Telugu script

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Telugu script
Telugu in Suranna font.png
Type
Languages Telugu
Sanskrit
Gondi language
Time period
c. 900 CE–present [1]
Parent systems
Sister systems
Kannada
Sinhala
Dhives akuru
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924 Telu, 340
Unicode alias
Telugu
U+0C00–U+0C7F
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

Telugu script (Telugu : తెలుగు లిపి, translit.  Telugu lipi), an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the South Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language. It gained prominence during the Eastern Chalukyas also known as Vengi Chalukya era. It shares extensive similarities with the Kannada script, as it has evolved from Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family. Both Adikavi Pampa of Kannada and Adikavi Nannayya of Telugu hail from families native to the Vengi region.

Telugu language Dravidian language

Telugu is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and the union territories of Puducherry (Yanam) by the Telugu people. It stands alongside Hindi, English and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. There are also significant linguistic minorities in neighbouring states. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.

There are several systems for romanization of the Telugu script.

Abugida writing system

An abugida, or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary. This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional. The terms also contrast them with a syllabary, in which the symbols cannot be split into separate consonants and vowels. Abugidas include the extensive Brahmic family of scripts of South and Southeast Asia, Semitic Ethiopic scripts, and Canadian Aboriginal syllabics.

Contents

Derivation from the Brahmi script

The Brahmi script used by Mauryan kings eventually reached the Krishna River delta and would give rise to the Bhattiprolu script found on an urn purported to contain Lord Buddha's relics. [2] [3] Buddhism spread to East Asia from the nearby ports of Ghantasala and Masulipatnam (ancient Maisolos of Ptolemy and Masalia of Periplus). [4] The Bhattiprolu Brahmi script evolved to become the Telugu script by 5th century C.E. [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Krishna River third longest river in central−southern India

The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra. The river is almost 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) long. The river is also called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

Buddhism World religion, founded by the Buddha

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada and Mahayana.

East Asia Subregion of Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, and South Korea.

The Muslim historian and scholar Al-Biruni referred to both the Telugu language as well as its script as "Andhri". [12]

Al-Biruni 11th-century Persian scholar and polymath

Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm – a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, and northern Turkmenistan.

Vowels

Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant. Vowels vary in quality, in loudness and also in quantity (length). They are usually voiced, and are closely involved in prosodic variation such as tone, intonation and stress. Vowel sounds are produced with an open vocal tract. The word vowel comes from the Latin word vocalis, meaning "vocal". In English, the word vowel is commonly used to refer both to vowel sounds and to the written symbols that represent them.

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek διακριτικός, from διακρίνω. Diacritic is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters.

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. It is typically made up of a syllable nucleus with optional initial and final margins. Syllables are often considered the phonological "building blocks" of words. They can influence the rhythm of a language, its prosody, its poetic metre and its stress patterns. Speech can usually be divided up into a whole number of syllables: for example, the word ignite is composed of two syllables: ig and nite.

IndependentWith క (k) ISO IPA IndependentWith క (k) ISO IPA
a/a/కాā/aː/
కిi/i/కీī/iː/
కుu/u/కూū/uː/
కృ/ru/కౄr̥̄/ruː/
కౢ/alu/కౣl̥̄/alu:/
కెe/e/కేē/eː/
కైai/aj/కొo/o/
కోō/oː/కౌau/aw/
అంకంఅఃకః

The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). అ does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to that of the vowel.

Examples:

ఖ + ఈ (ీ) → ఖీ/kʰa/ + /iː//kʰiː/
జ + ఉ (ు) → జు/dʒa/ + /u//dʒu/

Consonants

Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA Character ISO IPA
k/k/kh/kʰ/g/ɡ/gh/ɡʱ//ŋ/
c/tʃ/ch/tʃʰ/j/dʒ/jh/dʒʱ/ñ/ɲ/
/ʈ/ṭh/ʈʰ//ɖ/ḍh/ɖʱ//ɳ/
t/t/th/tʰ/d/d/dh/dʱ/n/n/
p/p/ph/pʰ/b/b/bh/bʱ/m/m/
y/j/r/r/l/l/v/ʋ//ɭ/
ś/ʃ//ʂ/s/s/h/h//ɽ/

Other diacritics

There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. and nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.

