Tehsil

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A tehsil (Hindustani pronunciation:  [tɛɦsiːl] , also known as tahsil, taluka, or taluk) is a local unit of administrative division in some countries of South Asia. It is a subdistrict of the area within a district including the designated populated place that serves as its administrative centre, with possible additional towns, and usually a number of villages. [1] The terms in India have replaced earlier terms, such as pargana ( pergunnah ) and thana . [2]

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In Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, a newer unit called mandal (circle) has come to replace the system of tehsils. It is generally smaller than a tehsil, and is meant for facilitating local self-government in the panchayat system. [3] In West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, community development blocks are the empowered grassroots administrative unit, replacing tehsils.

As an entity of local government, the tehsil office (panchayat samiti) exercises certain fiscal and administrative power over the villages and municipalities within its jurisdiction. It is the ultimate executive agency for land records and related administrative matters. The chief official is called the tehsildar or, less officially, the talukdar or taluka muktiarkar. Taluk or tehsil can be considered sub-districts in the Indian context. In some instances, tehsils overlap with "blocks" (panchayat union blocks or panchayat development blocks) and come under the land and revenue department, headed by the tehsildar; and blocks come under the rural development department, headed by the block development officer and serve different government administrative functions over the same or similar geographical area. [4]

Although they may on occasion share the same area with a subdivision of a revenue division, known as revenue blocks, the two are distinct. For example, Raipur district in Chhattisgarh state is administratively divided into 13 tehsils and 15 revenue blocks. [5] Nevertheless, the two are often conflated.

Background

India, as a vast country, is subdivided into many states and union territories for administrative purposes. Further divisions of these states are known as districts. These districts (jilla/zilla) are again divided into many subdivisions, viz tehsils or talukas. These subdivisions are again divided into gram panchayats or village panchayaths. [6] Initially, this was done for collecting land revenue and administration purposes. But now these subdivisions are governed in tandem with other departments of government like education, agriculture, irrigation, health, police, etc. The different departments of state government generally have offices at tehsil or taluka level to facilitate good governance and to provide facilities to common people easily.[ citation needed ]

Nomenclature

In India, the term tehsil is commonly used in all northern states. In Maharashtra, Gujarat, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, taluka or taluk is more common. [7] In Eastern India, instead of tehsils, the term Subdivisions are used in Bihar, Assam, Jharkhand, and West Bengal, as well as large parts of Northeast India. In Arunachal Pradesh, they are called circles.

Tehsil/tahsil and taluka/taluk and the variants are used as English words without further translation. Since these terms are unfamiliar to English speakers outside the subcontinent, the word county has sometimes been provided as a gloss, on the basis that a tehsil, like a county, is an administrative unit hierarchically above the local city, town, or village, but subordinate to a larger state or province. India and Pakistan have an intermediate level of hierarchy (or more than one, at least in parts of India): the district, also sometimes translated as county. In neither case is the analogy very exact.

Organization setup

Tehsildar is the chief or key government officer of each tehsil or taluka. [8] In some states different nomenclature like talukdar, mamledar, amaldar, mandal officer is used. In many states of India, the tehsildar works as a magistrate. Each taluka will have an office called taluka office or tehsil office or tehsildar office at a designated place within taluka area known as taluka headquarters. Tehsildar is the incharge of taluka office. This is similar to district office or district collector at district level.

Throughout India, there is a three-tier local body/Panchayati Raj system within the state. At the top is the jilla/zilla panchayat (parishad). Taluka/Mandal Panchayat/Community Development Block is the second layer of this system and below them are the gram panchayats or village panchayats. These panchayats at all three levels have elected members from eligible voters of particular subdivisions. These elected members form the bodies which help the administration in policy-making, development works, and bringing grievances of the common public to the notice of the administration.

Nayabat is the lower part of tehsil which have some powers like tehsil. It can be understood as tehsil is the sub-district of a district, similarly, Nayabat is the sub-tehsil of a tehsil. [9]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Pargana or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj, is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent and each Parganas may or may not subdivided into some pirs. Those revinue units are used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms. After independence the Parganas became equivalent to Block/ Tahsil and Pirs became Grampanchayat.

