Te Tai Tokerau

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Te Tai Tokerau electorate boundaries since the 2002 election Te Tai Tokerau electorate, 2014.svg
Te Tai Tokerau electorate boundaries since the 2002 election

Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was held first by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.

Contents

Population centres

Te Tai Tokerau's boundaries are similar to those of the pre-Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) Northern Maori electorate. Te Tai Tokerau was created ahead of the first MMP election in 1996. In the 2002 boundary redistribution, the size of the electorate shrank to make room for an increase in the number of Māori electorates from six to seven. [1] The boundaries were not further altered in the 2007 or 2013/14 redistributions. [2] [3]

Te Tai Tokerau is the northernmost Māori electorate, and covers an area between Cape Reinga in the Far North of the North Island to a boundary cutting through West Auckland. The major population centres are Whangarei, the Bay of Islands and north and west Auckland. The electorate contains all of the Ngāpuhi, Te Aupōuri, Ngāti Kuri, Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu tribal areas, and part of Ngāti Whātua's territory (rohe).

Its analogous general electorates are East Coast Bays, North Shore, Northcote, Northland, Rodney, Te Atatū, Upper Harbour, Whangarei, most of Helensville, part of Kelston and some of the islands located within Auckland Central. [4]

History

Whangarei Whangarei Falls.jpg
Whangarei

Northern Maori had been held by the Labour Party since the 1938 election, when longstanding Reform MP Taurekareka Henare was beaten by Labour's Paraire Karaka Paikea. [5] In 1993, after 55 years of his party holding the seat, Labour MP Bruce Gregory was beaten by Henare's great grandson, Tau Henare, standing for New Zealand First, ending Labour's unbroken hold on the four Māori seats. Henare went on to win Te Tai Tokerau after the switch to MMP, and New Zealand First won all five of the newly-drawn Māori electorates.

After a tumultuous parliamentary term which saw all but one of the five New Zealand First Māori MPs defect to other parties, (including Henare himself, who went on to found Mauri Pacific), Labour won all six Māori electorates contested at the 1999 election. In Te Tai Tokerau, Tau Henare was beaten into third place behind the New Zealand First candidate and Dover Samuels, who Henare had beaten three years previous.

However, Labour's losing the five Māori electorates in 1996 showed that the Māori vote was contestable for the first time in five decades, as the new electoral system coupled with the rise of small parties meant that non-Labour candidacy in these seats was more feasible than under First Past the Post.

The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy of 2004–05 proved to be the catalyst for the second challenge to Labour party domination of the Māori electorates, this time from the Māori Party. At the 2005 election, Samuels and three other Labour Māori MPs lost their seats to Māori Party challengers. In Te Tai Tokerau, the winner was Hone Harawira. [6] [7]

Harawira resigned from the Māori Party in early 2011 and became an independent MP. On 11 May 2011, he resigned from Parliament effective 20 May, seeking a mandate for his new party, the Mana Party. [8] [9] This caused the 25 June 2011 by-election, which was contested by five parties, with the main contenders Harawira, Kelvin Davis (Labour Party) and Solomon Tipene (Māori Party). Harawira retained the electorate with a majority of 1,117, [10] his previous majority being over 6,000. [11] In the 2011 general election some months later, Harawira had a similar majority to Davis. [12]

The Mana Party formed a coalition with the Internet Party just prior to the 2014 New Zealand general election. The coalition was registered with the Electoral Commission as the Internet Party and Mana Movement in July 2014, allowing it to contest the party vote. [13] The Internet Party was founded by controversial online millionaire Kim Dotcom, and this strategic coalition resulted in Harawira's main opponent, Labour's Kelvin Davis, getting endorsements from Winston Peters of New Zealand First [14] and the Prime Minister, John Key of the National Party. [15] Even the electorate's candidate for the Māori Party, Te Hira Paenga, reminded voters of the importance of strategic voting. [16] In his fourth challenge in the Te Tai Tokerau electorate, Davis ousted the incumbent Harawira, which ended the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament. [17]

Members of Parliament

Key

  NZ First     Labour     Māori     Mana   

ElectionWinner
1996 election Tau Henare
1999 election Dover Samuels
2002 election
2005 election Hone Harawira
2008 election
2011 by-election
2011 election
2014 election Kelvin Davis
2017 election
2020 election

List MPs

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested Te Tai Tokerau. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

ElectionWinner
1996 election Joe Hawke
2005 election Dover Samuels
2008 election Kelvin Davis 1
2014

1Kelvin Davis also contested the 2011 by-election, and re-entered Parliament on 23 May 2014 following Shane Jones' resignation.

