Teos of Egypt

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Djedhor, better known as Teos (Ancient Greek : Τέως) or Tachos (Ancient Greek : Τάχως), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 30th Dynasty.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh ruler of Ancient Egypt

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

Contents

Biography

A son of his predecessor Nectanebo I, Teos was his co-regent for three years [5] before ascending to the throne in 361/0 BCE.

Nectanebo I Egyptian pharaoh

Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth.

A coregency or co-principality is the situation where a monarchical position, normally held by only a single person, is held by two or more. It is to be distinguished from diarchies or duumvirates such as ancient Sparta and Rome, or contemporary Andorra, where monarchical power is formally divided between two rulers.

Expedition against Persians

Nectanebo's success in the Nile Delta against the invading Persian armies in 374/3 BCE encouraged Teos to start to plan a military expedition into Palestine and Phoenicia, which were territories controlled by the Persians. Taking advantage of a moment of weakness for the Achaemenid Empire due to riots in some satrapies in Asia Minor, Teos sought assistance from both the octogenarian king Agesilaus II of Sparta and the Athenian general Chabrias, including a number of mercenaries and 200 triremes, from Greece. [6] However, to finance such an expedition, Teos had to impose new taxes and to expropriate the goods of the temples, destroying the delicate balance artfully established by his father Nectanebo. This action ensured to Teos both the required finances and a great unpopularity. [7] [8] [9]

Nile Delta delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River drains into the Mediterranean Sea

The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of the world's largest river deltas—from Alexandria in the west to Port Said in the east, it covers 240 km (150 mi) of Mediterranean coastline and is a rich agricultural region. From north to south the delta is approximately 160 km (99 mi) in length. The Delta begins slightly down-river from Cairo.

Palestine (region) geographical region in the Middle East

Palestine is a geographic region in Western Asia usually considered to include Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and in some definitions, some parts of western Jordan.

Phoenicia ancient Semitic civilization

Phoenicia was a thalassocratic, ancient Semitic-speaking Mediterranean civilization that originated in the Levant, specifically Lebanon, in the west of the Fertile Crescent. Scholars generally agree that it was centered on the coastal areas of Lebanon and included northern Israel, and southern Syria reaching as far north as Arwad, but there is some dispute as to how far south it went, the furthest suggested area being Ashkelon. Its colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean, such as Cádiz in Spain and most notably Carthage in North Africa, and even the Atlantic Ocean. The civilization spread across the Mediterranean between 1500 BC and 300 BC.

Athenian General Chabrias (left) with Spartan king Agesilaus (center), in the service of Egyptian king Nectanebo I and his regent Teos, Egypt 361 BCE. Agesilas in Egypt 361 BCE.jpg
Athenian General Chabrias (left) with Spartan king Agesilaus (center), in the service of Egyptian king Nectanebo I and his regent Teos, Egypt 361 BCE.

The operation against the Persians started with Chabrias as the admiral of the fleet, Agesilaus as the commander of the Greek mercenaries and Teos' nephew Nakhthorheb as the leader of the machimoi (Diodorus Siculus, certainly exaggerating, claimed that the machimoi were 80,000 in number [10] ). Teos placed himself in the supreme command of the expedition (the position claimed by Agesilaus) leaving his brother Tjahapimu, the father of Nakhthorheb, in Egypt as his regent. The expedition made its way to Phoenicia without particular problems. [11] [9]

Machimoi low-ranked armed warriors of Ancient Egypt

The term Máchimoi commonly refers to a broad category of ancient Egyptian low-ranked soldiers which rose during the Late Period of Egypt and, more prominently, during the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Diodorus Siculus Greek historiographer

Diodorus Siculus or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian. He is known for writing the monumental universal history Bibliotheca historica, much of which survives, between 60 and 30 BC. It is arranged in three parts. The first covers mythic history up to the destruction of Troy, arranged geographically, describing regions around the world from Egypt, India and Arabia to Greece and Europe. The second covers the Trojan War to the death of Alexander the Great. The third covers the period to about 60 BC. Bibliotheca, meaning 'library', acknowledges that he was drawing on the work of many other authors.

Tjahapimu Egyptian prince, general and regent

Tjahapimu or Tjahepimu, was an ancient Egyptian prince, general and regent during the 30th Dynasty.

Betrayal and end

Unfortunately for Teos, his brother Tjahapimu was plotting against him. Taking advantage of Teos' unpopularity, and with the support of the priestly classes, Tjahapimu convinced his son Nakhthorheb to rebel against Teos and to make himself pharaoh. Nakhthorheb persuaded Agesilaus to join his side by taking advantage of the several disagreements that had arisen between the Spartan king and the pharaoh. Nakhthorheb was acclaimed pharaoh – better known today as Nectanebo II – and the betrayed Teos had no alternative but to flee to Susa, the court of his enemies. [11] [9]

Nectanebo II Egyptian pharaoh

Nectanebo II, ruled in 360—342 BC was the third and last pharaoh of the Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt as well as the last native ruler of ancient Egypt.

Susa ancient city in Iran

Susa was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The site now "consists of three gigantic mounds, occupying an area of about one square kilometer, known as the Apadana mound, the Acropolis mound, and the Ville Royale mound."

Knowledge of the final fate of Teos comes from the inscription by a noble called Wennefer, who also participated in Teos' unfortunate expedition as a physician. Wennefer was sent by Nectanebo II in search of Teos and managed to have him held by the Persian king Artaxerxes II at Susa. Wennefer then had Teos brought back with him in chains to the Egyptian pharaoh. [8]

Artaxerxes II of Persia King of Persia from 404 to 358 BC

Artaxerxes II Mnemon was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis.

Sources

  1. Lloyd 1994, p. 358.
  2. Depuydt 2006, p. 270.
  3. Late Period Dynasty 30: Teos accessed January 22, 2007
  4. Dodson & Hilton 2004.
  5. Lloyd 1994, p. 341.
  6. Lloyd 1994, pp. 348–349.
  7. Lloyd 1994, p. 343.
  8. 1 2 Wilkinson 2010, pp. 457–59.
  9. 1 2 3 Grimal 1992, pp. 377–378.
  10. Lloyd 1994, p. 342.
  11. 1 2 Lloyd 1994, p. 341; 349.

Bibliography

Depuydt, Leo (2006). "Saite and Persian Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC". In Hornung, Erik; Krauss, Rolf; Warburton, David A. Ancient Egyptian Chronology. Brill, Leiden/Boston. pp. 265–283. ISBN   978 90 04 11385 5.
Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan (2004). The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN   0-500-05128-3.
Grimal, Nicolas (1992). A History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell Books. ISBN   9780631174721.
Lloyd, Alan B. (1994). "Egypt, 404–322 B.C.". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, John; Hornblower, Simon; et al. The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. VI – The Fourth Century B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 337–360. ISBN   0 521 23348 8.
Wilkinson, Toby (2010). The Rise and Fall of Ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN   978 1 4088 10026.
Preceded by
Nectanebo I
Pharaoh of Egypt
Thirtieth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Nectanebo II

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