Virama is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, including Devanagari and Bengali script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter. The name is Sanskrit for "cessation, termination, end". As a Sanskrit word, it is used in place of several language-specific terms, such as halant ; halant, hoshonto ; ; ; halantu ; pulli, chandrakkala or viraamam ; halanta ; halanta ; halant ; a that ; karan ; and pangkon . In Devanagari and many other Indic scripts, a virama is used to cancel the inherent vowel of a consonant letter and represent a consonant without a vowel, a "dead" consonant. For example, in Devanagari,

  1. क is a consonant letter, ka,
  2. ् is a virama; therefore,
  3. क् represents a dead consonant k.

Anusvara is a diacritic dot used to mark a type of nasal sound and used in a number of Indic scripts. It is typically transliterated ⟨ṃ⟩. Depending on the location of the anusvara in the word and the language for which it is used, its exact pronunciation can vary.

Chandrabindu is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle. It is used in the Devanagari (ँ), Bengali (ঁ), Gujarati (ઁ), Oriya (ଁ), Telugu (ఁ), Javanese ( ꦀ) and other scripts.

Character ISO Character ISO Character ISO Character ISO
అంaṁఅఁan̆అఃaḥక్k

Examples:

క + ్ → క్   [ka] + [∅][k]
క + ఁ → కఁ[ka] + [n][kan̆]
క + ం → కం[ka] + [m][kaṁ]
క + ః → కః[ka] + [h][kaḥ]

Places of articulation

There are five classifications of passive articulations:

Kaṇṭhya: Velar
Tālavya: Palatal
Mūrdhanya: Retroflex
Dantya: Dental
Ōshtya: Labial

Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five:

Dantōsthya: Labio-dental (E.g.: v)
Kantatālavya: E.g.: Diphthong e
Kantōsthya: labial-velar (E.g.: Diphthong o)

There are three places of active articulation:

Jihvāmūlam: tongue root, for velar
Jihvāmadhyam: tongue body, for palatal
Jihvāgram: tip of tongue, for cerebral and dental
Adhōṣṭa: lower lip, for labial

The attempt of articulation of consonants (Uccāraṇa Prayatnam) is of two types,

Bāhya Prayatnam: External effort
Spṛṣṭa: Plosive
Īshat Spṛṣṭa: Approximant
Īshat Saṃvṛta: Fricative
Abhyantara Prayatnam: Internal effort
Alpaprānam: Unaspirated
Mahāprānam: Aspirated
Śvāsa: Unvoiced
Nādam: Voiced

Articulation of consonants

Articulation of consonants is be logical combination of components in the two prayatnams. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.

Telugu Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika [13]
Prayatna Niyamāvalī Kanthya
(jihvāmūlam)
Tālavya
(jihvāmadhyam)
Mūrdhanya
(jihvāgram)
Dantya
(jihvāgram)
Dantōṣṭya Ōshtya
(adhōsta)
Sparśa , Śvāsa, Alpaprānam ka (క)ca (చ)ṭa (ట)ta (త)pa (ప)
Sparśa , Śvāsa, Mahāprānam kha (ఖ)cha (ఛ)ṭha (ఠ)tha (థ)pha (ఫ)
Sparśa , Nāda, Alpaprānam ga (గ)ja (జ)ḍa (డ)da (ద)ba (బ)
Sparśa , Nāda, Mahāprānam gha (ఘ)jha (ఝ)ḍha (ఢ)dha (ధ)bha (భ)
Sparśa , Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhata
ṅa (ఙ)ña (ఞ)ṇa (ణ)na (న)ma (మ)
Antastha , Nādam, Alpaprāṇam,
Drava, Avyāhata
ya (య)ra (ర)
(Lunthita)
la (ల)
(Pārśvika)
va (వ)
Ūṣman , Śvāsa, Mahāprāṇam, Avyāhata Visarga śa (శ)ṣa (ష)sa (స)
Ūshman , Nādam, Mahāprānam, Avyāhata ha (హ)

Consonant conjuncts

The Telugu script has generally regular conjuncts, with trailing consonants taking a subjoined form, often losing the tallakattu (the v-shaped headstroke). The following table shows all two-consonant and one three-consonant conjunct, but individual conjuncts may differ between fonts.

