (Tashkent).png
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built by the Russian Orthodox Church in Tashkent.

In May 1865, Mikhail Grigorevich Chernyayev (Cherniaev), acting against the direct orders of the tsar and outnumbered at least 15–1, staged a daring night attack against a city with a wall 25 kilometres (16 mi) long with 11 gates and 30,000 defenders. While a small contingent staged a diversionary attack, the main force penetrated the walls, led by a Russian Orthodox priest. Although the defense was stiff, the Russians captured the city after two days of heavy fighting and the loss of only 25 dead as opposed to several thousand of the defenders (including Alimqul, the ruler of the Kokand Khanate). Chernyayev, dubbed the "Lion of Tashkent" by city elders, staged a "hearts-and-minds" campaign to win the population over. He abolished taxes for a year, rode unarmed through the streets and bazaars meeting common people, and appointed himself "Military Governor of Tashkent", recommending to Tsar Alexander II that the city become an independent khanate under Russian protection.

Coats of arms of Tashkent, 1909 Taskent city coat 1909.gif
Coats of arms of Tashkent, 1909

The Tsar liberally rewarded Chernyayev and his men with medals and bonuses, but regarded the impulsive general as a "loose cannon", and soon replaced him with General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman. Far from being granted independence, Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan, with Kaufman as first Governor-General. A cantonment and Russian settlement were built across the Ankhor Canal from the old city, and Russian settlers and merchants poured in. Tashkent was a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia. The Turkestan Military District was established as part of the military reforms of 1874. The Trans-Caspian Railway arrived in 1889, and the railway workers who built it settled in Tashkent as well, bringing with them the seeds of Bolshevik Revolution.

Effect of the Russian revolution

Tashkent ca.1910 Tashkent passazh Arif-Khodzhi.jpg
Tashkent ca.1910

With the fall of the Russian Empire, the Russian Provisional Government removed all civil restrictions based on religion and nationality, contributing to local enthusiasm for the February Revolution. The Tashkent Soviet of Soldiers' and Workers' Deputies was soon set up, but primarily represented Russian residents, who made up about a fifth of the Tashkent population. Muslim leaders quickly set up the Tashkent Muslim Council (Tashkand Shura-yi-Islamiya) based in the old city. On 10 March 1917, there was a parade with Russian workers marching with red flags, Russian soldiers singing La Marseillaise and thousands of local Central Asians. Following various speeches, Governor-General Aleksey Kuropatkin closed the events with words "Long Live a great free Russia". [26]

The First Turkestan Muslim Conference was held in Tashkent 16–20 April 1917. Like the Muslim Council, it was dominated by the Jadid, Muslim reformers. A more conservative faction emerged in Tashkent centered around the Ulema. This faction proved more successful during the local elections of July 1917. They formed an alliance with Russian conservatives, while the Soviet became more radical. The Soviet attempt to seize power in September 1917 proved unsuccessful. [27]

In April 1918, Tashkent became the capital of the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkestan ASSR). The new regime was threatened by White forces, basmachi; revolts from within, and purges ordered from Moscow.

Soviet period

Tashkent, 1917 Tashkent the building of town council 02.jpg
Tashkent, 1917
The Courage Monument in Tashkent on a 1979 Soviet stamp Tashkent. Courage monument. USSR stamp. 1979.jpg
The Courage Monument in Tashkent on a 1979 Soviet stamp

The city began to industrialize in the 1920s and 1930s.

Violating the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. The government worked to relocate factories from western Russia and Ukraine to Tashkent to preserve the Soviet industrial capacity. This led to great increase in industry during World War II.

It also evacuated most of the German communist emigres to Tashkent. [28] The Russian population increased dramatically; evacuees from the war zones increased the total population of Tashkent to well over a million. Russians and Ukrainians eventually comprised more than half of the total residents of Tashkent. [29] Many of the former refugees stayed in Tashkent to live after the war, rather than return to former homes.

During the postwar period, the Soviet Union established numerous scientific and engineering facilities in Tashkent.

On 10 January 1966, then Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan signed a pact in Tashkent with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin as the mediator to resolve the terms of peace after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. On the next day, Shastri died suddenly, reportedly due to a heart attack. It is widely speculated that Shastri was killed by poisoning the water he drank.[ citation needed ]

Much of Tashkent's old city was destroyed by a powerful earthquake on 26 April 1966. More than 300,000 residents were left homeless, and some 78,000 poorly engineered homes were destroyed, [30] mainly in the densely populated areas of the old city where traditional adobe housing predominated. [31] The Soviet republics, and some other countries such as Finland, sent "battalions of fraternal peoples" and urban planners to help rebuild devastated Tashkent.

