|9th Prime Minister of Japan|
9 October 1916 –29 September 1918
|Succeeded by||Hara Takashi|
|Governor General of Korea|
1 October 1910 –9 October 1916
|Monarch|| Meiji |
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Gensui Count Hasegawa|
|7th Minister of War of the Japanese Empire|
March 27, 1902 –August 30, 1911
|Preceded by||Kodama Gentarō|
|Succeeded by||Ishimoto Shinroku|
|Born||5 February 1852|
Yamaguchi, Chōshū Domain (Japan)
|Died||3 November 1919 67) (aged|
|Spouse(s)||Terauchi Taki (1862–1920)|
|Children||Gensui Count Terauchi Hisaichi|
|Awards|| Order of the Rising Sun (1st class)|
Order of the Golden Kite (1st Class)
Order of the Bath (Honorary Knight Grand Cross)
|Allegiance||Empire of Japan|
|Branch/service||Imperial Japanese Army|
|Years of service||1871–1910|
|Battles/wars|| Boshin War |
First Sino-Japanese War
Gensui Count Terauchi Masatake(寺内 正毅), GCB (5 February 1852 – 3 November 1919), was a Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician. He was a Gensui (or Marshal) in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 9th Prime Minister of Japan from 9 October 1916 to 29 September 1918.
Marshal-army general was the highest title in the pre-war Imperial Japanese military.
Count (Male), or Countess (Female), is a historical title of nobility in certain European countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility. The etymologically related English term, "county" denoted the land owned by a count. Equivalents of the rank of count exist or have existed in the nobility structures of some non-European countries, such as hakushaku during the Japanese Imperial era.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements. The knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order". He did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never previously existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred.
Terauchi Masatake was born in Chōshū Domain (present-day Yamaguchi Prefecture) as the son of a samurai .
The Chōshū Domain was a feudal domain of Japan during the Edo period (1603–1867). It occupied the whole of modern-day Yamaguchi Prefecture. The capital city was Hagi. The name Chōshū was shorthand for Nagato Province. The domain played a major role in the Late Tokugawa shogunate. It is also known as the Hagi Domain.
Yamaguchi Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan in the Chūgoku region of the main island of Honshu. The capital is the city of Yamaguchi, in the center of the prefecture. The largest city, however, is Shimonoseki.
Samurai (侍) were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
As a young soldier, he fought in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa shogunate, and later was commissioned second lieutenant in the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army. He was injured and lost his right hand during the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, but his physical disability did not prove to be an impediment to his future military and political career.
The Boshin War, sometimes known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war in Japan, fought from 1868 to 1869 between forces of the ruling Tokugawa shogunate and those seeking to return political power to the Imperial Court.
The Tokugawa Shogunate, also known as the Tokugawa Bakufu (徳川幕府) and the Edo Bakufu (江戸幕府), was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1603 and 1867. The head of government was the shōgun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle and the years of the shogunate became known as the Edo period. This time is also called the Tokugawa period or pre-modern.
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
In 1882, after being sent to France for military study as military attaché, Terauchi was appointed to several important military posts. He was the first Inspector General of Military Education in 1898 and made that post one of the three most powerful in the Imperial Army. He was appointed as Minister of the Army in 1901, during the first Katsura administration. The Japanese victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) occurred during his term as War Minister. After the war, he was ennobled with the title of danshaku (baron), and in 1911, his title was raised to that of hakushaku (count).
A military attaché is a military expert who is attached to a diplomatic mission. This post is normally filled by a high-ranking military officer who retains the commission while serving in an embassy. Opportunities sometimes arise for service in the field with military forces of another state.
The Inspectorate General of Military Training was responsible for all non-military aviation training of the Imperial Japanese Army. It was headed by an Inspector general who was responsible for overseeing technical and tactical training, and who reported directly to the Emperor of Japan via the Imperial General Headquarters rather than to the Army Minister or the Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office. The position of Inspector-General of Military Training was thus the third most powerful position within the Japanese Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, politician and the longest serving Prime Minister of Japan, having served three terms.