క్ష
క్కక్ఖక్గక్ఘక్ఙక్చక్ఛక్జక్ఝక్ఞక్టక్ఠక్డక్ఢక్ణక్తక్థక్దక్ధక్నక్పక్ఫక్బక్భక్మక్యక్రక్లక్వక్శక్షక్సక్హక్ళక్క్షక్ఱ
ఖ్కఖ్ఖఖ్గఖ్ఘఖ్ఙఖ్చఖ్ఛఖ్జఖ్ఝఖ్ఞఖ్టఖ్ఠఖ్డఖ్ఢఖ్ణఖ్తఖ్థఖ్దఖ్ధఖ్నఖ్పఖ్ఫఖ్బఖ్భఖ్మఖ్యఖ్రఖ్లఖ్వఖ్శఖ్షఖ్సఖ్హఖ్ళఖ్క్షఖ్ఱ
గ్కగ్ఖగ్గగ్ఘగ్ఙగ్చగ్ఛగ్జగ్ఝగ్ఞగ్టగ్ఠగ్డగ్ఢగ్ణగ్తగ్థగ్దగ్ధగ్నగ్పగ్ఫగ్బగ్భగ్మగ్యగ్రగ్లగ్వగ్శగ్షగ్సగ్హగ్ళగ్క్షగ్ఱ
ఘ్కఘ్ఖఘ్గఘ్ఘఘ్ఙఘ్చఘ్ఛఘ్జఘ్ఝఘ్ఞఘ్టఘ్ఠఘ్డఘ్ఢఘ్ణఘ్తఘ్థఘ్దఘ్ధఘ్నఘ్పఘ్ఫఘ్బఘ్భఘ్మఘ్యఘ్రఘ్లఘ్వఘ్శఘ్షఘ్సఘ్హఘ్ళఘ్క్షఘ్ఱ
ఙ్కఙ్ఖఙ్గఙ్ఘఙ్ఙఙ్చఙ్ఛఙ్జఙ్ఝఙ్ఞఙ్టఙ్ఠఙ్డఙ్ఢఙ్ణఙ్తఙ్థఙ్దఙ్ధఙ్నఙ్పఙ్ఫఙ్బఙ్భఙ్మఙ్యఙ్రఙ్లఙ్వఙ్శఙ్షఙ్సఙ్హఙ్ళఙ్క్షఙ్ఱ
చ్కచ్ఖచ్గచ్ఘచ్ఙచ్చచ్ఛచ్జచ్ఝచ్ఞచ్టచ్ఠచ్డచ్ఢచ్ణచ్తచ్థచ్దచ్ధచ్నచ్పచ్ఫచ్బచ్భచ్మచ్యచ్రచ్లచ్వచ్శచ్షచ్సచ్హచ్ళచ్క్షచ్ఱ
ఛ్కఛ్ఖఛ్గఛ్ఘఛ్ఙఛ్చఛ్ఛఛ్జఛ్ఝఛ్ఞఛ్టఛ్ఠఛ్డఛ్ఢఛ్ణఛ్తఛ్థఛ్దఛ్ధఛ్నఛ్పఛ్ఫఛ్బఛ్భఛ్మఛ్యఛ్రఛ్లఛ్వఛ్శఛ్షఛ్సఛ్హఛ్ళఛ్క్షఛ్ఱ
జ్కజ్ఖజ్గజ్ఘజ్ఙజ్చజ్ఛజ్జజ్ఝజ్ఞజ్టజ్ఠజ్డజ్ఢజ్ణజ్తజ్థజ్దజ్ధజ్నజ్పజ్ఫజ్బజ్భజ్మజ్యజ్రజ్లజ్వజ్శజ్షజ్సజ్హజ్ళజ్క్షజ్ఱ
ఝ్కఝ్ఖఝ్గఝ్ఘఝ్ఙఝ్చఝ్ఛఝ్జఝ్ఝఝ్ఞఝ్టఝ్ఠఝ్డఝ్ఢఝ్ణఝ్తఝ్థఝ్దఝ్ధఝ్నఝ్పఝ్ఫఝ్బఝ్భఝ్మఝ్యఝ్రఝ్లఝ్వఝ్శఝ్షఝ్సఝ్హఝ్ళఝ్క్షఝ్ఱ