Tashkent was rebuilt as a model Soviet city with wide streets planted with shade trees, parks, immense plazas for parades, fountains, monuments, and acres of apartment blocks. The Tashkent Metro was also built during this time. About 100,000 new homes were built by 1970, [30] but the builders occupied many, rather than the homeless residents of Tashkent.[ citation needed ] Further development in the following years increased the size of the city with major new developments in the Chilonzor area, north-east and south-east of the city. [30]

At the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Tashkent was the fourth-largest city in the USSR and a center of learning in the fields of science and engineering.

Due to the 1966 earthquake and the Soviet redevelopment, little architectural heritage has survived of Tashkent's ancient history. Few structures mark its significance as a trading point on the historic Silk Road.

Capital of Uzbekistan

Tashkent is the capital of and the most cosmopolitan city in Uzbekistan. It was noted for its tree-lined streets, numerous fountains, and pleasant parks, at least until the tree-cutting campaigns initiated in 2009 by the local government. [32]

Alisher Navoiy Park Alisher Navoi Park.jpg
Alisher Navoiy Park

Since 1991, the city has changed economically, culturally, and architecturally. New development has superseded or replaced icons of the Soviet era. The largest statue ever erected for Lenin was replaced with a globe, featuring a geographic map of Uzbekistan. Buildings from the Soviet era have been replaced with new modern buildings. The "Downtown Tashkent" district includes the 22-story NBU Bank building, international hotels, the International Business Center, and the Plaza Building.

Japanese Gardens in Tashkent Tashkent Japanese Gardens, Tashkent, Uzbekistan.jpg
Japanese Gardens in Tashkent

The Tashkent Business district is a special district, established for the development of small, medium and large businesses in Uzbekistan. In 2018, was started to build a Tashkent city (new Downtown) which would include a new business district with skyscrapers of local and foreign companies, world hotels such as Hilton Tashkent Hotel, apartments, biggest malls, shops and other entertainments. The construction of the International Business Center is planned to be completed by the end of 2021. [33] Fitch assigns “BB-” rating to Tashkent city, “Stable” forecast. [34]

In 2007, Tashkent was named a "cultural capital of the Islamic world" by Moscow News , as the city has numerous historic mosques and significant Islamic sites, including the Islamic University. [35] Tashkent holds the Samarkand Kufic Quran, one of the earliest written copies of the Quran, which has been located in the city since 1924. [36]

Tashkent is the most visited city in the country, [37] and has greatly benefited from increasing tourism as a result of reforms under president Shavkat Mirziyoyev and opening up by abolishing visas for visitors from the European Union and other developing countries or making visas easier for foreigners. [38]

Tashkent over the years

Origin of television

The first demonstration of a fully electronic TV set to the public was made in Tashkent in summer 1928 by Boris Grabovsky and his team. In his method that had been patented in Saratov in 1925, Boris Grabovsky proposed a new principle of TV imaging based on the vertical and horizontal electron beam sweeping under high voltage. Nowadays this principle of the TV imaging is used practically in all modern cathode-ray tubes. Historian and ethnographer Boris Golender (Борис Голендер in Russian), in a video lecture, described this event. [39] This date of demonstration of the fully electronic TV set is the earliest known so far. Despite this fact, most modern historians disputably consider Vladimir Zworykin [40] and Philo Farnsworth [41] as inventors of the first fully electronic TV set. In 1964, the contribution made to the development of early television by Grabovsky was officially acknowledged by the Uzbek government and he was awarded the prestigious degree "Honorable Inventor of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic".

Geography and climate

Tashkent and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30 Tashkent, Uzbekistan, city and vicinities, satellite image LandSat-5,2010-06-30.jpg
Tashkent and vicinity, satellite image Landsat 5, 2010-06-30
Tashkent
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
55
 
 
6
−3
 
 
47
 
 
8
−2
 
 
72
 
 
14
4
 
 
64
 
 
22
10
 
 
32
 
 
27
14
 
 
7.1
 
 
33
18
 
 
3.5
 
 
36
19
 
 
2
 
 
34
17
 
 
4.5
 
 
29
12
 
 
34
 
 
21
7
 
 
45
 
 
14
3
 
 
53
 
 
9
0
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO [42]

Geography

Tashkent is situated in a well-watered plain on the road between Samarkand, Uzbekistan's second city, and Shymkent across the border. Tashkent is just 13 km from two border crossings into Kazakhstan.