Election results

2020 election

2020 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [18]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Kelvin Davis 14,93255.07+2.4716,69260.06+2.26
Māori Mariameno Kapa-Kingi6,76824.962,82810.183.72
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert2,1317.86+3.777912.85+1.77
Public Billy Te Kahika 1,3494.98
ONE Janice Arahanga-Epiha4331.602841.02
New Conservative Daniel Shortland2961.091080.39+0.33
Independent Clinton Dearlove2650.98
Independent Moemoea Mohoawhenua1290.48
Green  2,0447.35+1.32
NZ First  1,9747.10–4.00
National  1,0023.61–3.80
Advance NZ  7712.77
ACT  3631.31+1.15
Opportunities  2791.00–1.31
Vision NZ  1410.51
Outdoors  250.09+0.04
Sustainable NZ  90.03
Heartland  30.01
Social Credit  30.01–0.009
TEA  10.004
Informal votes812474
Total Valid votes27,11527,792
Labour holdMajority8,16430.11+10.16

2017 election

2017 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [19]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Kelvin Davis 12,67352.60+8.7014,44657.80+22.73
Mana Hone Harawira 7,86632.65-7.881,4555.82-12.71
Green Godfrey James Rudolph1,9588.13-1,5836.33-3.61
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert9864.09-2691.08-0.02
NZ First  2,77511.10-3.29
National  1,8517.41-1.05
Māori  1,6156.46+5.19
Opportunities  5772.31-
ACT  410.160.00
People's Party  400.16-
Ban 1080  210.080.00
Conservative  140.06-0.62
Outdoors  120.05-
Internet  50.02-18.51
United Future  50.02-0.14
Democrats  10.001-0.049
Informal votes610223
Total Valid votes24,09324,993
Labour holdMajority4,80719.95+16.58

2014 election

2014 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [20]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Kelvin Davis 9,71243.90+6.808,03435.07+0.42
Mana Red x.svgN Hone Harawira 8,96940.53-2.78
Māori Te Hira Paenga2,57911.65-4.962,30010.04-1.12
Independent Clinton Dearlove4542.05+2.05
Internet Mana  4,24618.53+18.53
NZ First  3,29614.39+4.53
Green  2,2789.94+1.33
National  1,9388.46-0.71
Legalise Cannabis  2541.10-1.88
Conservative  1540.67+0.15
Focus  450.20+0.20
ACT  370.16-0.07
United Future  180.08-0.01
Ban 1080  190.08+0.08
Independent Coalition  160.07+0.07
Democrats  110.05+0.04
Civilian  50.02+0.02
Informal votes418257
Total Valid votes22,13222,908
Labour gain from Mana Majority7433.36-2.85

2011 election

2011 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [21]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Mana Green check.svgY Hone Harawira 8,12143.31-18.6414,84424.49+24.49
Labour Kelvin Davis 6,95637.10+7.666,85534.65-10.98
Māori Waihoroi Shortland3,11416.61-45.3512,20811.16-19.61
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert5592.98-1.082291.16+0.08
NZ First  1,9509.86+2.44
National  1,8149.17-0.17
Green  1,7048.61+5.10
Conservative  1020.52+0.52
ACT  460.23-0.32
United Future  170.09-0.03
Libertarianz  60.03+0.01
Alliance  50.03±0.00
Democrats  20.01+0.01
Informal votes912473
Total Valid votes18,75019,782
Mana holdMajority1,1656.21-26.30

1Swings against both Harawira (Mana Party) and Shortland (Māori Party) are calculated against Harawira's Māori Party vote in 2008

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 33,797 [22]

2011 by-election

2011 Te Tai Tokerau by-election

Notes: Blue background denotes the winner of the by-election.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list prior to the by-election.
Yellow background denotes the winner of the by-election, who was a list MP prior to the by-election.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Mana Green check.svgY Hone Harawira 6,06549.28
Labour Kelvin Davis 4,94840.20
Māori Solomon Tipene1,0878.83
Legalise Cannabis Maki Herbert1351.10
OurNZ Kelvyn Alp 720.59
Informal votes32
Total Valid votes12,307
Mana gain from Māori Majority1,1179.08

2008 election

2008 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [23]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Māori Green check.svgY Hone Harawira 12,01961.95+9.546,20430.77-0.27
Labour Kelvin Davis 5,71129.44-3.979,20045.63-3.70
Legalise Cannabis Judy Daniels7884.06+1.052181.08+0.44
ACT Peter Tashkoff6803.511120.56+0.31
Hapu PartyDavid Rankin2021.04
National  1,8839.34-4.33
NZ First  1,4957.41-0.45
Green  7093.52-0.83
Family Party  1080.54
Progressive  740.37-0.01
Bill and Ben  740.37
Kiwi  320.16
United Future  240.12-0.29
RAM  100.05
Pacific  60.03
Alliance  50.02-0.01
Libertarianz  50.02±0
Workers Party  30.01
Democrats  10.00
RONZ  00.00-0.03
Informal votes530292
Total Valid votes19,40020,163
Māori holdMajority6,30832.52+13.52