ఞ్కఞ్ఖఞ్గఞ్ఘఞ్ఙఞ్చఞ్ఛఞ్జఞ్ఝఞ్ఞఞ్టఞ్ఠఞ్డఞ్ఢఞ్ణఞ్తఞ్థఞ్దఞ్ధఞ్నఞ్పఞ్ఫఞ్బఞ్భఞ్మఞ్యఞ్రఞ్లఞ్వఞ్శఞ్షఞ్సఞ్హఞ్ళఞ్క్షఞ్ఱ
ట్కట్ఖట్గట్ఘట్ఙట్చట్ఛట్జట్ఝట్ఞట్టట్ఠట్డట్ఢట్ణట్తట్థట్దట్ధట్నట్పట్ఫట్బట్భట్మట్యట్రట్లట్వట్శట్షట్సట్హట్ళట్క్షట్ఱ
ఠ్కఠ్ఖఠ్గఠ్ఘఠ్ఙఠ్చఠ్ఛఠ్జఠ్ఝఠ్ఞఠ్టఠ్ఠఠ్డఠ్ఢఠ్ణఠ్తఠ్థఠ్దఠ్ధఠ్నఠ్పఠ్ఫఠ్బఠ్భఠ్మఠ్యఠ్రఠ్లఠ్వఠ్శఠ్షఠ్సఠ్హఠ్ళఠ్క్షఠ్ఱ
డ్కడ్ఖడ్గడ్ఘడ్ఙడ్చడ్ఛడ్జడ్ఝడ్ఞడ్టడ్ఠడ్డడ్ఢడ్ణడ్తడ్థడ్దడ్ధడ్నడ్పడ్ఫడ్బడ్భడ్మడ్యడ్రడ్లడ్వడ్శడ్షడ్సడ్హడ్ళడ్క్షడ్ఱ
ఢ్కఢ్ఖఢ్గఢ్ఘఢ్ఙఢ్చఢ్ఛఢ్జఢ్ఝఢ్ఞఢ్టఢ్ఠఢ్డఢ్ఢఢ్ణఢ్తఢ్థఢ్దఢ్ధఢ్నఢ్పఢ్ఫఢ్బఢ్భఢ్మఢ్యఢ్రఢ్లఢ్వఢ్శఢ్షఢ్సఢ్హఢ్ళఢ్క్షఢ్ఱ
ణ్కణ్ఖణ్గణ్ఘణ్ఙణ్చణ్ఛణ్జణ్ఝణ్ఞణ్టణ్ఠణ్డణ్ఢణ్ణణ్తణ్థణ్దణ్ధణ్నణ్పణ్ఫణ్బణ్భణ్మణ్యణ్రణ్లణ్వణ్శణ్షణ్సణ్హణ్ళణ్క్షణ్ఱ
త్కత్ఖత్గత్ఘత్ఙత్చత్ఛత్జత్ఝత్ఞత్టత్ఠత్డత్ఢత్ణత్తత్థత్దత్ధత్నత్పత్ఫత్బత్భత్మత్యత్రత్లత్వత్శత్షత్సత్హత్ళత్క్షత్ఱ
థ్కథ్ఖథ్గథ్ఘథ్ఙథ్చథ్ఛథ్జథ్ఝథ్ఞథ్టథ్ఠథ్డథ్ఢథ్ణథ్తథ్థథ్దథ్ధథ్నథ్పథ్ఫథ్బథ్భథ్మథ్యథ్రథ్లథ్వథ్శథ్షథ్సథ్హథ్ళథ్క్షథ్ఱ
ద్కద్ఖద్గద్ఘద్ఙద్చద్ఛద్జద్ఝద్ఞద్టద్ఠద్డద్ఢద్ణద్తద్థద్దద్ధద్నద్పద్ఫద్బద్భద్మద్యద్రద్లద్వద్శద్షద్సద్హద్ళద్క్షద్ఱ
