Te Tai Tokerau is a New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorate that was created out of the Northern Maori electorate ahead of the first Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) election in 1996. It was first held by Tau Henare representing New Zealand First for one term, and then Dover Samuels of the Labour Party for two terms. From 2005 to 2014, it was held by MP Hone Harawira. Initially a member of the Māori Party, Harawira resigned from both the party and then Parliament, causing the 2011 by-election. He was returned under the Mana Party banner in July 2011 and confirmed at the November 2011 general election. In the 2014 election, he was beaten by Labour's Kelvin Davis, ending the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
In New Zealand politics, Māori electorates, colloquially known as the Māori seats, are a special category of electorate that gives reserved positions to representatives of Māori in the New Zealand Parliament. Every area in New Zealand is covered by both a general and a Māori electorate; there are currently seven Māori electorates. Since 1967 candidates in Māori electorates have not needed to be Māori themselves, but to register as a voter in the Māori electorates people need to declare they are of Māori descent.
Northern Maori was one of the four original New Zealand parliamentary Māori electorates, from 1868 to 1996.
Te Tai Tokerau's boundaries are similar to those of the pre-Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) Northern Maori electorate. Te Tai Tokerau was created ahead of the first MMP election in 1996. In the 2002 boundary redistribution, the size of the electorate shrank to make room for an increase in the number of Māori electorates from six to seven.The boundaries were not further altered in the 2007 or 2013/14 redistributions.
Mixed-member proportional (MMP) representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, and one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, and secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received. The constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting (FPTP) or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both.
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.
Te Tai Tokerau is the northernmost Māori electorate, and covers an area between Cape Reinga in the Far North of the North Island to a boundary cutting through West Auckland. The major population centres are Whangarei, the Bay of Islands and north and west Auckland. The electorate contains all of the Ngāpuhi, Te Aupōuri, Ngāti Kuri, Te Rarawa and Ngāti Kahu tribal areas, and part of Ngāti Whātua's territory (rohe).
Cape Reinga / Te Rerenga Wairua (Māori) is the northwesternmost tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, at the northern end of the North Island of New Zealand. Cape Reinga is more than 100 km north of the nearest small town of Kaitaia. State Highway 1 extends all the way to the cape, but until 2010 was unsealed gravel road for the last 19 km. Suitable vehicles can also travel much of the way via Ninety Mile Beach and Kauaeparaoa Stream stream bed.
The Far North District is the northernmost territorial authority district of New Zealand, consisting of the northern part of the Northland Peninsula in the North Island. It stretches from North Cape and Cape Reinga in the north, down to the Bay of Islands, the Hokianga and the town of Kaikohe.
The North Island, also officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres (43,911 sq mi), making it the world's 14th-largest island. It has a population of 3,749,200.
Its analogous general electorates are East Coast Bays, North Shore, Northcote, Northland, Rodney, Te Atatū, Upper Harbour, Whangarei, most of Helensville, part of Kelston and some of the islands located within Auckland Central.
East Coast Bays is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It was first formed in 1972 and has existed apart from a break lasting two parliamentary terms. The electorate has been held by Erica Stanford of the National Party since the 2017 general election.
North Shore is a parliamentary electorate that returns one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. The current MP for North Shore is Maggie Barry of the National Party.
Northcote is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. Currently, the MP for Northcote is Dan Bidois of the National Party, who won the seat at the Northcote by-election.
Northern Maori had been held by the Labour Party since the 1938 election, when longstanding Reform MP Taurekareka Henare was beaten by Labour's Paraire Karaka Paikea.In 1993, after 55 years of his party holding the seat, Labour MP Bruce Gregory was beaten by Henare's great grandson, Tau Henare, standing for New Zealand First, ending Labour's unbroken hold on the four Māori seats. Henare went on to win Te Tai Tokerau after the switch to MMP, and New Zealand First won all five of the newly-drawn Māori electorates.