2005 election

2005 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [7]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Māori Hone Harawira 9,96552.416,15131.00
Labour Red x.svgN Dover Samuels 6,35233.41-16.999,78849.33+2.10
Independent Mangu Mere1,2506.57-9.56
Destiny Ernest Morton6643.49800.40
Legalise Cannabis Judy Daniels5743.011260.64-1.73
Independent Hana Maxwell2071.09
NZ First  1,5597.86-12.63
National  9945.01-0.85
Green  5332.69-8.67
United Future  810.41-1.74
Progressive  710.36-1.01
ACT  490.25-1.18
99 MP  330.17
Christian Heritage  180.09-1.81
Family Rights  170.09
Democrats  100.05
Alliance  60.03-3.64
RONZ  60.03
One NZ  50.03-0.01
Direct Democracy  30.02
Libertarianz  30.02
Informal votes554234
Total Valid votes19,01219,842
Turnout 20,70669.79+11.13
Māori gain from Labour Majority3,61319.00

2002 election

2002 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Green check.svgY Dover Samuels 7,86850.40+3.087,64647.23-4.36
Independent Maryann Mangu2,53216.22
Alliance Rangimarie Naida Glavish 1,92612.34+5.255943.67-2.99
National Mita Whare Harris1,0186.52+1.986744.16-2.32
Independent Michael John Smith8225.27
Christian Heritage Michael Norman6254.00+1.963081.90
Progressive Petera Kamira4282.742221.37
New GenerationTe Kaiarahi Hui3081.97
Quality of LifeIvan Erstich830.53
NZ First  3,31820.49+4.76
Green  1,83911.36+5.62
Mana Māori  5313.28
Legalise Cannabis  3842.37
United Future  3482.15
ACT  2311.43+0.48
ORNZ  810.50
NMP  70.04
One NZ  70.04
Informal votes484189
Total Valid votes15,61016,190
Turnout 16,56258.66
Labour holdMajority5,33634.18

1999 election

1999 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [25] [26]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
Labour Dover Samuels 8,58347.329,40351.59
NZ First Anaru George2,89115.942,86815.73
Mauri Pacific Red x.svgN Tau Henare 2,78115.33746
Alliance Ella Henry1,2867.091,2146.66
National Tom Bowling Murray8244.541,1826.48
Christian Heritage James Clendon Prime3702.04282
ACT Nellie Rata2801.541740.95
Independent Kingi Eruera Taurua2661.47
Mana Wahine Mere Rawiri-Tau2571.42
Piri Wiri Tua Te Kaiarahi Hui2071.14
Independent Dun Mihaka 1871.03
Independent Marama Netana1040.57
Freedom MovementAtareta Kapa Hills1020.5643
Green  1,0465.74
Legalise Cannabis  553
Mana Māori  494
Future NZ  89
Animals First  36
One NZ  22
NMP  17
Libertarianz  16
McGillicuddy Serious  16
People's Choice Party 9
United NZ  90.05
Natural Law  5
Republican  4
South Island  0
Total Valid votes18,13818,228
Labour gain from Mauri Pacific Majority5,69231.38

1996 election

1996 general election: Te Tai Tokerau [27] [28] [29]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A Green check.svgY or Red x.svgN denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

PartyCandidateVotes%±%Party votes%±%
NZ First Tau Henare 12,82660.439,64445.38
Labour Joe Hawke 4,40820.776,17629.06
Alliance Peter Campbell1,4686.921,8188.55
National Rihari Dargaville9314.391,4266.71
Independent Maryanne Baker7403.49
Indigenous PeoplesKingi Taurua3701.74
Christian Coalition Larry Sutherland2991.413801.79
McGillicuddy Serious K. T. Julian990.47370.17
Natural Law Mary Austin840.40250.12
Legalise Cannabis  7353.46
Mana Māori  5922.79
ACT  2381.12
Progressive Green 540.25
Animals First  350.16
Green Society 300.14
Te Tawharau 220.10
United NZ  190.09
Advance New Zealand 60.03
Superannuitants & Youth 60.03
Conservatives 40.02
Libertarianz  30.01
Ethnic Minority Party 20.01
Asia Pacific United 00.00
Informal votes262235
Total Valid votes21,22521,252
NZ First win new seatMajority8,41839.66

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