ధ్కధ్ఖధ్గధ్ఘధ్ఙధ్చధ్ఛధ్జధ్ఝధ్ఞధ్టధ్ఠధ్డధ్ఢధ్ణధ్తధ్థధ్దధ్ధధ్నధ్పధ్ఫధ్బధ్భధ్మధ్యధ్రధ్లధ్వధ్శధ్షధ్సధ్హధ్ళధ్క్షధ్ఱ
న్కన్ఖన్గన్ఘన్ఙన్చన్ఛన్జన్ఝన్ఞన్టన్ఠన్డన్ఢన్ణన్తన్థన్దన్ధన్నన్పన్ఫన్బన్భన్మన్యన్రన్లన్వన్శన్షన్సన్హన్ళన్క్షన్ఱ
ప్కప్ఖప్గప్ఘప్ఙప్చప్ఛప్జప్ఝప్ఞప్టప్ఠప్డప్ఢప్ణప్తప్థప్దప్ధప్నప్పప్ఫప్బప్భప్మప్యప్రప్లప్వప్శప్షప్సప్హప్ళప్క్షప్ఱ
ఫ్కఫ్ఖఫ్గఫ్ఘఫ్ఙఫ్చఫ్ఛఫ్జఫ్ఝఫ్ఞఫ్టఫ్ఠఫ్డఫ్ఢఫ్ణఫ్తఫ్థఫ్దఫ్ధఫ్నఫ్పఫ్ఫఫ్బఫ్భఫ్మఫ్యఫ్రఫ్లఫ్వఫ్శఫ్షఫ్సఫ్హఫ్ళఫ్క్షఫ్ఱ
బ్కబ్ఖబ్గబ్ఘబ్ఙబ్చబ్ఛబ్జబ్ఝబ్ఞబ్టబ్ఠబ్డబ్ఢబ్ణబ్తబ్థబ్దబ్ధబ్నబ్పబ్ఫబ్బబ్భబ్మబ్యబ్రబ్లబ్వబ్శబ్షబ్సబ్హబ్ళబ్క్షబ్ఱ
భ్కభ్ఖభ్గభ్ఘభ్ఙభ్చభ్ఛభ్జభ్ఝభ్ఞభ్టభ్ఠభ్డభ్ఢభ్ణభ్తభ్థభ్దభ్ధభ్నభ్పభ్ఫభ్బభ్భభ్మభ్యభ్రభ్లభ్వభ్శభ్షభ్సభ్హభ్ళభ్క్షభ్ఱ
మ్కమ్ఖమ్గమ్ఘమ్ఙమ్చమ్ఛమ్జమ్ఝమ్ఞమ్టమ్ఠమ్డమ్ఢమ్ణమ్తమ్థమ్దమ్ధమ్నమ్పమ్ఫమ్బమ్భమ్మమ్యమ్రమ్లమ్వమ్శమ్షమ్సమ్హమ్ళమ్క్షమ్ఱ
య్కయ్ఖయ్గయ్ఘయ్ఙయ్చయ్ఛయ్జయ్ఝయ్ఞయ్టయ్ఠయ్డయ్ఢయ్ణయ్తయ్థయ్దయ్ధయ్నయ్పయ్ఫయ్బయ్భయ్మయ్యయ్రయ్లయ్వయ్శయ్షయ్సయ్హయ్ళయ్క్షయ్ఱ
ర్కర్ఖర్గర్ఘర్ఙర్చర్ఛర్జర్ఝర్ఞర్టర్ఠర్డర్ఢర్ణర్తర్థర్దర్ధర్నర్పర్ఫర్బర్భర్మర్యర్రర్లర్వర్శర్షర్సర్హర్ళర్క్షర్ఱ
ల్కల్ఖల్గల్ఘల్ఙల్చల్ఛల్జల్ఝల్ఞల్టల్ఠల్డల్ఢల్ణల్తల్థల్దల్ధల్నల్పల్ఫల్బల్భల్మల్యల్రల్లల్వల్శల్షల్సల్హల్ళల్క్షల్ఱ