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. The party's platform programme describes its founding principle as democratic socialism, while observers describe Labour as social-democratic and pragmatic in practice. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance.
The 1938 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 26th term. It resulted in the governing Labour Party being re-elected, although the newly founded National Party gained a certain amount of ground.
The Reform Party, formally the New Zealand Political Reform League, was New Zealand's second major political party, having been founded as a conservative response to the original Liberal Party. It was in government between 1912 and 1928, and later formed a coalition with the United Party, and then merged with United to form the modern National Party.
After a tumultuous parliamentary term which saw all but one of the five New Zealand First Māori MPs defect to other parties, (including Henare himself, who went on to found Mauri Pacific), Labour won all six Māori electorates contested at the 1999 election. In Te Tai Tokerau, Tau Henare was beaten into third place behind the New Zealand First candidate and Dover Samuels, who Henare had beaten three years previous.
The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1996 election, and it sat until the 1999 election.
Mauri Pacific was a short-lived political party in New Zealand. It was formed in 1998 by five former members of the New Zealand First party. It has often been described as a Māori party. Officially, Mauri Pacific was a multiculturalist party, welcoming anyone who supported racial and cultural harmony. Three of its five MPs were Māori, and two were Pākehā.
The 1999 New Zealand general election was held on 27 November 1999 to determine the composition of the 46th New Zealand Parliament. The governing National Party, led by Prime Minister Jenny Shipley, was defeated, being replaced by a coalition of Helen Clark's Labour Party and the smaller Alliance. This marked an end to nine years of National Party government, and the beginning of the Fifth Labour Government of New Zealand which would govern for 9 years, until its loss to the National Party in the 2008 general election.
However, Labour's losing the five Māori electorates in 1996 showed that the Māori vote was contestable for the first time in five decades, as the new electoral system coupled with the rise of small parties meant that non-Labour candidacy in these seats was more feasible than under First Past the Post.
The New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy of 2004–05 proved to be the catalyst for the second challenge to Labour party domination of the Māori electorates, this time from the Māori Party. At the 2005 election, Samuels and three other Labour Māori MPs lost their seats to Māori Party challengers. In Te Tai Tokerau, the winner was Hone Harawira.
Harawira resigned from the Māori Party in early 2011 and became an independent MP. On 11 May 2011, he resigned from Parliament effective 20 May, seeking a mandate for his new party, the Mana Party.This caused the 25 June 2011 by-election, which was contested by five parties, with the main contenders Harawira, Kelvin Davis (Labour Party) and Solomon Tipene (Māori Party). Harawira retained the electorate with a majority of 1,117, his previous majority being over 6,000. In the 2011 general election some months later, Harawira had a similar majority to Davis.
The Mana Party formed a coalition with the Internet Party just prior to the 2014 New Zealand general election. The coalition was registered with the Electoral Commission as the Internet Party and Mana Movement in July 2014, allowing it to contest the party vote.The Internet Party was founded by controversial online millionaire Kim Dotcom, and this strategic coalition resulted in Harawira's main opponent, Labour's Kelvin Davis, getting endorsements from Winston Peters of New Zealand First and the Prime Minister, John Key of the National Party. Even the electorate's candidate for the Māori Party, Te Hira Paenga, reminded voters of the importance of strategic voting. In his fourth challenge in the Te Tai Tokerau electorate, Davis ousted the incumbent Harawira, which ended the representation of the Mana Party in Parliament.