Panchayat samiti is a rural local government (panchayat) body at the intermediate tehsil (taluka/mandal) level in India. It works for the villages of the tehsil that together are called a development block. It has been said to be the "panchayat of panchayats".

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In India and Pakistan, a Tehsildar or Mamlatdar is a tax officer accompanied by revenue inspectors. They are in charge of obtaining taxes from a tehsil with regard to land revenue. A tehsildar is also known as an executive magistrate of the relevant tehsil. The immediate subordinate of a tehsildar is known as a naib tehsildar. This is akin to an additional deputy commissioner.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Community development block</span> Town area earmarked for administration and development in India

In India, a Community development block or simply Block is a sub-division of Tehsil, administratively earmarked for planning and development. The area is administered by a Block Development Officer (BDO), supported by several technical specialists and village-level workers. A community development block covers several gram panchayats, the local administrative units at the village level.

Revenue blocks, revenue circles, firka, or patwar circles are the local revenue sub-divisions of the various districts of the states of India. These blocks should not be confused with the similar Panchayath union blocks (Blocks) and taluks. The revenue blocks exist to simplify local administration, and each consists of a small number of revenue villages, governed by a Revenue Inspector. The Revenue Inspector is charged with a number of key administrative roles, most notably the identification and collection of tax revenue. Sometimes the land area in a revenue circle is identified as an ILRC for administrative purposes. While Revenue blocks may be as large as or larger than a tehsil, revenue circles are generally smaller. In the state of Tamil Nadu alone, there are 1,349 revenue blocks.

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Udgir Taluka, officially known as, Udayagiri Taluka, is a taluka and administrative subdivision of Latur District in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The administrative center for the taluka is the town of Udgir. In the 2011 census there were eighty-seven panchayat villages in Udgir Taluka.

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The Zila Panchayat or District Development Council or Mandal Parishad or District Panchayat is the third tier of the Panchayati Raj system and functions at the district levels in all states. A Zila Parishad is an elected body. Block Pramukh of Block Panchayat are also represented in Zila Parishad. The members of the State Legislature and the members of the Parliament of India are members of the Zila Parishad. The Zila paris and acts as the link between the state government and the village-level Gram Panchayat.


The Block Pramukh (president) of Panchayat samiti is a tier of the Panchayati raj system. It is a rural local government body at the Tehsil (taluka) level in India. It works for the villages of the tehsil that together are called a development block. The Panchayat Samiti is the link between the gram panchayat and the zila parishad. There are a number of variations in the name of this institution in the various states. For example, it is known as Kshetra Panchayat in Uttar Pradesh, Mandal Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka Panchayat in Gujarat, Block Panchayat in Kerala and Mandal Panchayat in Karnataka.

References

  1. "tehsil". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on March 22, 2020.
  2. Dutt, Ashok K.; Noble, Allen G.; Costa, Frank J.; Thakur, Sudhir K.; Thakur, Rajiv; Sharma, Hari S. (15 October 2015). Spatial Diversity and Dynamics in Resources and Urban Development: Volume 1: Regional Resources. Springer. ISBN   9789401797719 via Google Books.
  3. Rajiv Balakrishnan (2007), Participatory Pathways: People's Participation in Development Initiatives, Pearson Education India, pp. 65–, ISBN   978-81-317-0034-1
  4. Sharma, A. K. (2012). Population and Society. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 53. ISBN   978-81-8069-818-7. The main purpose of the census is to provide data on size and composition of population of India and its geographic divisions, i.e., population of different states and union territories, districts, blocks and villages.
  5. Rahman, Syed Amanur, ed. (2006). The Beautiful India: Chhatisgarh. New Delhi: Reference Press. p. 34]. ISBN   978-81-8405-017-2.
  6. "class six civics pacnhayati raj". www.excellup.com.
  7. "taluk". dictionary.com. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  8. "Notes On Rural Administration - Tamilnadu board Class 6 Civics". www.nextgurukul.in. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  9. "Complete List of New Administrative Units". Greater Kashmir. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2020.