వ్కవ్ఖవ్గవ్ఘవ్ఙవ్చవ్ఛవ్జవ్ఝవ్ఞవ్టవ్ఠవ్డవ్ఢవ్ణవ్తవ్థవ్దవ్ధవ్నవ్పవ్ఫవ్బవ్భవ్మవ్యవ్రవ్లవ్వవ్శవ్షవ్సవ్హవ్ళవ్క్షవ్ఱ
శ్కశ్ఖశ్గశ్ఘశ్ఙశ్చశ్ఛశ్జశ్ఝశ్ఞశ్టశ్ఠశ్డశ్ఢశ్ణశ్తశ్థశ్దశ్ధశ్నశ్పశ్ఫశ్బశ్భశ్మశ్యశ్రశ్లశ్వశ్శశ్షశ్సశ్హశ్ళశ్క్షశ్ఱ
ష్కష్ఖష్గష్ఘష్ఙష్చష్ఛష్జష్ఝష్ఞష్టష్ఠష్డష్ఢష్ణష్తష్థష్దష్ధష్నష్పష్ఫష్బష్భష్మష్యష్రష్లష్వష్శష్షష్సష్హష్ళష్క్షష్ఱ
స్కస్ఖస్గస్ఘస్ఙస్చస్ఛస్జస్ఝస్ఞస్టస్ఠస్డస్ఢస్ణస్తస్థస్దస్ధస్నస్పస్ఫస్బస్భస్మస్యస్రస్లస్వస్శస్షస్సస్హస్ళస్క్షస్ఱ
హ్కహ్ఖహ్గహ్ఘహ్ఙహ్చహ్ఛహ్జహ్ఝహ్ఞహ్టహ్ఠహ్డహ్ఢహ్ణహ్తహ్థహ్దహ్ధహ్నహ్పహ్ఫహ్బహ్భహ్మహ్యహ్రహ్లహ్వహ్శహ్షహ్సహ్హహ్ళహ్క్షహ్ఱ
ళ్కళ్ఖళ్గళ్ఘళ్ఙళ్చళ్ఛళ్జళ్ఝళ్ఞళ్టళ్ఠళ్డళ్ఢళ్ణళ్తళ్థళ్దళ్ధళ్నళ్పళ్ఫళ్బళ్భళ్మళ్యళ్రళ్లళ్వళ్శళ్షళ్సళ్హళ్ళళ్క్షళ్ఱ
క్షక్ష్కక్ష్ఖక్ష్గక్ష్ఘక్ష్ఙక్ష్చక్ష్ఛక్ష్జక్ష్ఝక్ష్ఞక్ష్టక్ష్ఠక్ష్డక్ష్ఢక్ష్ణక్ష్తక్ష్థక్ష్దక్ష్ధక్ష్నక్ష్పక్ష్ఫక్ష్బక్ష్భక్ష్మక్ష్యక్ష్రక్ష్లక్ష్వక్ష్శక్ష్షక్ష్సక్ష్హక్ష్ళక్ష్క్షక్ష్ఱ
ఱ్కఱ్ఖఱ్గఱ్ఘఱ్ఙఱ్చఱ్ఛఱ్జఱ్ఝఱ్ఞఱ్టఱ్ఠఱ్డఱ్ఢఱ్ణఱ్తఱ్థఱ్దఱ్ధఱ్నఱ్పఱ్ఫఱ్బఱ్భఱ్మఱ్యఱ్రఱ్లఱ్వఱ్శఱ్షఱ్సఱ్హఱ్ళఱ్క్షఱ్ఱ

