Tasu'a mourning in Qom, Iran, 2009
|Official name||تاسوعاءTāsū‘ā’ (in Arabic)|
|Observed by||Shiite Muslims|
|2018 date||19 September Date may vary according to the site of moon.|
|2019 date||8 September|
|2020 date||27 August|
|2021 date||17 August|
Tasu'a (Arabic : تاسوعاء, translit. Tāsū‘ā’) is the ninth day of Muharram and the day before Ashura. Several events occurred on this day, including: Shemr's entrance to Karbala, the granting of safe conduct for the children of Umm ul-Banin, preparation for war; and Husayn ibn Ali and his companions were besieged by the enemy (as part of the Battle of Karbala). The day is attributed to Abbas ibn Ali because of his actions as commander in the army of Husayn ibn Ali.
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet.
Muḥarram is the first month of the Islamic calendar. It is one of the four sacred months of the year during which warfare is forbidden. It is held to be the second holiest month, after Ramaḍān. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, Muharram moves from year to year when compared with the Gregorian calendar.
Yom Ashura or Ashura is the tenth day of Muḥarram, the first month in the Islamic calendar. For the majority of Shia Muslims Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram, and commemorates the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH. Sunni Muslims have the same accounts of these events, but ceremonial mourning did not become a custom - although poems, eulogizing and recounting the events were and continue to be common. Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the Battle of Karbala. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty. In Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh and Pakistan, Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.
Tasu'a literally means ninth and in the Islamic calendar refers to the ninth day of Muharram.
The following are the main events of Tasu'a:
In the forenoon of Tasu'a, Shemr, accompanied by a four thousand-man army, arrived at Karbala.He brought a letter from Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad to Umar ibn Sa'ad, telling him to take Bay'ah from Husayn or fight.
Shemr ibn Ziljawshan or Shemr was a son of Ziljawshan from the tribe of Banu Kilab, one of Arabia's Hawazinite Qaysid tribes. Umm ul-Banin, the mother of Abbas ibn Ali, was also from the Banu Kilab tribe. Shemr has a villainous reputation in both Sunni and Shia Islam. He was a Kharijite leader before paying allegiance to Yazid I and joining Ibn Ziyad's Umayyad forces. He is known as the man who beheaded Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson Hussein ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
Karbala, also Kerbala, is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few dozen miles east of Lake Milh. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 700,000 people (2015).
ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Ziyād was the Umayyad governor of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and the leading general of the Umayyad army under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik. Ubayd Allah is primarily remembered for his role in the killings of members of Ali ibn Abi Talib's family and he has become infamous in Shi'a Muslim tradition.
Shemr was one of the tribesman of Umm ul-Banin. He was given a guarantee of safe conduct from Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad for children of Umm ul-Banin in Tasu'a. He asked Abbas ibn Ali and his brothers to abandon Husayn ibn Ali and obey Yazid. Abbas didn't accept his safe conduct and answered him: "God curse you and your safe conduct! You give us safe conduct and you do not give safe conduct to the grandson of the Prophet of God? And you are asking us to enter the obedience of the cursed people and those who are children of cursed people?"
Fāṭimah bint Ḥuzam al-Kulābīyya, commonly known as Umm ul-Banin, was a wife of the fourth caliph and first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib. She was from the tribe of Banu Kilab Kalbasi, Khasaes al-Abbasiah,, P. 63 a branch of Qais Ailan tribes.
Safe conduct is the situation in time of international conflict or war where one state, a party to such conflict, issues to a person—usually an enemy state's subject—a pass or document to allow the enemy alien to traverse its territory without harassment, bodily harm, or fear of death. Safe conduct is only granted in exceptional circumstances. It may be given to an enemy to allow retreat under surrender terms, or for a meeting to negotiate; to a stateless person; or to somebody who for some reason would normally not be able to pass.
Al-Abbas ibn Ali, also known as Qamar Banī Hāshim, was a son of Imam Ali, the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims, and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons.