NZ First Labour Māori Mana
|1996 election||Tau Henare|
|1999 election||Dover Samuels|
|2005 election||Hone Harawira|
|2014 election||Kelvin Davis|
Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested Te Tai Tokerau. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.
|1996 election||Joe Hawke|
|2005 election||Dover Samuels|
|2008 election||Kelvin Davis 1|
1Kelvin Davis also contested the 2011 by-election
|2017 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Green||Godfrey James Rudolph||1,958||8.13||-||1,583||6.33||-3.61|
|Legalise Cannabis||Maki Herbert||986||4.09||-||269||1.08||-0.02|
|Total Valid votes||24,093||24,993|
|2014 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Māori||Te Hira Paenga||2,579||11.65||-4.96||2,300||10.04||-1.12|
|Total Valid votes||22,132||22,908|
|Labour gain from Mana||Majority||743||3.36||-2.85|
|2011 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
|Legalise Cannabis||Maki Herbert||559||2.98||-1.08||229||1.16||+0.08|
|Total Valid votes||18,750||19,782|
1Swings against both Harawira (Mana Party) and Shortland (Māori Party) are calculated against Harawira's Māori Party vote in 2008
Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 33,797
|2011 Te Tai Tokerau by-election|
Notes: Blue background denotes the winner of the by-election.
|Legalise Cannabis||Maki Herbert||135||1.10|
|Total Valid votes||12,307|
|Mana gain from Māori||Majority||1,117||9.08|
|2008 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
|Legalise Cannabis||Judy Daniels||788||4.06||+1.05||218||1.08||+0.44|
|Hapu Party||David Rankin||202||1.04|
|Bill and Ben||74||0.37|
|Total Valid votes||19,400||20,163|
|2005 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
|Legalise Cannabis||Judy Daniels||574||3.01||126||0.64||-1.73|
|Total Valid votes||19,012||19,842|
|Māori gain from Labour||Majority||3,613||19.00|
|2002 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
|Alliance||Rangimarie Naida Glavish||1,926||12.34||+5.25||594||3.67||-2.99|
|National||Mita Whare Harris||1,018||6.52||+1.98||674||4.16||-2.32|
|Independent||Michael John Smith||822||5.27|
|Christian Heritage||Michael Norman||625||4.00||+1.96||308||1.90|
|New Generation||Te Kaiarahi Hui||308||1.97|
|Quality of Life||Ivan Erstich||83||0.53|
|Total Valid votes||15,610||16,190|
|1999 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
|NZ First||Anaru George||2,891||15.94||2,868||15.73|
|National||Tom Bowling Murray||824||4.54||1,182||6.48|
|Christian Heritage||James Clendon Prime||370||2.04||282|
|Independent||Kingi Eruera Taurua||266||1.47|
|Mana Wahine||Mere Rawiri-Tau||257||1.42|
|Piri Wiri Tua||Te Kaiarahi Hui||207||1.14|
|Freedom Movement||Atareta Kapa Hills||102||0.56||43|
|People's Choice Party||9|
|Total Valid votes||18,138||18,228|
|Labour gain from Mauri Pacific||Majority||5,692||31.38|
|1996 general election: Te Tai Tokerau|
|NZ First||Tau Henare||12,826||60.43||9,644||45.38|
|Indigenous Peoples||Kingi Taurua||370||1.74|
|Christian Coalition||Larry Sutherland||299||1.41||380||1.79|
|McGillicuddy Serious||K. T. Julian||99||0.47||37||0.17|
|Natural Law||Mary Austin||84||0.40||25||0.12|
|Advance New Zealand||6||0.03|
|Superannuitants & Youth||6||0.03|
|Ethnic Minority Party||2||0.01|
|Asia Pacific United||0||0.00|
|Total Valid votes||21,225||21,252|
|NZ First win new seat||Majority||8,418||39.66|
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The 2011 Te Tai Tokerau by-election was a by-election in the New Zealand electorate of Te Tai Tokerau that was caused by Hone Harawira's resignation from the seat. He chose to re-contest it with the Mana Party in order to seek a new mandate for his views. After generating several days of media interest and criticism Harawira announced on 4 May 2011 that he was delaying his resignation in order to consult his supporters in his electorate. On 11 May 2011 Harawira wrote to the Speaker of the House to resign from Parliament, with effect from 20 May 2011. On 12 May 2011 the Prime Minister John Key announced that the by-election would be held on 25 June.