Closest geographic cities with populations of over 1 million are: Shymkent (Kazakhstan), Dushanbe (Tajikistan), Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), Kashgar (China), Almaty (Kazakhstan), Kabul (Afghanistan) and Peshawar (Pakistan).

Tashkent sits at the confluence of the Chirchiq River and several of its tributaries and is built on deep alluvial deposits up to 15 metres (49 ft). The city is located in an active tectonic area suffering large numbers of tremors and some earthquakes.

The local time in Tashkent is UTC/GMT +5 hours.

Climate

Tashkent features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) [43] bordering a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dsa). [43] As a result, Tashkent experiences cold and often snowy winters not typically associated with most Mediterranean climates and long, hot and dry summers. Most precipitation occurs during winter, which frequently falls as snow. The city experiences two peaks of precipitation in the early winter and spring. The slightly unusual precipitation pattern is partially due to its 500 m (roughly 1600 feet) altitude. Summers are long in Tashkent, usually lasting from May to September. Tashkent can be extremely hot during the months of July and August. The city also sees very little precipitation during the summer, particularly from June through September. [44] [45]

Climate data for Tashkent (1981–2010, extremes 1881–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)22.6
(72.7)
27.0
(80.6)
32.5
(90.5)
36.4
(97.5)
39.9
(103.8)
43.0
(109.4)
44.6
(112.3)
43.1
(109.6)
40.0
(104.0)
37.5
(99.5)
31.6
(88.9)
27.3
(81.1)
44.6
(112.3)
Average high °C (°F)6.9
(44.4)
9.4
(48.9)
15.2
(59.4)
22.0
(71.6)
27.5
(81.5)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
34.7
(94.5)
29.3
(84.7)
21.8
(71.2)
14.9
(58.8)
8.8
(47.8)
21.6
(70.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.9
(35.4)
3.9
(39.0)
9.3
(48.7)
15.5
(59.9)
20.5
(68.9)
25.8
(78.4)
27.8
(82.0)
26.2
(79.2)
20.6
(69.1)
13.9
(57.0)
8.5
(47.3)
3.5
(38.3)
14.8
(58.6)
Average low °C (°F)−1.5
(29.3)
0.0
(32.0)
4.8
(40.6)
9.8
(49.6)
13.7
(56.7)
18.1
(64.6)
19.7
(67.5)
18.1
(64.6)
13.0
(55.4)
7.8
(46.0)
4.1
(39.4)
0.0
(32.0)
9.0
(48.2)
Record low °C (°F)−28
(−18)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−16.9
(1.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
−1.7
(28.9)
3.8
(38.8)
8.2
(46.8)
5.7
(42.3)
0.1
(32.2)
−11.2
(11.8)
−22.1
(−7.8)
−29.5
(−21.1)
−29.5
(−21.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)53.3
(2.10)
63.8
(2.51)
70.2
(2.76)
62.3
(2.45)
41.2
(1.62)
14.3
(0.56)
4.5
(0.18)
1.3
(0.05)
6.0
(0.24)
24.7
(0.97)
43.9
(1.73)
58.9
(2.32)
444.4
(17.50)
Average precipitation days1413141211743371012110
Average snowy days97200000012627
Average relative humidity (%)73686160534039424557667356
Mean monthly sunshine hours 117.3125.3165.1216.8303.4361.8383.7365.8300.9224.8149.5105.92,820.3
Source 1: Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of Uzbekistan [46]
Source 2: Pogoda.ru.net (mean temperatures/humidity/snow days 1981–2010, record low and record high temperatures), [47] NOAA (mean monthly sunshine hours, 1961–1990) [48] OGIMET [49]

Demographics

Bread vendor in a market street of Tashkent Bread Vendor (220641945).jpeg
Bread vendor in a market street of Tashkent

In 1983, the population of Tashkent amounted to 1,902,000 people living in a municipal area of 256 km2 (99 sq mi). By 1991, (Dissolution of the Soviet Union) the number of permanent residents of the capital had grown to approximately 2,136,600. Tashkent was the fourth most populated city in the former USSR, after Moscow, Leningrad (St. Petersburg), and Kyiv. Nowadays, Tashkent remains the fourth most populous city in the CIS and Baltic countries. The population of the city was 2,716,176 people in 2020. [50]