After rejection of the safe conduct by Abbas and his brothers, Umar ibn Sa'ad ordered his army to attack Husayn's camp.When Husayn ibn Ali understood their intent, he asked his brother to go to them and ask about his plan. Abbas ibn Ali, Zuhayr ibn Qayn, Habib ibn Madhahir and a few others went and asked them. They answered that our governor ordered us to ask you to Bay'ah him and his rule or fight. Abbas returned to Husayn and said their message. "Go back to them and ask them to give us this evening as a respite till tomorrow so that we may pray to our Lord, supplicate to Him, and seek His forgiveness, for He knows how much I love prayers, the recitation of His Book, the abundance of invocations, and the seeking of His forgiveness", Husayn said to Abbas. Abbas went back to the army and said them the message. Umar Ibn Sa'ad agreed to delay the war until the next day.
Zuhayr ibn Al-Qayn Al-Bajali, was a member of Al-Bajali tribe in Iraq and a companion of Husayn ibn Ali, Muhammad's grandson and son of Ali ibn Abi Talib. He was martyred during the battle of Karbala in Karbala.
Habīb ibn Madhāhir al-Asadi was of the Banu Asad clan, and one of the companions of Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. He was one of the people of Kufa who sent letters to Husayn ibn Ali and invited him to Kufa. Though, when he realized that people of Kufa have broken their allegiance to Husayn, he left Kufa, joined Husayn, and was martyred at the age of 75 while fighting in Husayn's army, in Karbala.
In a Hadith by Ja'far al-Sadiq it is said: "Ninth of Muharram is the day, when Imam Husayn and his companions were besieged at Karbala by the army of Syria from all sides and offloaded their luggage. The son of Marjanah (Ubaydullah bin Ziyad) and Umar ibn Sa’ad were pleased at the large number of their army and they deemed Imam and his companions to be weak. They knew that Imam Husayn had no helpers or aides in Iraq. May my father be ransom upon the oppressed traveler."
Ḥadīth in Islam are the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, supposedly of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam the authority of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law and moral guidance ranks second only to that of the Qur'an. Quranic verses enjoin Muslims to emulate Muhammad and obey his judgements, providing scriptural authority for ahadith. While the number of verses pertaining to law in the Quran is relatively few, ahadith give direction on everything from details of religious obligations, to the correct forms of salutations and the importance of benevolence to slaves. Thus the "great bulk" of the rules of Sharia are derived from ahadith, rather than the Qur'an.
Imam Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad aṡ-Ṣādiq̈, commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq, was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence. He was a descendant of Ali on the side of his father, Muhammad al-Baqir, and of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr on the side of his mother, Umm Farwah bint al-Qasim. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was raised by Ali, but was not his son. Ali used to say: "Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr is my son but from Abu Bakr's lineage". Al-Sadiq is the 6th imam and recognized by all Shia sects as an Imam, and is revered in traditional Sunni Islam as a transmitter of Hadith, prominent jurist, and mystic to sufis. Despite his wide-ranging attributions in a number religious disciplines, no works penned by Ja'far himself remain extant.
Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria.
In the days of Ashura and Tasua, Muslims go to mosques and Takiehs or go to mourning ceremonies.They recite Ahadith and poems in honor of Abbas ibn Ali. On a whole, the mourning ceremonies consists of procession, chanting and self-flagellation. One of the oldest and most common tradition between Muslim is asking wishes from Allah then promise to feed people. In Iran this tradition is well-established and reaches its climax on Tasua and Ashura (the 9th and 10th of Muharram) to feed mourners.
Ta'zieh as a religious play is an old traditional practice for mourning in some cities and villages.Participants see the Ta'zieh as a part of ritual mourning and not as a common play where actors have to memorize their scripts. In other words, the actors read from the script.
This day is devoted to Abbas ibn Ali in Shia communities, because of his bravery as the standard-bearer of Husayn's army in the Battle of Karbala.
Al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī ibn Abi Talib was a grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam as he was a member of the Bayt (Household) of Muhammad and the Ahl al-Kisā', as well as the third Shia Imam.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar in Karbala, in present-day Iraq. The battle took place between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn ibn Ali, and a larger military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.
