Tepeyac

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A view of Tepeyac Hill Capilla del Cerrito Tepeyac.JPG
A view of Tepeyac Hill

Tepeyac or the Hill of Tepeyac, historically known by the names "Tepeyacac" and "Tepeaquilla", is located inside Gustavo A. Madero, the northernmost delegación or borough of Mexico City. According to the Catholic tradition, it is the site where Saint Juan Diego met the Virgin of Guadalupe in December 1531, and received the iconic image of the Lady of Guadalupe. The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe located there is one of the most visited Catholic shrines in the world. Spanish colonists erected a Catholic chapel at the site, Our Lady of Guadalupe, "the place of many miracles." [1] :363

Borough An administrative division in some English-speaking countries

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.

Mexico City Capital City in Mexico, Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Saint one who has been recognized for having an exceptional degree of holiness, sanctity, and virtue

A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the context and denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Oriental Orthodox, and Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation; official ecclesiastical recognition, and consequently veneration, is given to some saints through the process of canonization in the Catholic Church or glorification in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Pre-Columbian history

Tepeyac Hill "had been a place for worshipping Aztec earth goddesses." [2] Tepeyac is believed to have been a Pre-Columbian worship site for the indigenous mother goddess Tonantzin Coatlaxopeuh ("Tonantzin" is a title of the greatest respect and "Coatlaxopeuh" is a name).

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continent, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

Indigenous peoples Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region

Indigenous peoples, also known as First peoples, Aboriginal peoples or Native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original owners and caretakers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are usually described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture that is associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region (sedentary) or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are generally historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate zone and continent of the world.

Goddess feminine or female deity

A goddess is a female deity. Goddesses have been linked with virtues such as beauty, love, motherhood and fertility. They have also been associated with ideas such as war, creation, and death.

Etymology

In Nahuatl, Tepeyacac is a proper noun, a combination of tepetl ("mountain"), yacatl ("nose"), and the relational word -c, ("at"). According to scholars of the Nahuatl language, "The term would generally be expected to mean 'a settlement on the ridge or brow of a hill.' Since yacatl (the nose going first) often implies antecedence, here the word may refer to the fact that the hill is the first and most prominent of a series of three." [3]

Nahuatl, known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico.

See also

Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe church build in 1976

The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe is a Roman Catholic church, basilica, and National shrine of Mexico in the north of Mexico City which houses the cloak containing the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The 1709 shrine was built near the hill of Tepeyac, where the Virgin Mary is believed to have appeared to Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. The basilica structure which now contains Diego's cloak was completed in 1974.

El Tepeyac National Park

El Tepeyac National Park is one of a number of federally recognized national parks in Mexico that are protected natural areas and administered by the federal National Commission of Protected Natural Areas (CONANP), a subsidiary of SEMARNAT. It is one of the few green areas located north of the Mexico City suburbs. 95% of its territory is located in Gustavo A. Madero, D.F. Borough and 5% in the municipality of Tlalnepantla de Baz.

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Our Lady of Guadalupe title of the Virgin Mary associated with a celebrated pictorial image housed in the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in México City

Our Lady of Guadalupe, also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe, is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a Marian apparition and a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. The basilica is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, and the world's third most-visited sacred site. Pope Leo XIII granted the venerated image a Canonical Coronation on 12 October 1895.

In classical Aztec mythology and among present-day Nahuas, Tonantzin is the title of an Aztec mother goddess.

Bernardino de Sahagún Spanish mesoamericanist

Bernardino de Sahagún was a Franciscan friar, missionary priest and pioneering ethnographer who participated in the Catholic evangelization of colonial New Spain. Born in Sahagún, Spain, in 1499, he journeyed to New Spain in 1529. He learned Nahuatl and spent more than 50 years in the study of Aztec beliefs, culture and history. Though he was primarily devoted to his missionary task, his extraordinary work documenting indigenous worldview and culture has earned him the title as “the first anthropologist." He also contributed to the description of the Aztec language Nahuatl. He translated the Psalms, the Gospels, and a catechism into Nahuatl.

Metro Deportivo 18 de Marzo Mexico City metro station

Metro Deportivo 18 de Marzo is a station on the Mexico City Metro. It is located in Mexico City's Gustavo A. Madero borough.

Luis Laso de la Vega Mexican priest and lawyer

Luis Laso de la Vega was a 17th-century Mexican priest and lawyer. He is known chiefly as the author of the Huei tlamahuiçoltica, an account published in 1649 and written in the Nahuatl language, which contains a narrative describing the reported apparition of the Virgin Mary before Saint Juan Diego in 1531, some 117 years earlier. The account describes the appearance of the apparition to Juan Diego at the hill of Tepeyac.

Juan Diego Bernardino was one of two Aztec peasants alleged to have had visions of the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of Guadalupe in 1531.

