Tchoukball

Last updated
Tchoukball
European Tchoukball Championships 2014.jpg
A tchoukball match in progress.
First played1970
Characteristics
ContactNo
Team members7
Type Ball sport, team sport
EquipmentTchoukball, frame
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
Olympic No
World Games Invitational sport at 2009 World Games
Symbol of Tchoukball Chukbol.svg
Symbol of Tchoukball
Tchoukball match in progress. Tchoukball vimi.jpg
Tchoukball match in progress.

Tchoukball /ˈkbɔːl/ is an indoor team sport developed in the 1970s by Swiss biologist Hermann Brandt. Brandt was concerned about the number of injuries in sport at the time and as part of an educational study he wanted to create a sport that reduced injuries, was not aggressive between players and enabled people of all shapes, sizes, genders, cultures, and backgrounds to play together.

Contents

The sport is usually played on an indoor court measuring 27 metres by 16 metres. At each end there is a 'frame' (a device similar to a trampoline off which the ball bounces) which measures one square metre and a semicircular D-shaped forbidden zone measuring three metres in radius. Each team can score on both ends of the court, and comprises 12 players, of whom 7 may be on the court at any one time. In order to score a point, the ball must be thrown by an attacking player, hit the frame and bounce outside the 'D' without being caught by the defending team. Physical contact is prohibited, and defenders may not attempt to intercept the attacking team's passes. Players may take three steps with the ball, hold the ball for a maximum of three seconds, and teams may not pass the ball more than three times before shooting at the frame.

Tchoukball has become an international sport, played in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Colombia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Macau, Malaysia, Niger, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Tunisia, Uruguay, the United States, and Vietnam. It is governed by the International Tchoukball Federation (FITB), which was founded in 1971.

History

Tchoukball was created in Switzerland by Hermann Brandt, who was concerned by the numerous serious injuries among athletes resulting from sports prone to aggression and physical contact. He believed that sports should be not only for champions, but also contribute to the creation of a better and more humane society. [1] He designed tchoukball to contain elements of handball (it is played with hands, and the balls used are similar), volleyball (as the defending team must prevent the ball from falling) and squash (since there is a rebound).

Basic rules

Court

Ball

Depending on the category of players (Men/Women/M18/M15/M12), different sizes of balls are used ranging from a circumference of 54 cm to 60 cm and weighs between 325 grams to 475 grams.

Scoring

Two teams of 7 players each (men or women) compete to score points with the team with the most points at the end winning the game. When a team gains a point, control of the ball is transferred to the other team.

Frame Frame front 30.jpg
Frame

Positions

Each team comprises the following positions:

Each side of the court comprises a left shooter, right shooter and 1 or 2 defenders, while the centre usually stays near the middle of the court if this formation is used. The shooters are generally in charge of shooting although in some cases the defender can also take the shot. The defenders are in charge of coordinating the first line of defence while the centre pivot takes charge of the second line of defence. However other formations include not using a centre pivot, the team would bypass the centre and throw full length court passes directly to the shooters/inners. This gives an extra first line defender or a dedicated second line defender.

Playing the game

International Tchoukball Federation (FITB)

The FITB, founded in 1971, is based in Geneva. It now comprises 43 member associations and 16 countries with a designated FITB Representative. It supports and advises national associations and individuals willing to implant tchoukball in new areas. For instance, tchoukball was recently integrated in the school program of some regions of Senegal. The FITB was a demonstration sport in the 2009 World Games, which took place in Kaohsiung (Taiwan).

World events

World Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
1971The 1st World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of France.svg  France -
1976The 2nd World Tchoukball Championships{{}}{{}}
1980The 3rd World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
1982The 4th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of France.svg  France Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
1984The 5th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
1987The 6th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2000The 7th World Tchoukball Championships Geneva, Switzerland Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2004The 8th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2011The 9th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Italy.svg  Italy Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2015The 10th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2019The 11th World Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei Flag of Chinese Taipei for Olympic games.svg  Chinese Taipei

World Beach Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2005The 1st World Beach Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2017The 2nd World Beach Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Tchoukball at the World Games

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
1989 Tchoukball at the World Games 1989 Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2009 Tchoukball at the World Games 2009 Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

World Youth Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationM-18 Boys WinnerM-15 Boys WinnerM-12 Boys WinnerM-18 Girls WinnerM-15 Girls WinnerM-12 Girls Winner
2004The 1st World Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan --Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China --
2011The 2nd World Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Austria.svg  Austria Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Italy.svg  Italy -
2013The 3rd World Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2015The 4th World Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore
2019The 5th World Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

World University Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2017The 1st World University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

World Youth Beach Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2017The 1st World Youth Beach Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Regional events