Consonant + vowel ligatures

అఁఅంఅఃNo Vowel
కాకికీకుకూకృకౄకౢకౣకెకేకైకొకోకౌకఁకంకఃక్
ఖాఖిఖీఖుఖూఖృఖౄఖౢఖౣఖెఖేఖైఖొఖోఖౌఖఁఖంఖఃఖ్
గాగిగీగుగూగృగౄగౢగౣగెగేగైగొగోగౌగఁగంగఃగ్
ఘాఘిఘీఘుఘూఘృఘౄఘౢఘౣఘెఘేఘైఘొఘోఘౌఘఁఘంఘఃఘ్
ఙాఙిఙీఙుఙూఙృఙౄఙౢఙౣఙెఙేఙైఙొఙోఙౌఙఁఙంఙఃఙ్
చాచిచీచుచూచృచౄచౢచౣచెచేచైచొచోచౌచఁచంచఃచ్
ఛాఛిఛీఛుఛూఛృఛౄఛౢఛౣఛెఛేఛైఛొఛోఛౌఛఁఛంఛఃఛ్
జాజిజీజుజూజృజౄజౢజౣజెజేజైజొజోజౌజఁజంజఃజ్
ఝాఝిఝీఝుఝూఝృఝౄఝౢఝౣఝెఝేఝైఝొఝోఝౌఝఁఝంఝఃఝ్
ఞాఞిఞీఞుఞూఞృఞౄఞౢఞౣఞెఞేఞైఞొఞోఞౌఞఁఞంఞఃఞ్
టాటిటీటుటూటృటౄటౢటౣటెటేటైటొటోటౌటఁటంటఃట్
ఠాఠిఠీఠుఠూఠృఠౄఠౢఠౣఠెఠేఠైఠొఠోఠౌఠఁఠంఠఃఠ్
డాడిడీడుడూడృడౄడౢడౣడెడేడైడొడోడౌడఁడండఃడ్
ఢాఢిఢీఢుఢూఢృఢౄఢౢఢౣఢెఢేఢైఢొఢోఢౌఢఁఢంఢఃఢ్
ణాణిణీణుణూణృణౄణౢణౣణెణేణైణొణోణౌణఁణంణఃణ్
తాతితీతుతూతృతౄతౢతౣతెతేతైతొతోతౌతఁతంతఃత్
థాథిథీథుథూథృథౄథౢథౣథెథేథైథొథోథౌథఁథంథఃథ్
దాదిదీదుదూదృదౄదౢదౣదెదేదైదొదోదౌదఁదందఃద్
ధాధిధీధుధూధృధౄధౢధౣధెధేధైధొధోధౌధఁధంధఃధ్
నానినీనునూనృనౄనౢనౣనెనేనైనొనోనౌనఁనంనఃన్
పాపిపీపుపూపృపౄపౢపౣపెపేపైపొపోపౌపఁపంపఃప్
ఫాఫిఫీఫుఫూఫృఫౄఫౢఫౣఫెఫేఫైఫొఫోఫౌఫఁఫంఫఃఫ్
బాబిబీబుబూబృబౄబౢబౣబెబేబైబొబోబౌబఁబంబఃబ్
భాభిభీభుభూభృభౄభౢభౣభెభేభైభొభోభౌభఁభంభఃభ్
మామిమీముమూమృమౄమౢమౣమెమేమైమొమోమౌమఁమంమఃమ్
యాయియీయుయూయృయౄయౢయౣయెయేయైయొయోయౌయఁయంయఃయ్
రారిరీరురూరృరౄరౢరౣరెరేరైరొరోరౌరఁరంరఃర్
లాలిలీలులూలృలౄలౢలౣలెలేలైలొలోలౌలఁలంలఃల్
వావివీవువూవృవౄవౢవౣవెవేవైవొవోవౌవఁవంవఃవ్
శాశిశీశుశూశృశౄశౢశౣశెశేశైశొశోశౌశఁశంశఃశ్
షాషిషీషుషూషృషౄషౢషౣషెషేషైషొషోషౌషఁషంషఃష్
సాసిసీసుసూసృసౄసౢసౣసెసేసైసొసోసౌసఁసంసఃస్
హాహిహీహుహూహృహౄహౢహౣహెహేహైహొహోహౌహఁహంహఃహ్
ళాళిళీళుళూళృళౄళౢళౣళెళేళైళొళోళౌళఁళంళఃళ్
క్షక్షాక్షిక్షీక్షుక్షూక్షృక్షౄక్షౢక్షౣక్షెక్షే క్షైక్షొక్షోక్షౌక్షఁక్షంక్షఃక్ష్
ఱాఱిఱీఱుఱూఱృఱౄఱౢఱౣఱెఱేఱైఱొఱోఱౌఱఁఱంఱఃఱ్

Numerals

0123456789
04142434016116216316

NOTE: , , and are used also for 164, 264, 364, 11024, etc. and , , and are also used for 1256, 2256, 3256, 14096, etc. [14]

Unicode

Telugu script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Telugu is U+0C00U+0C7F:

Telugu [1] [2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
 0123456789ABCDEF
U+0C0x
U+0C1x
U+0C2x
U+0C3xి
U+0C4x
U+0C5x
U+0C6x
U+0C7x౿
Notes
1. ^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2. ^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

In contrast to a syllabic script such as katakana, where one Unicode code point represents the glyph for one syllable, Telugu combines multiple code points to generate the glyph for one syllable, using complex font rendering rules. [15] [16]

iOS character crash bug

On February 12, 2018 a bug in the iOS operating system was reported that caused iOS devices to crash if a particular Telugu character was displayed. [17] [18] The character is a combination of the characters "జ", "్", "ఞ", "ా" and The Zero-Width Non-Joiner character which looks combined like this "జ్ఞా". An incorrect handling of the Zero-Width Non-Joiner separator while combining the characters seems to be the cause of the Telugu bug. [19] Apple confirmed a fix for iOS 11.3 and macOS 10.13.4. [20]

See also

Related Research Articles

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

The Kannada script is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada script. The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intellegibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script, and Old Peguan script (used in Burma).