As of 2008, the demographic structure of Tashkent was as follows:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1897 155,673    
1959 911,930+2.89%
1970 1,384,509+3.87%
1979 1,780,002+2.83%
1983 1,902,000+1.67%
1989 2,072,459+1.44%
1991 2,130,200+1.38%
1995 2,097,400−0.39%
2000 2,142,300+0.42%
2001 2,137,900−0.21%
2002 2,136,600−0.06%
2003 2,139,200+0.12%
2004 2,135,400−0.18%
2005 2,135,700+0.01%
2006 2,140,600+0.23%
2007 2,157,100+0.77%
2008 2,180,000+1.06%
2009 2,206,300+1.21%
2010 2,234,300+1.27%
2011 2,296,500+2.78%
2012 2,309,300+0.56%
2013 2,340,900+1.37%
2014 2,352,900+0.51%
2015 2,371,300+0.78%
2016 2,393,200+0.92%
2017 2,424,100+1.29%
2018 2,464,900+1.68%
2019 2,509,900+1.83%
2020 2,571,700+2.46%
2021 2,694,400+4.77%
Source: Uzbekistan State Statistics Committee [51] [52] and Demoscope.ru [53] [54] [55] [56] [57]

Uzbek is the main spoken language as well as Russian for inter-ethnic communication. As with most of Uzbekistan, street signs and other things are often a mix of Latin and Cyrillic scripts. [58] [59]

Districts

Panorama of Tashkent pictured 2010 International Business Center. Tashkent city.jpg
Panorama of Tashkent pictured 2010
Amir Timur Street pictured 2006 Tashkent street view.jpg
Amir Timur Street pictured 2006
Residential Towers Residential Towers (3926792798).jpg
Residential Towers
A downtown street pictured 2012 Tashkent Downtown.jpg
A downtown street pictured 2012

Tashkent is divided into the following districts (Uzbek : Tuman):

NrDistrictPopulation
(2009) [60]
Area
(km2) [60]
Density
(area/km2) [60]
Map
1 Bektemir 27,50020.51,341 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Bektemir district (2018).png
2 Chilanzar 217,00030.07,233 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Chilanzar district (2018).png
3 Yashnobod 204,80033.76,077 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yashnobod district (2018).png
4 Mirobod 122,70017.17,175 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Mirobod district (2018).png
5 Mirzo Ulugbek 245,20031.97,687 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Mirzo Ulugbek district (2018).png
6 Sergeli 149,00056.02,661 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Sergeli district (2018).png
7 Shaykhontohur 285,80027.210,507 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Shaykhontohur district (2018).png
8 Olmazar 305,40034.58,852 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Olmazar district (2018).png
9 Uchtepa 237,00028.28,404 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Uchtepa district (2018).png
10 Yakkasaray 115,20014.67,890 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yakkasaray district (2018).png
11 Yunusabad 296,70041.17,219 Tashkent city (Uzbekistan) Yunusabad district (2018).png

At the time of the Tsarist take over it had four districts (Uzbek daha):

  1. Beshyoghoch
  2. Kukcha
  3. Shaykhontokhur
  4. Sebzor

In 1940 it had the following districts (Russian район):

  1. Oktyabr
  2. Kirov
  3. Stalin
  4. Frunze
  5. Lenin
  6. Kuybishev

By 1981 they were reorganized into: [30]

  1. Bektemir
  2. Akmal-Ikramov (Uchtepa)
  3. Khamza (Yashnobod)
  4. Lenin (Mirobod)
  5. Kuybishev (Mirzo Ulugbek)
  6. Sergeli
  7. Oktober (Shaykhontokhur)
  8. Sobir Rakhimov (Olmazar)
  9. Chilanzar
  10. Frunze (Yakkasaray)
  11. Kirov (Yunusabad)

Main sights

Kukeldash Madrasa inner yard Kukeldash Madrasah inner yard.jpg
Kukeldash Madrasa inner yard
Prince Romanov Palace Palace of Grand Prince Nikolai Konstantinovich 12-00.JPG
Prince Romanov Palace
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre Theatre Alisher Navoi.JPG
Alisher Navoi Opera and Ballet Theatre
Museum of Applied Arts Tashkent museum of applied arts.jpg
Museum of Applied Arts
A statue commemorating Taras Shevchenko Pam'iatnik Tarasovi Shevchenku (Tashkent).jpg
A statue commemorating Taras Shevchenko

Due to the destruction of most of the ancient city during the 1917 revolution and, later, the 1966 earthquake, little remains of Tashkent's traditional architectural heritage. Tashkent is, however, rich in museums and Soviet-era monuments. They include:

The Russian Orthodox church in Amir Temur Square, built in 1898, was demolished in 2009. The building had not been allowed to be used for religious purposes since the 1920s due to the anti-religious campaign conducted across the former Soviet Union by the Bolshevik (communist) government in Moscow. During the Soviet period the building was used for different non-religious purposes; after independence it was a bank.