Asia Pacific Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2003The 1st Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of India.svg  India Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2006The 2nd Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2008The 3rd Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2010The 4th Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2012The 5th Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2014The 6th Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2016The 7th Asia Pacific Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Asia Pacific University Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2009The 1st Asia Pacific University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2011The 2nd Asia Pacific University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2013The 3rd Asia Pacific University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2015The 4th Asia Pacific University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2019The 5th Asia Pacific University Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Asia Pacific Beach Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2013The 1st Asia Pacific Beach Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore

Asia Pacific Youth Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationM-18 Boys WinnerM-15 Boys WinnerM-12 Boys WinnerM-18 Girls WinnerM-15 Girls WinnerM-12 Girls Winner
2010The 1st Asia Pacific Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China -Flag of Hong Kong.svg  Hong Kong Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China -Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2013The 2nd Asia Pacific Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2014The 3rd Asia Pacific Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China
2016The 4th Asia Pacific Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China

Southeast Asia Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2009The 1st Southeast Asia Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore -
2011The 2nd Southeast Asia Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore
2013The 3rd Southeast Asia Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore
2015The 4th Southeast Asia Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore
2017The 5th Southeast Asia Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Thailand.svg  Thailand Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore

South Asian Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2012The 1nd South Asian Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Flag of India.svg  India -
2014The 2nd South Asian Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Flag of India.svg  India -
2016The 3rd South Asian Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of India.svg  India Flag of India.svg  India -

East Asian Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2016The 1st East Asian Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China -
2017The 2nd East Asian Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of South Korea.svg  South Korea

European Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2003The 1st European Tchoukball Championships Flag of Italy.svg Italy Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
2006The 2nd European Tchoukball Championships Flag of Switzerland.svg Switzerland Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
2008The 3rd European Tchoukball Championships Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
2010The 4th European Tchoukball Championships Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
2014The 5th European Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Germany.svg  Germany Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland
2016The 6th European Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland

European Youth Tchoukball Championships

Year/DatesCompetitionHost NationM-18 Boys WinnerM-15 Boys WinnerM-12 Boys WinnerM-18 Girls WinnerM-15 Girls WinnerM-12 Girls Winner
2016The 1st European Youth Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic -Flag of Austria.svg  Austria -

African Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2010The 1st African Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal
2012The 2nd African Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Togo.svg  Togo Flag of Togo.svg  Togo
2014The 3rd African Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Benin.svg  Benin Flag of Togo.svg  Togo
2016The 4th African Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Kenya.svg  Kenya Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon

East African Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2014The 1st East African Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Uganda.svg  Uganda Flag of Uganda.svg  Uganda

Pan American Tchoukball Championships

YearCompetitionHost NationMen WinnersWomen Winners
2010The 1st Pan American Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
2012The 2nd Pan American Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
2014The 3rd Pan American Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia
2016The 4th Pan American Tchoukball ChampionshipsFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay

Notable injuries

During a community match in Kingston, Ontario, Canada on February 8, 2015, tchoukball player Arthur Freitas sustained serious facial injuries. His team would go on to win the match. This is the first and only reported tchoukball-related injury.[ citation needed ]

FITB Presidents

NameNationYearsFITB headquarters
Dr Hermann BrandtFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 1971–1972 Geneva, Switzerland
Dr Théodore WereyFlag of France.svg  France 1972–1984 France
Liu ZhengfengFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 1984–1996 Taoyuan County, Republic of China
John AndrewsFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 1996–2000 United Kingdom
Michel FarveFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2000–2004 Switzerland
Daniel BushbeckFlag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 2004–2009 Geneva, Switzerland
Huang Chin ChengFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 2009–2017 Kaohsiung City, Republic of China
Fang Shen SzuFlag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China 2017–present New Taipei City, Republic of China

Notes

  1. Brandt, H., Etude scientifique des sports d’équipe, Ed. Roulet, Geneva, 1971

Associations

Related Research Articles

Basketball Team sport

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one, two or three one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Handball Olympic team sport played indoors by 7 players a side

Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores more goals wins.

Korfball Mixed gender team sport

Korfball is a ball sport, with similarities to netball and basketball. It is played by two teams of eight players with four female players and four male players in each team. The objective is to throw a ball into a netless basket that is mounted on a 3.5 m high pole.

Racquetball A racquet sport played with a hollow rubber ball in an indoor or outdoor court.

Racquetball is a racquet sport played with a hollow rubber ball on an indoor or outdoor court. Joseph Sobek is credited with inventing the modern sport of racquetball in 1950, adding a stringed racquet to paddleball in order to increase velocity and control. Unlike most racquet sports, such as tennis and badminton, there is no net to hit the ball over, and, unlike squash, no tin to hit the ball above. Also, the court's walls, floor, and ceiling are legal playing surfaces, with the exception of court-specific designated hinders being out-of-bounds.

