Te Rangi Hīroa
Te Rangi Hīroa
Te Rangi Hīroa in 1927
Peter Henry Buck
c. October 1877
|Died||1 December 1951 74) (aged|
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
|Occupation||Anthropologist, politician, doctor|
Sir Peter Henry Buck– 1 December 1951), also known as Te Rangi Hīroa or Te Rangihīroa, was a New Zealand doctor, military leader, health administrator, politician, anthropologist and museum director. He was a prominent member of Ngāti Mutunga, his mother's Māori iwi.(ca. October 1877
Peter Buck was born in Urenui, New Zealand, the only child of Anglo-Irish immigrant William Henry Buck and Rina, a Māori woman. William's wife Ngarongo-ki-tua had been unable to have children and, in line with Māori custom, Rina, one of Ngarongo's relatives, became part of the household and produced a child for the couple. Rina died soon after Peter was born, and Ngarongo raised him as her own. He claimed to have been born in 1880, but the register of the primary school he attended records October 1877, which is likely to be correct.
Te Rangi Hīroa was descended on his Māori (maternal) side from the Taranaki iwi of Ngāti Mutunga. In his teens,his elders gave him the name Te Rangi Hīroa (also written Te Rangihiroa) in honour of an uncle of Ngarongo's and an earlier notable ancestor. His paternal ancestry was English and Irish. Though he was largely brought up within the Pākehā (the Maori term for non-Maori
people, Caucasian people in particular) community, Ngarongo-ki-tua and his great-aunt Kapuakore instilled a love of Māori tradition and language in him.
After Ngarongo's death in 1892 he moved with his father to the Wairarapa. In 1896 he started attending Te Aute College, a school that produced many Māori leaders of the time. In 1899 he was named Dux and passed a medical preliminary examination, entitling him to attend the University of Otago Medical School. He was later associated with the Young Māori Party.
Buck did well at Otago Medical School, where he also succeeded in sport, becoming national long jump champion in 1900 and 1903. He completed his MB ChB in 1904, and an MD six years later. During this time, in 1905, he married Irish-born Margaret Wilson. Their long marriage was often fiery, but was strong, and it was Margaret who often gave the impetus to Peter's career.
In November 1905 Buck was appointed as a medical officer to Māori, working under Māui Pōmare, initially in the southern North Island, then in the far north. Between them Pomare and Buck campaigned successfully to improve sanitation in the small Māori communities around the country.
|New Zealand Parliament|
|1909 –1911||17th||Northern Maori||Liberal|
|1911 –1914||18th||Northern Maori||Liberal|
In 1909, Hone Heke Ngapua, Member of Parliament for Northern Maori died suddenly. Buck was singled out by Native Minister James Carroll to be his replacement. Buck accepted and was elected in the subsequent by-election.He became a member of the Native Affairs Committee. He did not seek re-election to the seat in 1914, but stood for the Bay of Islands electorate, where he lost with a narrow margin. By this time, Buck had developed an interest in Pacific Island peoples, working briefly as a medical officer in both the Cook Islands and Niue during parliamentary breaks.
During the First World War, Buck helped in the recruitment of a Māori volunteer contingent. Buck joined this contingent as medical officer, travelling to the Middle East in 1915. He took part at Gallipoli, later being awarded a Distinguished Service Order for his heroism. He later saw action in France and Belgium, before being posted to the No 3 New Zealand General Hospital at Codford, England in 1918.
Returning to New Zealand, Buck was appointed as Chief Maori Medical Officer, and in 1921 was named director of the Maori Hygiene Division in the Department of Health.
Buck gained a five-year research fellowship at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, Hawaii, in 1927. At the end of the fellowship in 1932 he was appointed Bishop Museum visiting professor of anthropology at Yale University. He was promoted to Director of the Bishop Museum in 1936, a position he held until his death in 1951. He also served as a Trustee and President of the Board of Trustees of the museum.
In 1935, he was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal.In the 1946 King's Birthday Honours, Buck was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George for services to science and literature.
The Te Rangi Hiroa Medal is a social sciences award given biennially by the Royal Society of New Zealand. It is awarded for work in one of four disciplines: historical approaches to societal transformation and change; current issues in cultural diversity and cohesion; social and economic policy and development; and medical anthropology.