General Viscount Terauchi (as he then was) was appointed as the third and last Japanese Resident-General of Korea on the assassination of Prince Itō in Harbin by An Jung-geun. As Resident-General, he executed the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910, and thus became the first Japanese Governor-General of Korea.
A viscount or viscountess is a title used in certain European countries for a noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, and its historical equivalents, was a non-hereditary, administrative or judicial position, and did not develop into an hereditary title until much later. In the case of French viscounts, it is customary to leave the title untranslated as vicomte[vi.kɔ̃t] and vicomtesse.
When Korea was a protectorate of the Empire of Japan, Japan was represented by the Resident-General.
A prince is a male ruler ranked below a king and above a duke or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a title of nobility, often hereditary, in some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun princeps, from primus (first) and capio, meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler, prince".
The annexation of Korea by Japan and subsequent policies introduced by the new government was highly unpopular with large segments of the Korean population, and Terauchi employed military force to maintain control. General Terauchi used the deep historical and cultural ties between Korea and Japan as justification for the eventual goal of complete assimilation of Korea into the Japanese mainstream. To this end, thousands of schools were built across Korea. Although this contributed greatly to an increase in literacy and the educational standard, the curriculum was centered on Japanese language and history, with the intent of assimilation of the populace into loyal subjects of the Japanese Empire.
Other of Terauchi's policies also had noble goals but unforeseen consequences. For example, land reform was desperately needed in Korea. The Korean land ownership system was a complex system of absentee landlords, partial owner-tenants, and cultivators with traditional but without legal proof of ownership. Terauchi's new Land Survey Bureau conducted cadastral surveys that reestablished ownership by basis of written proof (deeds, titles, and similar documents). Ownership was denied to those who could not provide such written documentation (mostly lower class and partial owners, who had only traditional verbal "cultivator rights"). Although the plan succeeded in reforming land ownership/taxation structures, it added tremendously to the bitter and hostile environment of the time by enabling a huge amount of Korean land to be seized by the government and sold to Japanese developers. He was created a Count in the Kazoku in 1911.
Isabel Anderson, who visited Korea and met Count Terauchi in 1912, wrote as follows:
The Japanese Governor-General, Count Terauchi, is a very strong and able man, and under his administration many improvements have been made in Korea. This has not always been done without friction between the natives and their conquerors, it must be confessed, but the results are certainly astonishing. The government has been reorganized, courts have been established, the laws have been revised, trade conditions have been improved and commerce has increased. Agriculture has been encouraged by the opening of experiment stations, railroads have been constructed from the interior to the sea-coast, and harbours have been dredged and lighthouses erected. Japanese expenditures in Korea have amounted to twelve million dollars yearly.— Isabel Anderson, The Spell of Japan, 1914
In 1916, Count Terauchi became the 9th person to serve as Prime Minister of Japan. During the same year, he received his promotion to the largely ceremonial rank of Gensui (or Marshal). His cabinet consisted solely of career bureaucrats as he distrusted career civilian politicians. During part of his administration he simultaneously also held the post of Foreign Minister and Finance Minister.
During his tenure, Count Terauchi pursued an aggressive foreign policy. He oversaw the Nishihara Loans (made to support the Chinese warlord Duan Qirui in exchange for confirmation of Japanese claims to parts of Shandong Province and increased rights in Manchuria) and the Lansing–Ishii Agreement (recognizing Japan's special rights in China). Terauchi upheld Japan's obligations to the United Kingdom under the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in World War I, dispatching ships from the Imperial Japanese Navy to the South Pacific, Indian Ocean and Mediterranean, and seizing control of German colonies in Tsingtao and the Pacific Ocean. After the war, Japan joined the Allies in the Siberian Intervention (whereby Japan sent troops into Siberia in support of White Russian forces against the Bolshevik Red Army in the Russian Revolution).