Tashkent also has a World War II memorial park and a Defender of Motherland monument. [64] [65] [66]

Education

Most important scientific institutions of Uzbekistan, such as the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, are located in Tashkent. There are several universities and institutions of higher education:

Media

Transportation

Inside a Tashkent Metro station Hamid Olimjon station.jpg
Inside a Tashkent Metro station

Entertainment and shopping

There are several shopping malls in Tashkent. These include Next, Samarqand Darvoza and Kontinent shopping malls. [67]

Sport

Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the Uzbekistan national football team, is from Tashkent. Shatskikh1.jpg
Maksim Shatskikh, a striker for the Uzbekistan national football team, is from Tashkent.

Football is the most popular sport in Tashkent, with the most prominent football clubs being Pakhtakor Tashkent FK, FC Bunyodkor, and PFC Lokomotiv Tashkent, all three of which compete in the Uzbekistan Super League. Footballers Maksim Shatskikh, Peter Odemwingie and Vasilis Hatzipanagis were born in the city.

Humo Tashkent, a professional ice hockey team was established in 2019 with the aim of joining Kontinental Hockey League (KHL), a top level Eurasian league in future. Humo will join the second-tier Supreme Hockey League (VHL) for the 2019–20 season. Humo play their games at the Humo Ice Dome; both the team and arena derive their name from the mythical Huma bird. [68]

Humo Tashkent was a member of the reformed Uzbekistan Ice Hockey League which began play in February 2019. [69] Humo finished in first place at the end of the regular season.

Cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov was born in the city, while tennis player Denis Istomin was raised there. Akgul Amanmuradova and Iroda Tulyaganova are notable female tennis players from Tashkent.

Gymnasts Alina Kabaeva and Israeli Olympian Alexander Shatilov were also born in the city.

Former world champion and Israeli Olympic bronze medalist sprint canoer in the K-1 500 m event Michael Kolganov was also born in Tashkent. [70]

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

Tashkent is twinned with: [71]

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Tajikistan Aspect of history

Tajikistan harkens to the Samanid Empire (819–999). The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s. The Basmachi revolt broke out in the wake of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and was quelled in the early 1920s during the Russian Civil War. In 1924 Tajikistan became an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union, the Tajik ASSR, within Uzbekistan. In 1929 Tajikistan was made one of the component republics of the Soviet Union – Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic – and it kept that status until gaining independence 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Uzbeks Turkic ethnic group of Central Asia

The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group native to wider Central Asia, being the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are also found as a minority group in: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, and China. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, United States, Ukraine, and other countries.

Samarkand City in Samarkand Vilayat, Uzbekistan

Samarkand, also known as Samarqand, is a city in southeastern Uzbekistan and among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. There is evidence of human activity in the area of the city from the late Paleolithic Era, though there is no direct evidence of when Samarkand was founded; several theories propose that it was founded between the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. Prospering from its location on the Silk Road between China and the Mediterranean Sea, at times Samarkand was one of the largest cities of Central Asia.

Fergana Valley valley in Central Asia spread across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan

The Fergana Valley in Central Asia spreads across eastern Uzbekistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and northern Tajikistan.

Muhammad Shaybani Uzbek leader and warrior

Muhammad Shaybani Khan, was an Uzbek leader who consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban, the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. He was the son of Shah-Budag, thus a grandson of the Uzbek conqueror Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Russian Turkestan General governorate of the Russian Empire

Russian Turkestan was the western part of Turkestan within the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories, and was administered as a Krai or Governor-Generalship. It comprised the oasis region to the south of the Kazakh Steppe, but not the protectorates of the Emirate of Bukhara and the Khanate of Khiva.

Abdullah Khan II Abdullah Khan

Abdullah Khan (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785). He was the last Shaybanid Khan of Bukhara from 1583 until his death.

Khanate of Kokand Former state in Central Asia

The Khanate of Kokand was a Central Asian polity in Fergana Valley, Central Asia that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of eastern Uzbekistan, modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Tajikistan and southeastern Kazakhstan. The name of the city and the khanate may also be spelled as Khoqand in modern scholarly literature.