<i lang="nah" title="Nahuatl languages collective text">Huei tlamahuiçoltica</i> religious tract written in Nahuatl, published in Mexico City in 1649

Huei tlamahuiçoltica omonexiti in ilhuicac tlatocaçihuapilli Santa Maria totlaçonantzin Guadalupe in nican huei altepenahuac Mexico itocayocan Tepeyacac[ˈwei t͡ɬamawisoɬˈtika omoneˈʃiti in ilˈwikak t͡ɬatokasiˈwapilːi ˈsanta maˈɾia tot͡ɬasoˈnant͡sin ɡwadaˈlupe in ˈnikan wei aɬtepeˈnawak meˈʃiko itokaˈjokan tepeˈjakak] is the title of a tract in Nahuatl, being its opening words. The tract comprises 36 pages and was published in Mexico City, Mexico in 1649 by Luis Laso de la Vega, the vicar of the chapel of Our Lady of Guadalupe at Tepeyac outside the same city. It is generally known by the abbreviated title Huei Tlamahuiçoltica. In the preface Luis Laso de la Vega claimed authorship of the whole work, but this claim is the subject of an ongoing difference of scholarly opinion.

Codex Escalada

Codex Escalada is a sheet of parchment on which there have been drawn, in ink and in the European style, images depicting a Marian apparition, namely that of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego which is said to have occurred on four separate occasions in December 1531 on the hill of Tepeyac north of central Mexico City. If authentic, and if correctly dated to the mid-16th century, the document fills a gap in the documentary record as to the antiquity of the tradition regarding those apparitions and of the image of the Virgin associated with the fourth apparition which is venerated at the Basilica of Guadalupe. The parchment first came to light in 1995, and in 2002 was named in honour of Fr. Xavier Escalada S.J. who brought it to public attention and who published it in 1997.

Coatlaxopeuh is a word proposed by father Mariano Jacobo Rojas of Tepoztlán as a possible Nahuatl origin of the word Guadalupe, the appellation of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The suggestion of a Nahuatl etymology for the Virgin's name was part of the Mexican indigenista debates of the mid 20th century, in which prominent intellectuals reinterpreted Mexican history with a renewed emphasis on the nation's indigenous heritage. In addition to coatlaxopeuh many other proposed Nahuatl etymologies of Guadalupe have been suggested, but in the devotional literature coatlaxopeuh remains the most accepted.

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A minor basilica is a Catholic church building that has been granted the title of basilica by the Holy See or immemorial custom. Presently, the authorising decree is granted by the Pope through the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.

Catholic Marian church buildings Wikimedia list article

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Alonso de Montúfar Archbishop of Mexico

Alonso de Montúfar y Bravo de Lagunas, O.P., was a Spanish Dominican friar and prelate of the Catholic Church, who ruled as the second Archbishop of Mexico from 1551 to his death in 1572. He approved and promoted the devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe that arose during his reign.

Juan Diego Mexican saint

Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin, also known as Juan Diego (1474–1548), a native of Mexico, is the first Roman Catholic indigenous saint from the Americas. He is said to have been granted an apparition of the Virgin Mary on four separate occasions in December 1531 at the hill of Tepeyac, then a rural area but now within the borders of Mexico City.

Tepeyac is a 1917 film directed by José Manuel Ramos, Carlos E. Gonzáles and Fernando Sáyago. rescued by Aurelio de los Reyes and restored by National Autonomous University of Mexico.

Marcos Cipac de Aquino (?–1572), informally known as Marcos the Indian, was a Roman Catholic Nahuatl artist in sixteenth-century Mexico, who may have been the painter of the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Art historian Jeanette Favrot Peterson has ventured "Marcos Cipac was the artist of the Mexican Guadalupe, capable of executing a large Marian painting on cloth within a professional milieu that was abundantly stock to stimulate his innate artistry.". The basis of her conjecture is evidence in the Anales de Juan Bautista, a manuscript housed in the Biblioteca Boturini of the Basilica of Guadalupe and translated and published in 2001. Mexican scholars of the nineteenth century posited the painting's artist as Marcos Cipac de Aquino, including Joaquín García Icazbalceta in his "Carta acerca del Origen de la Imagen de Nuestra Sra. de Guadalupe" (1883) and Francisco del Paso y Troncoso's "Noticia del indio Marcos y de otros pintores del siglo XVI" (1891). There is some skepticism about the identification of the painting with Cipac Aquino. He is identified by a 1556 sermon, which referred to him only as Marcos. This sermon came to light only in 1888. Marcos de Aquino is credited with the painting also by Leoncio Garza-Valdés on the basis of a scientific investigation.

Guadalupe is a feminine given name in the Spanish language.

References

  1. Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books, ISBN   0140441239
  2. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2015/12/virgin-mary-text
  3. Sousa, Lisa, Stafford Poole, and James Lockhart, eds. (1998). The Story of Guadalupe: Luis Laso de la Vega's Huei tlamahuicoltica of 1649. Stanford University Press. pp. 60, fn. 2 via Google Books.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)

Coordinates: 19°29′26″N99°06′50″W / 19.4905°N 99.114°W / 19.4905; -99.114

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.