Sayyidah Zaynab bint ʿAli was the daughter of the fourth caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah bint Muhammad. The Islamic Nabi Muhammad was her maternal grandfather, and thus she is a member of his Bayt. Therefore, she is often revered not only for her admirable characteristics and actions, but also for her membership in, and continuation of, the biological line of Muhammad. Like other members of her family she became a great figure of sacrifice, strength, and piety in Islam – in the Sunni and Shi‘i sects of the religion. Zaynab married ‘Abdullah ibn Ja‘far, and had three sons and two daughters with him. When her brother, Imam Al-Husain, stood up against Yazid ibn Mu‘awiyah in 680 CE, Zaynab accompanied him. She played an important role in protecting the life of her nephew, Imam ‘Ali ibn Al-Husayn, and because of her sacrifice and heroism, she became known as the "Heroine of Karbala". Zaynab died in 681 CE, and her Masjid is located in Damascus, Syria.
Qasim ibn al-Hasan, was the son of Hassan ibn Ali and grandson of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah. He took part in battle of Karbala and was killed. He was 13 years of age in the battle of Karbala and known as a young warrior.
A ḥosayniya, also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Shi'i commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad and the Imam of the Shia. Husayn was killed by the Umayyad Caliph Yazid I at the Battle of Karbala in Iraq, on October 10, 680. The Shia commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn every year on the day of Ashura in ḥosayniyas all over the world.
The Mourning of Muharram is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni Islam. The commemoration falls in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.
Shia Muslims are a large minority among India's Muslims. There has been no particular census conducted in India with regards to sects, but Pew Research Center claimed the estimated Shia population in 2009 was between 10% and 13% of the total Indian Muslim community. However, as per an estimation of one reputed Shia NGO Alimaan Trust, it claimed India's Shia population in early 2000 was around 30 million. Whatever the sources of that study, if we assume a similar percentage of Shia in India as are in Pakistan, i.e. 20%, that would put the number of Shia in India at 36.5 Million, the third highest in the world. By comparison, the leading Shia-population countries, Iran and Pakistan, have roughly 74 million and 41 million, respectively. These numbers are very rough and based on simple analysis of the data offered in the CIA world fact book, which in many cases uses official statistics from partner governments even though it knows they are highly inaccurate. According to some national and international sources Indian Shia population is the world's second-largest after Iran. According to the 2012 International Religious Freedom Report Shiites constitute 13 - 14% of the Indian Muslim Population.
Abdullah ibn Omayr Abu Wahab al Kalbi was one of the Companions of Husayn ibn Ali, who was killed along with him in the battle of Karbala. Wahab Al Kalbi joined Husayn ibn Ali in Karbala and fought alongside him. He belonged to Al Kalb tribe majority of whom were adherents of Christianity at that time. His mother, Umm Wahab was amongst the female casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala.
Abu Hajal Muslim ibn Awsaja was a companion of Islamic Prophet Muhammad. He assisted Muslim ibn Aqeel in Kufa. Then he joined Husayn ibn Ali army with his family. He was killed in battle of Karbala.
Lohoof is a book by Sayyed Ibn Tawus, a Shia jurist, theologian, and historian. It is kind of Maqtal al-Husayn, narrating the Battle of Karbala, the death of Husayn ibn Ali, and subsequent events.
Ziyarat Ashura is a Shia salutatory prayer to Husayn ibn Ali and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala. The prayer is part of the liturgy used in pilgrimages to the shrine of Husayn in Karbala. Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Shia Imam, recommended reciting Ziyarat Ashura on Ashura while facing Karbala, as a symbolic visit to the shrine.
Rawda khwani is the Shia Iranian Muslim ritual of the Mourning of Muharram. It is held every day of the year to commemorate the death of Husayn ibn Ali and his followers during the Battle of Karbala.
Ja’far ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib was son of Imam Ali and Umm ul-Banin. He was present with Imam Hussain in Karbala as one of his companions. Imam Ali named him Jafar because of his great love for Ja'far ibn Abi Talib who was his brother. Finally, he was martyred on Ashura with his brothers Abbas, Abdullah and Uthman.
Abdullah ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib is one of Ali's sons who was killed in Karbala, and is considered among the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala. Abdullah is also among the four sons of Umm ul-Banin the daughter of Hazam.