Uzbek Khanate Shaybanid state preceding the Shaybanid Empire and the Khanate of Bukhara

The Uzbek Khanate, also known as the Abulkhair Khanate was a Shaybanid state preceding the Khanate of Bukhara. During the few years it existed, the Uzbek Khanate was the preeminent state in Central Asia, ruling over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, much of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and parts of southern Russia. This is the first state of the Abulkhairids, a branch of the Shaybanids.

Khanate of Khiva Historical Central Asian state (16th–20th centuries)

The Khanate of Khiva was a Central Asian polity that existed in the historical region of Khwarezm in Central Asia from 1511 to 1920, except for a period of Afsharid occupation by Nader Shah between 1740 and 1746. Centred in the irrigated plains of the lower Amu Darya, south of the Aral Sea, with the capital in the city of Khiva, the country was ruled by a Turco-Mongol tribe, the Khongirads, who came from Astrakhan. It covered present western Uzbekistan, southwestern Kazakhstan and much of Turkmenistan before Russian arrival at the second half of the 19th century.

Khanate of Bukhara Former country in Central Asia

The Khanate of Bukhara was an Uzbek state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia or Turkestan, founded by the Shaybanid dynasty. From 1533 to 1540, Bukhara briefly became its capital during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan. The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II.

Sart Historical term used for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia

Sart is a name for the settled inhabitants of Central Asia which has had shifting meanings over the centuries. Sarts, known sometimes as Ak-Sart in ancient times, did not have any particular ethnic identification, and were usually town-dwellers.

Kazakh Khanate Former Islamic monarchy in Central Asia

The Kazakh Khanate was a successor of the Golden Horde existing from the 15th to 19th century, centered on the eastern parts of the Desht-i Qipchaq.

Soviet Central Asia

Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991). Central Asian SSRs declared independence in 1991. In terms of area, it is nearly synonymous with Russian Turkestan, the name for the region during the Russian Empire. Soviet Central Asia went through many territorial divisions before the current borders were created in the 1920s and 1930s.

Abul-Khayr Khan Khan

Abu'l-Khayr Khan (1412–1468) was a Khan of the Uzbek Khanate which united the nomadic Central Asian tribes. He created one of the largest and most powerful Turkic states during the period of 15th century. The Uzbek Khanate weakened in the decades following his death in 1468. He was succeeded by his son Sheikh Khaidar.

Sayram (city) Place in Shymkent city, Kazakhstan

Sayram is a rural locality located in southeastern South Kazakhstan Region on the Sayram Su River, which rises at the nearby 4000-meter mountain Sayram Su. In medieval times, the city and countryside were located on the banks of the Arys River, into which the Sayram Su river flows. It is now a suburb of Shymkent. Population: 30,887 ; 25,408.

Syr-Darya Oblast

Syr-Darya Oblast was one of the oblasts of the Russian Empire was part of Russian Turkestan. Its center was Tashkent.

The Kazakh War of Independence (1468–1500) was a conflict fought in Central Asia between the Kazakh Khanate and the Uzbek Khanate which attempted to maintain its control over most of modern-day Kazakhstan, which at the time was under Uzbek rule. The war started after Abu'l-Khayr, Khan of the Uzbek Khanate, attacked Zhetysu in 1468 which was controlled by a small band of rebel Kazakhs who had split from the original Uzbek Khanate. Abu’l Khayr did so in an attempt to prevent the growing Kazakh influence among the steppe. However, he unknowingly died, making it easier for the Kazakhs to expand their influence. After Abu'l-Khayr Khan's death, the Uzbeks continued to be ruled by the Shaybanids who fought against the Kazakhs in the cities that were on the Syr Darya until both sides agreed to peace in 1500 with the Kazakh Khanate gaining its sovereignty from the Uzbek control. At the end of the war, the Uzbek Khanate transferred most of Kazakhstan to the Kazakh Khanate.