One of the residential colleges of the University of Otago is named Te Rangi Hīroa College in his honour.
|New Zealand Parliament|
Hone Heke Ngapua
| Member of Parliament for Northern Maori |
The Polynesian narrative or Polynesian mythology encompasses the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia, a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island archipelagos in the Polynesian Triangle together with the scattered cultures known as the Polynesian outliers. Polynesians speak languages that descend from a language reconstructed as Proto-Polynesian that was probably spoken in the Tonga - Samoa area around 1000 BC.
In Māori mythology, Rongo or Rongo-mā-Tāne is a major god (atua) of cultivated plants, especially kumara, a vital crop. Other crops cultivated by Māori in traditional times included taro, yams (uwhi), cordyline (tī), and gourds (hue). Because of their tropical origin, most of these crops were difficult to grow except in the far north of the North Island, hence the importance of Rongo in New Zealand.
Avaiki is one of the many names by which the peoples of Polynesia refer to their ancestral and spiritual homelands.
Edward Winslow Gifford devoted his life to studying California Indian ethnography as a professor of anthropology and director of the Museum of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Various Māori traditions recount how their ancestors set out from their homeland in waka hourua, great double-hulled ocean-going canoes (waka). Some of these traditions name a mythical homeland called Hawaiki.
Io Matua Kore is often understood as the supreme being in Polynesian narrative of the Māori people of New Zealand. creator of all creations, the parentless.
In Māori mythology, Tiki is the first man created by either Tūmatauenga or Tāne. He found the first woman, Marikoriko, in a pond; she seduced him and he became the father of Hine-kau-ataata. By extension, a tiki is a large or small wooden or stone carving in humanoid form, although this is a somewhat archaic usage in the Māori language. Carvings similar to tikis and coming to represent deified ancestors are found in most Polynesian cultures. They often serve to mark the boundaries of sacred or significant sites.
Elsdon Best was an ethnographer who made important contributions to the study of the Māori of New Zealand.
Rakahanga-Manihiki is a Cook Islands Maori dialectal variant belonging to the Polynesian language family, spoken by about 2500 people on Rakahanga and Manihiki Islands and another 2500 in other countries, mostly New Zealand and Australia. Wurm and Hattori consider Rakahanga-Manihiki as a distinct language with "limited intelligibility with Rarotongan". According to the New Zealand Maori anthropologist Te Rangi Hīroa who spent a few days on Rakahanga in the years 1920, "the language is a pleasing dialect and has closer affinities with [New Zealand] Maori than with the dialects of Tongareva, Tahiti, and the Cook Islands"
Kurī is the Māori name for the extinct Polynesian dog. It was introduced to New Zealand by the Polynesian ancestors of the Māori during their migration from East Polynesia in the 13th century AD. According to Māori tradition, the demigod Māui transformed his brother-in-law Irawaru into the first dog.
Dame Alice Joan Metge is a New Zealand social anthropologist, educator, lecturer and writer.
The following lists events that happened during 1877 in New Zealand.
Urenui is a settlement in northern Taranaki, in the North Island of New Zealand. It is located on State Highway 3 close to the shore of the North Taranaki Bight, 13 kilometres east of Waitara and 6 km south-west of Mimi. The Urenui River flows past the settlement into the North Taranaki Bight.
Forest Buffen Harkness Brown (1873–1954) was an American botanist known for his work on pteridophytes and spermatophytes.
The Bayard Dominick expedition was a 1920 scientific expedition to the Pacific islands of Polynesia, with four teams sent to compile archaeological and anthropological surveys of the Marquesas, Tonga, Austral Islands, and Hawaiʻi.
George Eric Oakes Ramsden (1898–1962) was a New Zealand journalist, writer and art critic. He was born in Martinborough, Wairarapa, New Zealand on 1 August 1898 and died at Wellington on 21 May 1962.
The Te Rangi Hiroa Medal is a social sciences award given by the Royal Society of New Zealand Te Apārangi. The medal was established in 1996 and is named in memory of Te Rangi Hīroa, also known as Sir Peter Buck, a New Zealand medical practitioner, anthropologist and Director of the Bishop Museum in Hawaii in the first half of the 20th century.
Arthur Johnson Eames was an American botanist who spent over 50 years as faculty member and emeritus professor of botany at Cornell University, known for his work on flower anatomy and plant morphology. He served as president of the Botanical Society of America in 1938, was a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and received an honorary LL.D. from the University of Glasgow in 1950.
Robert Thomas Aitken(June 13, 1890 – June 22, 1977) was an American anthropologist known for his work in Oceania while at the Bishop Museum in Hawaiʻi.