|Tatra National Park|
|Tatrzański Park Narodowy|
|Location||Tatra Mountains, southern Poland|
|Area||211.64 km² (81.71 mi²)|
|Governing body||Ministry of the Environment|
|Official name||Glacial lakes in the Tatra National Park|
|Designated||11 December 2017|
|Official name||Peat bogs in the Tatra National Park|
|Designated||11 December 2017|
Tatra National Park (Polish : Tatrzański Park Narodowy; abbr. TPN) is a National Park located in the Tatra Mountains in Tatra County, in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship—Małopolska region, in central-southern Poland. The Park has its headquarters in the town of Zakopane.
The Tatra Mountains form a natural border between Poland to the north and Slovakia to the south, and the two countries have cooperated since the early 20th century on efforts to protect the area. Slovakia created an adjoining national park, and UNESCO later designated the combined effort a transboundary biosphere reserve.
The first calls for protection of the Tatras came at the end of the 19th century. In 1925 the first efforts to create a national park, in cooperation with Slovakia, took place. Formally the park was created in 1937, on an area that belonged to the state forests authority. In 1947, a separate administrative unit, Tatra Park, was created.
In 1954, by decision of the Polish Government, Tatra National Park was created. It was established originally with an area of 215.56 km2 (83.23 sq mi), but it is currently slightly smaller, at 211.64 km2 (81.71 sq mi). Of this, 151.91 km2 (58.65 sq mi) is forest and the remainder mainly meadows. Strictly protected zones account for 115.14 km2 (44.46 sq mi), of which 61.49 km2 (23.74 sq mi) are forest ecosystems.
In 1992, the Polish and Slovakian national parks in the Tatras were jointly designated a transboundary biosphere reserve by UNESCO, under its Man and the Biosphere Programme.
The National Park covers one of the two Alpine mountain ranges in Poland. The Polish Tatra range, which is a part of the Western Carpathian Mountains, is divided into two sections: the High Tatras (Tatry Wysokie) and the Western Tatras (Tatry Zachodnie). The landscape consists of sharp-edged peaks and hollows with numerous rock formations. 2,499 metres (8,199 ft) AMSL), is located here.The highest peak in Poland, Rysy (
There are around 650 caves in the park, of which the Wielka Sniezna cave system is the longest (18 kilometres (11 mi)), and the deepest (maximum depth 814 metres (2,671 ft)). Six caves of this system are open to public.
There are several streams, the longest stream reaching 20 kilometres (12 mi). Waterfalls, such as Wodogrzmoty Mickiewicza are popular with tourists. The highest waterfall is Wielka Siklawa at 70 metres (230 ft)).
The park has over 30 mountain lakes, called staw (Polish: pond). These water bodies are an important part of the High Tatra landscape. The largest lakes are: Morskie Oko with an area of 349,000 m² and maximum depth of 50.8 metres (167 ft)); and Wielki Staw with an area of 344,000 m² and maximum depth of 79.3 metres (260 ft)).
Up to 1,250 metres (4,100 ft) there are mainly Silver fir (Abies alba) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. Higher levels, up to 1,550 metres (5,090 ft), are covered with European spruce (Picea abies) forests, which turn into meadows and grasslands at higher elevations up to 1,800 metres (5,900 ft). The highest elevations, above 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), have alpine flora habitats.
Other typical species include Swiss pine (Pinus cembra), Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum), and Stemless carline thistle (Carlina acaulis). Spring in the Kościeliska Valley is notable for the fields of Giant crocus (Crocus vernus, syn: Crocus scepusiensis).
The National Park contains several endemic fauna species, and many endangered and protected ones. Animals include: the Tatra chamois and marmot, both protected since the mid-19th century; brown bear, Eurasian lynx, gray wolf, European otter, lesser spotted eagle, and falcon.
The Podhale region of the Tatras is home to the Górales or the Goral (highland) people. Distinctive elements of their culture include the Podhale dialect (language), music, and traditional artisan customs such as clothes, wooden vernacular architecture, cheesemaking, and craft works.The historic Górale culture was traditionally passed on in oral stories.
The area of the Tatra mountains was exploited by human activities in the past. During summer numerous herds of animals (such as goats, sheep, and cows) pastured on the meadows and these practices caused erosion processes. In the 18th and 19th centuries several mines and ironworks were built here, industries that used substantial harvests of local timber.
Current environmental threats include: the proximity of the fast-developing town of Zakopane; and air pollution from the industrial zones in Kraków, Ostrava, and Orava. Fauna is threatened by poachers and habitat loss.
The high number of tourists is the largest threat to Park’s ecosystem currently. Also, the infrastructure, such as hotels and car parks, is not sufficient for the current volume of visitors.[ citation needed ]
Tourism was first developed in the Tatras in the late 19th century, and continues in the 21st. It is the most visited of the national parks in Poland.
There are more than 270 kilometres (170 mi) of hiking trails in Tatra National Park.
Zakopane is a town in the extreme south of Poland, in the southern part of the Podhale region at the foot of the Tatra Mountains. From 1975 to 1998, it was part of Nowy Sącz Voivodeship; since 1999, it has been part of Lesser Poland Voivodeship. As of 2017 its population was 27,266. Zakopane is a centre of Goral culture and is often referred to as "the winter capital of Poland”. It is a popular destination for mountaineering, skiing, and tourism.