References

  1. stat.uz. "Численность постоянного населения по возрастным группам (in Russian)" . Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  2. "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  3. "Residents of Tashkent city exceeds 2.48m people". Uzdaily.com. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  4. Praying Through the 100 Gateway Cities of the 10/40 Window ISBN   978-0-927-54580-8 p. 89
  5. "Юбилей Ташкента. Такое бывает только раз в 2200 лет". Фергана – международное агентство новостей. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  6. Sachau, Edward C. Alberuni’s India: an Account of the Religion. Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws and Astrology of India about AD 1030, vol. 1 London: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRtJBNBR & CO. 1910. p.298.
  7. Pulleyblank, Edwin G. "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese," Asia Major 9 (1963), p. 94.
  8. Dean, Riaz (2015). "The Location of Ptolemy's Stone Tower: the Case for Sulaiman-Too in Osh". The Silk Road. 13: 76.
  9. Baumer, Christoph (18 April 2018). History of Central Asia, The: 4-volume set. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 243. ISBN   978-1-83860-868-2.
  10. Whitfield, Susan (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. British Library. Serindia Publications, Inc. p. 110. ISBN   978-1-932476-13-2.
  11. Bichurin, 1950. v. II
  12. Golden, P.B. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Series: Turcologica. Wiesbaden: Otto-Harrassowitz. 1992
  13. Baratova L. S. Drevnetyurkskiye monety Sredney Azii VI—IKH vv. (tipologiya, ikonografiya, istoricheskaya interpretatsiya). Avtoreferat diss. kand. ist. nauk. — T., 1995, s.12
  14. O. G. Bol'shakov. Istoriya Khalifata, t. 4: apogey i padeniye. — Moskva: «Vostochnaya literatura» RAN, 2010
  15. Filanovich, M.I. Tashkent (zarozhdeniye i razvitiye goroda i gorodskoy kul'tury). Tashkent, 1983, p.188
  16. Kochnev B. D., Numizmaticheskaya istoriya Karakhanidskogo kaganata (991—1209 gg.). Moskva «Sofiya», 2006, p.157,234
  17. Fasikh Akhmad ibn Dzhalal ad-Din Mukhammad al-Khavafi. Fasikhov svod. Tashkent: Fan. 1980, p.114
  18. Dobromyslov A. I., Tashkent v proshlom i nastoyashchem. Tashkent, 1912, p.9
  19. Istoriya Tashkenta. Tashkent: Fan, 1988, p.70
  20. Yudin V. P. Materialy po istorii kazakhskikh khanstv XV-XVIII vekov. (Izvlecheniya iz persidskikh i tyurkskikh sochineniy). — Alma-Ata : Nauka, 1969, p.174.
  21. Ye. A. Davidovich, Korpus zolotykh i serebryanykh monet Sheybanidov. XVI vek. M., 1992
  22. Burnasheva R. Z., Nekotoryye svedeniya o chekanke mednykh monet v Tashkente v XVI—XIX vv. Izvestiya Natsional'noy akademii nauk Kazakhstana, № 1, 2007, p.153
  23. Istoriya Tashkenta (s drevneyshikh vremon do pobedy Fevral'skoy burzhuazno-demokraticheskoy revolyutsii) / Ziyayev KH. Z., Buryakov YU. V. Tashkent: «Fan», 1988
  24. Planet, Lonely. "History in Tashkent, Uzbekistan".
  25. Istoriya Tashkenta (s drevneyshikh vremyon do pobedy Fevralskoy burzhuazno-demokraticheskoy revolyutsii) / Ziyayev Kh. Z., Buryakov Y.F. Tashkent: «Fan», 1988
  26. Jeff Sahadeo, Russian Colonial Society in Tashkent, Indiana University Press, 2007, p188
  27. Rex A. Wade, The Russian Revolution, 1917, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  28. Robert K. Shirer, "Johannes R. Becher 1891–1958", Encyclopedia of German Literature, Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000, by permission at Digital Commons, University of Nebraska, accessed 3 February 2013
  29. Edward Allworth (1994), Central Asia, 130 Years of Russian Dominance: A Historical Overview, Duke University Press, p. 102. ISBN   0-8223-1521-1
  30. 1 2 3 4 Sadikov, A C; Akramob Z. M.; Bazarbaev, A.; Mirzlaev T.M.; Adilov S. R.; Baimukhamedov X. N.; et al. (1984). Geographical Atlas of Tashkent (Ташкент Географический Атлас) (in Russian) (2 ed.). Moscow. pp. 60, 64.
  31. Nurtaev Bakhtiar (1998). "Damage for buildings of different type". Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  32. "Good bye the Tashkent Public Garden!". Ferghana.Ru. 23 November 2009. Archived from the original on 11 June 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  33. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  34. https://www.fitchratings.com/research/ru/international-public-finance/fitch-prisvoilo-gorodu-tashkentu-rejting-bb-prognoz-stabil-nyj-17-06-2019
  35. "Moscow News – World – Tashkent Touts Islamic University". Mnweekly.ru. 21 June 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  36. "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  37. "Uzbekistan doubles the number of tourists in 2018". Brussels Express. 23 November 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  38. "Uzbekistan announces ambition to become major tourist destination". Euractiv. 19 November 2018. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  39. "Видеолекторий "Ферганы": Изобретение телевидения и Борис Грабовский". Фергана.Ру.
  40. "Invention of the Iconoscope, the First Electronic Television Camera : HistoryofInformation.com". www.historyofinformation.com.