In September 1918, Terauchi resigned his office, due to the rice riots that had spread throughout Japan due to inflation; he died the following year.
His decorations included the Order of the Rising Sun (1st class) and Order of the Golden Kite (1st Class).
The billiken doll, which was a Kewpie-like fad toy invented in 1908 and was very popular in Japan, lent its name to the Terauchi administration, partly due to the doll's uncanny resemblance to Count Terauchi's bald head.
Terauchi's eldest son, Gensui Count Terauchi Hisaichi, was the commander of the Imperial Japanese Army's Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II. The 2nd Count Terauchi was also a Gensui (or Marshal) like his father.
From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia
Count Hisaichi Terauchi was a Gensui in the Imperial Japanese Army and Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II. He was ordered to lead the occupation over Southeast Asia.
Count Kuroda Kiyotaka, also known as Kuroda Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era. He was the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888, to October 25, 1889.
Prince Yamagata Aritomo, also known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Hara Takashi was a Japanese politician and the 10th Prime Minister of Japan from 29 September 1918 until his assassination on 4 November 1921. He was also called Hara Kei informally. He was the first commoner appointed to the office of prime minister of Japan, giving him the informal title of "commoner prime minister". He was also the first Japanese Christian prime minister.
Marshal-Admiral Viscount Katō Tomosaburō was a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and 12th Prime Minister of Japan from 12 June 1922 to 24 August 1923.
Viscount Saitō Makoto, GCB was a Japanese naval officer and politician.
Kuniaki Koiso was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 28th Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944, to April 7, 1945. He was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Prince Ōyama Iwao, OM was a Japanese field marshal, and one of the founders of the Imperial Japanese Army.
Count Tamemoto Kuroki GCMG was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army. He was the head of the Japanese First Army during the Russo-Japanese War; and his forces enjoyed a series of successes during the Manchurian fighting at the Battle of Yalu River, the Battle of Liaoyang, the Battle of Shaho and the Battle of Mukden.
CountOku Yasukata was a Japanese field marshal and leading figure in the early Imperial Japanese Army.
The post of Governor-General of Korean Peninsula served as the chief administrator of Korean Peninsula while Japan held the Great Empire of Hahn as its colony from 1910 to 1945. The seat of the colonial government was the General Government Building, completed in 1926.
Shunroku Hata was a Field Marshal (Gensui) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. He was the last surviving Japanese military officer with a marshal's rank. Hata was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment following the war.
Field Marshal The Marquis Nozu Michitsura was a Japanese field marshal and leading figure in the early Imperial Japanese Army.
Viscount Kodama Gentarō was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and government minister during Meiji period Japan. He was instrumental in establishing the modern Imperial Japanese military.
CountHasegawa Yoshimichi was a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and Japanese Governor General of Korea from 1916 to 1919. His Japanese decorations included Order of the Golden Kite and Order of the Chrysanthemum.
General Count Sakuma Samata was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, and 5th Governor-General of Taiwan from 11 April 1906 to May 1915.
Count Hideo Kodama, was a politician, and wartime cabinet minister in the Empire of Japan. He was the eldest son of famed Russo-Japanese War general Kodama Gentarō, and his wife was the daughter of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake.
Prince Yamagata Isaburō was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, and Japanese Inspector-General of Korea. His wife was the daughter of Katō Hiroyuki.
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| Minister of Foreign Affairs |
July 1908 – August 1908
| Resident General of Korea |
May 1910 – October 1910
as Governor General of Korea
as Resident General of Korea
| Governor General of Korea |
October 1910 – October 1916
| Prime Minister of Japan |
October 1916 – September 1918
| Minister of Foreign Affairs |
October 1916 – November 1916
| Finance Minister |
October 1916 – December 1916
| War Minister |
March 1902 – August 1911
| Inspector-General of Military Training |
January 1898 – April 1900
| Inspector-General of Military Training |
January 1904 – May 1905