Gujarati script alphabet

The Gujarati script is an abugida used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of the Devanagari script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a number of modifications to some characters.

The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphasyllabary writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ. They are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India, and are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, and Tai. They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana.

The Burmese alphabet is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is ultimately a Brahmic script adapted from either the Kadamba or Pallava alphabet of South India, and more immediately an adaptation of Old Mon or Pyu script. The Burmese alphabet is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit.

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded.

The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit. With some modifications, the script is also used to write the Sasak language, used in the neighboring island of Lombok. The script is a descendant of the Brahmi script, and so has many similarities with the modern scripts of South and Southeast Asia. The Balinese script, along with the Javanese script, is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.

The Batak script, natively known as surat Batak, surat na sampulu sia, or si-sia-sia, is a writing system used to write the Austronesian Batak languages spoken by several million people on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The script may be derived from the Kawi and Pallava script, ultimately derived from the Brahmi script of India, or from the hypothetical Proto-Sumatran script influenced by Pallava.

Tamil script abugida script

The Tamil script is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet. Certain minority languages such as Saurashtra, Badaga, Irula, and Paniya are also written in the Tamil script.

Odia script Historic Brahmic script

The Odia script is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.

The Limbu script is used to write the Limbu language. It is a Brahmic type abugida.

Yi script Script used to write Yi peoples language

The Yi script is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi, and the later Yi Syllabary. The script is also historically known in Chinese as Cuan Wen or Wei Shu and various other names (夷字、倮語、倮倮文、畢摩文), among them "tadpole writing" (蝌蚪文).

Secondary articulation occurs when the articulation of a consonant is equivalent to the combined articulations of two or three simpler consonants, at least one of which is an approximant. The secondary articulation of such co-articulated consonants is the approximant-like articulation. It "colors" the primary articulation rather than obscuring it. Maledo (2011) defines secondary articulation as the superimposition of lesser stricture upon a primary articulation.

Lepcha script

The Lepcha script, or Róng script, is an abugida used by the Lepcha people to write the Lepcha language. Unusually for an abugida, syllable-final consonants are written as diacritics.

Bhattiprolu script Variant of the Brahmi script

The Bhattiprolu script is a variant of the Brahmi script which has been found in old inscriptions at Bhattiprolu, a small village in Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, South India. It is located in the fertile Krishna river delta and the estuary region where the river meets the Bay of Bengal.

Bengali alphabet abugida used in writing Bengali and Assamese

The Bengali or Bangla alphabet is the alphabet used to write the Bengali language and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal. It is quite similar to the Assamese alphabet and other alphabets based on the Bengali–Assamese script.

Clip fonts or split fonts are non-Unicode fonts that assign glyphs of Brahmic scripts, such as Devanagari, at code positions intended for glyphs of the Latin script or to produce glyphs not found in Unicode by using its Private Use Area (PUA).

Kha is the second consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, kha is derived from the Brahmi letter , which is probably derived from the Aramaic ("Q").

Ga is the third consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, ga is derived from the Brahmi letter , which is probably derived from the Aramaic after having gone through the Gupta letter .

References

  1. Campbell, George. "Concise Compendium of the World's Languages" . Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  2. Antiquity of Telugu language and script: http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/stories/2007122054820600.htm
  3. Ananda Buddha Vihara Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  4. The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India-【佛学研究网】 佛教文化网 中国佛教网 中国佛学网 佛教信息网 佛教研究 佛学讲座 禅学讲座 吴言生说禅
  5. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, p. 228
  6. Murthy, K.N.; Rao, G.U. "4.5 Telugu Script" (PDF).
  7. Indiain Epigraphy: a guide to the study of inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the other Indo-Aryan languages, by Richard Solomon, Oxford University Press, 1998, p.40, ISBN   0-19-509984-2
  8. Indian Epigraphy by Dineschandra Sircar, Motilal Banarsidass, 1996, p.46, ISBN   81-208-1166-6
  9. The Dravidian Languages by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, 2003, Cambridge University Press, pp.78-79, ISBN   0-521-77111-0
  10. Comparative Dravidian linguistics: Current perspectives by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN   0-19-824122-4
  11. K. iRaghunath Bhat, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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