  41. K. Krull, The boy who invented TV: The story of Philo Farnsworth, 2014
  42. "World Weather Information Service – Tashkent". World Meteorological Organisation . Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  43. 1 2 Updated Asian map of the Köppen climate classification system
  44. Tashkent Travel. "Tashkent weather forecast". Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Archived from the original on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  45. Happy-Tellus.com. "Tashkent, Uzbekistan travel information". Helsinki, Finland: Infocenter International Ltd. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
  46. "Average monthly data about air temperature and precipitation in 13 regional centers of the Republic of Uzbekistan over period from 1981 to 2010". Centre of Hydrometeorological Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzhydromet). Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  47. "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tashkent" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Archived from the original on 15 December 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  48. "Tashkent Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  49. "38457: Tashkent (Uzbekistan)". OGIMET. 16 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  50. "ТАШКЕНТ (город)". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  51. "Hududlar boʻyicha shahar va qishloq aholisi soni (20102021-yillar)" (in Uzbek). Uzbekistan State Statistics Committee. 16 July 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  52. "Постоянное среднее число населения" (in Russian). Uzbekistan State Statistics Committee. 27 September 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
  53. Pervaya Vseobщaya perepis naseleniya Rossiyskoy imperii 1897 goda. Nalichnoe naselenie v guberniyax, uezdax, gorodax Rossiyskoy Imperii (bez Finlyandii)
  54. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1959 g. Chislennost gorodskogo naseleniya soyuznix respublik (krome RSFSR), ix territorialnix edinits, gorodskix poseleniy i gorodskix rayonov po polu
  55. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1970 g. Chislennost gorodskogo naseleniya soyuznix respublik (krome RSFSR), ix territorialnix edinits, gorodskix poseleniy i gorodskix rayonov po polu
  56. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1979 g. Chislennost gorodskogo naseleniya soyuznix respublik (krome RSFSR), ix territorialnix edinits, gorodskix poseleniy i gorodskix rayonov po polu
  57. Vsesoyuznaya perepis naseleniya 1989 g. Chislennost gorodskogo naseleniya soyuznix respublik, ix territorialnix edinits, gorodskix poseleniy i gorodskix rayonov po polu
  58. "Uzbekistan: A second coming for the Russian language?". eurasianet. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  59. "Uzbekistan: Dead Letter". Chalkboard. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  60. 1 2 3 (in Russian) Statistics of the subdivisions of Tashkent Archived 7 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  61. MacWilliams, Ian (5 January 2006). "Tashkent's hidden Islamic relic". BBC News. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  62. Smele, Jonathan D. (20 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916–1926. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 58. ISBN   978-1442252806 . Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  63. Inside Uzbekistan's beautiful, rarely-seen metro. National Geographic. 2 October 2018.
  64. uznews.net, Tashkent's central park is history Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine , 25 November 2009
  65. Army memorial dismantled in Tashkent Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine , 24 November 2009
  66. Ferghana.ru, МИД России указал послу Узбекистана на обеспокоенность «Наших» Archived 25 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine , 16 January 2010 (in Russian)
  67. Usbekistan: Entlang der Seidenstraße nach Samarkand, Buchara und Chiwa ISBN   978-3-89794-390-2 p. 111
  68. "Bird of Happiness – a symbol of the HC HUMO" (in Russian). 22 July 2019.
  69. "Uzbekistan eyes to join International Ice Hockey Federation". 15 February 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  70. "Sports-reference.com". Sports-reference.com. 24 October 1974. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  71. "Ну, здравствуй, брат! Города-побратимы Ташкента". vot.uz (in Russian). The Voice of Tashkent. 10 November 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  72. "Ankaranın Kardeş Şehirleri". ankara.bel.tr (in Turkish). Ankara. Archived from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  73. "Kostroma is looking for a twin city in Turkmenistan". orient.tm. Orient. 15 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  74. "Brotherhood & Friendship Agreements". cairo.gov.eg. Cairo. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  75. "Международный авторитет Астаны повышают города-побратимы". inform.kz (in Russian). KazInform. 6 July 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2020.

Museum of Fine Arts

Further reading