Water polo Ballgame-team sport played in water by teams competing to put the ball into the opponents goal

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in water between two teams of 7 players each. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing team's goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of six field players and one goalkeeper. Excluding the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool so that players cannot touch the bottom.

Arena football Variant of indoor gridiron football

Arena football is a variety of eight-man gridiron football. The game is played indoors on a smaller field than American or Canadian football, designed to fit in the same surface area as a standard North American ice hockey rink, resulting in a faster and higher-scoring game that can be played on the floors of indoor arenas. The sport was invented in 1981, and patented in 1987, by Jim Foster, a former executive of the National Football League and the United States Football League. The name is trademarked by Gridiron Enterprises and had a proprietary format until its patent expired in 2007.

Canoe polo, also known as kayak polo, is one of the competitive disciplines of kayaking, known simply as "polo" by its aficionados.

Goal (sports)

In sport, a goal may refer to either an instance of scoring, or to the physical structure or area where an attacking team must send the ball or puck in order to score points. The structure of a goal varies from sport to sport, and one is placed at or near each end of the playing field for each team to defend. For many sports, each goal structure usually consists of two vertical posts, called goal posts, supporting a horizontal crossbar. A goal line marked on the playing surface between the goal posts demarcates the goal area. Thus, the objective is to send the ball or puck between the goal posts, under or over the crossbar, and across the goal line. Other sports may have other types of structures or areas where the ball or puck must pass through, such as the basketball hoop.

Wheelchair rugby

Wheelchair rugby is a team sport for athletes with a disability. It is practised in over twenty-five countries around the world and is a summer Paralympic sport.

Goalball Team sport designed for athletes with vision impairment

Goalball is a team sport designed specifically for athletes with a vision impairment. Participants compete in teams of three, and try to throw a ball that has bells embedded in it into the opponents' goal. The ball is thrown by hand and never kicked. Using ear-hand coordination, originating as a rehabilitation exercise, the sport has no able-bodied equivalent. Able-bodied athletes are also blindfolded when playing this sport.

Glossary of basketball terms Wikipedia glossary

This glossary of basketball terms is a list of definitions of terms used in the game of basketball. Like any other major sport, basketball features its own extensive vocabulary of unique words and phrases used by players, coaches, sports journalists, commentators, and fans.

Fistball

Fistball is a sport of European origin. It is similar to volleyball in that players try to hit a ball over a net. The current men's fistball World Champions are Germany, winners of both the 2015 Men's World Championships and the fistball category at the 2017 World Games, while the current women's fistball World Champions are also Germany, after winning the 2016 Women's World Championships.

Variations of basketball are games or activities based on, or similar in origin to, the game of basketball, in which the player utilizes common basketball skills. Some are essentially identical to basketball, with only minor rules changes, while others are more distant and arguably not simple variations but distinct games. Other variations include children's games, contests or activities intended to help the player practice or reinforce skills, which may or may not have a competitive aspect. Most of the variations are played in informal settings, without the presence of referees or other officials and sometimes without strict adherence to official game rules.

Several sports related to volleyball have become popular. Beach volleyball is an event at the Olympics, and sitting volleyball at the Paralympics. Other varieties are localised, or are played at an amateur or informal level.

Torball

Torball is a team sport for the blind and vision-impaired. With some similar structures in the rules in the 1980s, it is different to the Paralympic Games team sport of goalball.

Glossary of Australian rules football Wikipedia glossary

This list is an alphabetical glossary of Australian rules football terms, jargon and slang. While some of these entries are shared with other sports, Australian rules football has developed a unique and rich terminology.

An indoor cricket court is the playing area used in a game of indoor cricket. The court measures 30 metres × 12 metres, and is enclosed by tight netting 4.5 metres high. The playing surface is normally artificial grass matting, with a set of plastic spring-back stumps at each end of the pitch, each measuring 71.1 cm above the floor.

Basketball is a ball game and team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules. Since being developed by James Naismith as a non-contact game that almost anyone can play, basketball has undergone many different rule variations, eventually evolving into the NBA-style game known today. Basketball is one of the most popular and widely viewed sports in the world.

Netball is a ball sport for two teams of seven players; its rules are published in print and online by the International Netball Federation. Games are played on a rectangular court divided into thirds, with a raised goal at each short end. The objective of the game is for teams to score goals, by passing a ball and shooting it into the opposite team's goal ring. Players are assigned "positions" that define their role within the team and restrict their movement on court.

Ringball

Ringball is a traditional South African sport that stems from basketball and has been played since 1907. The sport is now promoted in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho, India, and Mauritius to establish Ringball as an international sport. The sport is played by both men and women teams.