The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra, is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. They are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. The Tatras are distinct from the Low Tatras, a separate Slovak mountain range further south.
The Low Tatras or Low Tatra is a mountain range of the Inner Western Carpathians in central Slovakia.
Nowy Targ is a town in southern Poland with 34,000 inhabitants (2006). It is the capital of Goralscyzna and the Podhale region within it. The town is situated in a valley beneath the Gorce Mountains featuring Gorce National Park established in 1981, at the confluence of rivers Biały and Czarny Dunajec. Administratively, it is in Nowy Targ County in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. It was previously in Nowy Sącz Voivodeship (1975–1998).
Rysy is a mountain in the crest of the High Tatras, eastern part of the Tatra Mountains, lying on the border between Poland and Slovakia. Rysy has three summits: the middle at 2,501 m (8,205 ft); the north-western at 2,500 m (8,200 ft); and the south-eastern at 2,473 m (8,114 ft). The north-western summit is the highest point of Poland and belongs to the Crown of Polish Mountains; the other two summits are on the Slovak side of the border.
Podhale is Poland's southernmost region, sometimes referred to as the "Highlands". The Podhale is located in the foothills of the Tatra range of the Carpathian mountains.
The High Tatras or High Tatra Mountains, are a mountain range along the border of northern Slovakia in the Prešov Region, and southern Poland in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship. They are a range of the Tatra Mountains chain.
The Goralenvolk was a geopolitical term invented by the German Nazis in World War II in reference to the Goral highlander population of Podhale region in the south of Poland near the Slovak border. The Germans postulated a separate nationality for people of that region in an effort to extract them from the Polish citizenry during their occupation of Poland's highlands. The term Goralenvolk was a neologism derived from the Polish word Górale commonly referring to the people living in the mountains. In order to attempt to make Gorals collaborate with the SS, the Nazis proclaimed that this group were part of the Greater Germanic Race and worthy of separate treatment from the Poles.
The Giewont is a mountain massif in the Tatra Mountains of Poland. Its highest peak, Great Giewont, is 1,895 metres (6,217 ft) above sea level and it is the highest peak of the Western Tatras located entirely within Poland's borders. The mountain is regarded as the symbol of Zakopane and the Polish Tatras and throughout history has been the subject of many legends, poems and works of art.
The Gorals are an ethnographic group primarily found in their traditional area of southern Poland, northern Slovakia, and in the region of Cieszyn Silesia in the Czech Republic. There is also a significant Goral diaspora in the area of Bukovina in western Ukraine and in northern Romania, as well as in Chicago, the seat of the Polish Highlanders Alliance of North America.
The Karkonosze National Park is a National Park in the Karkonosze Mountains in the Sudetes in southwestern Poland, along the border with the Czech Republic.
Pieniny National Park is a national park in northern Slovakia. The park is located in the eastern Pieniny Mountains on the border with Poland. It is the smallest national park in Slovakia with an area of 37.49 km² (14.48 mi²) and a buffer zone of 224.44 km² (86.66 mi²). The park is located in the Slovak districts of Kežmarok and Stará Ľubovňa in the Prešov Region.
Morskie Oko, or Eye of the Sea in English, is the largest and fourth-deepest lake in the Tatra Mountains, in southern Poland. It is located deep within the Tatra National Park in the Rybi Potok Valley, of the High Tatras mountain range at the base of the Mięguszowiecki Summits, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship.
Tatra County is a unit of territorial administration and local government (powiat) in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, southern Poland, on the Slovak border. It came into being on January 1, 1999, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat and only town is Zakopane, which lies 85 kilometres (53 mi) south of the regional capital Kraków. The county takes its name from the Tatra mountain range, which covers most of its territory.
Jaskinia Wielka Śnieżna is a limestone cave system in Mount Małołączniak in the Western Tatra Mountains, of the Carpathian Mountains System, in southern Poland. The cave is within Tatra National Park.
Tatra(s) National Park is one of the nine national parks in Slovakia. It is situated in North Central Slovakia in the Tatra Mountains. The park is important for protecting a diverse variety of flora and fauna, with many endemic species, including the Tatra chamois.
Belianske Tatras is a mountain range in the Eastern Tatras in North Central Slovakia. The Eastern Tatras are part of the Tatra Mountains, which are part of the Inner Western Carpathians.
The Polish Highlanders Alliance of America was founded in 1929 in Chicago as an organization that unites all other Góral organizations in the United States. Most of Chicago's Góral community is concentrated on Chicago's Southwest Side along Archer Avenue where the headquarters, also known as the "Highlander Home" is located.
Poland is a country that extends across the North European Plain from the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south to the sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea in the north. Poland is the fifth-most populous country of the European Union and the ninth-largest country in Europe by area. The territory of Poland covers approximately 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi), of which 98.52% is land and 1.48% is water. The Polish coastline was estimated at 770 km (478 mi) in length. Poland's highest point is Mount Rysy, at 2,499 m (8,199 ft).
Wielki Staw Polski - is a tarn located in the High Tatras, at an elevation of 1,665 metres above sea level in the Valley of the Five Polish Lakes, by the slope of the Miedziane. The lake is the second-largest lake by area in the Tatra Mountains after the Morskie Oko. The lake is located in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship; in Poland.
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