Ternopil Oblast

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Ternopil Oblast

Тернопільська область
Ternopilska oblast
Ternopilska oblast [1]
Flag of Ternopil Oblast.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Ternopil Oblast.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
Тернопілля (Ternopillya), Тернопільщина (Ternopilshchyna), Галичина (Galychyna)
Ternopil in Ukraine.svg
Country Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Administrative center Ternopil
Chortkiv [2] (1944)
Government
   Governor Volodymyr Trush [3] (Servant of the People)
   Oblast council 64 seats
  Chairperson Viktor Ovcharuk (Petro Poroshenko Bloc)
Area
  Total13,823 km2 (5,337 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 22nd
Population
 (2021) [4]
  TotalDecrease2.svg 1,030,562
  Rank Ranked 21st
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
?
Area code +380-35
ISO 3166 code UA-61
Raions 3
Cities (total)14
  Regional cities 1
Urban-type settlements 17
Villages1019
FIPS 10-4 UP22
Website www.adm.gov.te.ua

Ternopil Oblast (Ukrainian : Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as Ternopilshchyna - Ukrainian : Тернопільщина) and Ternopillya - (Ukrainian : Тернопілля) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Ternopil, through which flows the Seret, a tributary of the Dniester. Population: 1,030,562 (2021 est.) [4]

Contents

One of the natural wonders of the region are its cave complexes. [5] Although Ternopil Oblast is among the smallest regions in Ukraine, over 100 caves have been discovered there. [5] Scientists believe these are only 20% of all possible caves in the region. [5] The biggest cave is Optymistychna Cave. [5] Measuring 230 km (140 mi) in total length, it is the longest cave in Eurasia and the fifth longest in the world (see list of longest caves ). [5] Twenty percent of the land in the region is chernozem soil. [5]

Among its attractions, Ternopil Oblast has 34 castles. [5] By at least one account, the most prominent is the Zbarazh Castle with fortifications that expand over 16 ha (40 acres) and was the epicenter of a 17th-century standoff between troops of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. [5] Dniester Canyon passes through the oblast; it is considered one of the wonders of Ukraine stretching for 250 km (160 mi). [5]

Geography

The oblast is located in Western Ukraine and has an area of 13,800 km2 (5,300 sq mi). It is situated at the western part of the Podilian Upland, which is known for its rocky terrain. Among noticeable mountains there are the Kremenets Mountains. The oblast is also famous for its caves.

One of the major rivers in the country Dniester forms southern and southwestern borders of Ternopil Oblast with the adjacent Chernivtsi Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Its tributaries that flow through the oblast include Zbruch, Seret, and Strypa among just a few of them. The Seret River (not to be confused with Siret nor Seret) is a left tributary of the Dniester flowing through the oblast administrative center, i.e. Ternopil.

Ternopil Oblast is one of two oblasts in West Ukraine that do not have an international border. It is surrounded by five other oblasts of Ukraine: Chernivtsi Oblast – to the south, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast – to the southwest, Lviv Oblast – to the northwest, Rivne Oblast – to the north, and Khmelnytskyi Oblast – to the east.

History

Ternopil region until 1939 Tarnopolskie.gif
Ternopil region until 1939

Historic administrative affiliation of the area:

The oblast was created during the Second World War when both Nazi Germany and later the Soviet Union invaded Poland. Due to the Polish national policy in the area (Pacification action), many people favored the Soviet invasion of Eastern Galicia at first. However, soon thereafter, the Soviet security agencies started a witchhunt among nationally oriented members of Ukrainian resistance who emigrated to Poland after the Soviet-Ukrainian War as well as other reasons. Many people of local population regardless of their ethnic background were exiled to Siberia. On December 4, 1939, the voivodeship division in the West Ukraine was abolished and replaced with the existing Soviet administrative division oblast. Ternopil Oblast (originally Tarnopol Oblast) was established based mostly on the Tarnopol Voivodeship and southern portions of the Volhynian Voivodeship.

During the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany, Ternopil became an object of fierce fighting between Soviet and German forces because of its importance as a rail transportation hub. During German occupation, the region (except for its Volhynian portion) became part of the District of Galicia and transferred to administration by the General Government. After the war, a destroyed residential section of Ternopil, near the river, was turned into an artificial lake rather than being rebuilt. Additionally, upon annexation to the Soviet Union's Ukrainian SSR, most ethnic Poles in the region were forcibly relocated to Poland, whose national borders had shifted far to the west. The area of the former Polish voivodeship was expanded by adding territory in the north, though the westernmost parts were transferred to the Lviv oblast. After 1945 Soviet authorities also encouraged ethnic Russians to settle in territories newly annexed to the Soviet Union, including the Ternopil oblast, though western Ukraine remained considerably less Russian than eastern Ukraine.

In Ukraine today, there are three provinces (oblasts) that formed the eastern part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Two of these, Lviv Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast were entirely contained in the kingdom; the third oblast of Ternopil was mainly in the kingdom apart from four of its most northerly counties (raions). These four counties, Kremenets Raion, Shumsk Raion, Lanivtsi as well as the northern half of Zbarazh Raion, were formerly part of the county of Krzemieniec in the Wolyn voivodeship (province) of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period. Prior to World War I, they were part of Congress Poland. They never formed part of the Kingdom of Galicia. The remaining raions of Ternopil Oblast, listed below, were all part of the Kingdom of Galicia and mainly coterminous with the Kingdom's counties.

Kingdom of Galicia, administrative, 1914 Galicia administrative1914.jpg
Kingdom of Galicia, administrative, 1914
Raions of
Ternopil Oblast
Equivalent Counties
of Galicia
Berezhany Raion Western part of
Brzeżany county.
Borshchiv Raion Borszczów
Buchach Raion Buczacz county
Chortkiv Raion Czortków and the southern part
of
Kopychyntsi county
Husiatyn Raion Kopychyntsi
Kozova Raion Eastern part of Brzeżany county
except for the city of Brzeżany itself.
Monastyryska Raion Western part of Buczacz county.
Pidhaitsi Raion Western part of Podhajce county.
Pidvolochysk Raion Skalat county and the
eastern part of Zbaraż county
Terebovlia Raion Trembowla county in the east and
Podhajce county in the west.
Ternopil Raion Tarnopol county
Zalishchyky Raion Zalishchyky
Zbarazh Raion The western part of Zbaraż county
and the southern part of
Brody county.
Zboriv Raion Zborów county

As Ukraine achieved independence in the 1990s, western Ukraine remained the heartland of Ukrainian political and cultural nationalism, and the political affiliations of Ternopil voters reflected that viewpoint. In the first elections after independence, the People's Movement of Ukraine was the leading party in the oblast. A majority of oblast voters supported the Ukrainian nationalist-oriented Electoral Bloc Yuliya Tymoshenko in the 2002 Ukrainian parliamentary election. Over 88% of voters supported Yulia Tymoshenko of the All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election.

By 2005, the population of the oblast had grown to roughly 225,000, consisting primarily of ethnic Ukrainians with a large Russian or Russian-speaking minority. The city of Ternopil has important institutions of higher education, including two teacher's colleges, an international medical school with instruction in English, and one of three economics institutes in Ukraine.

Pochaiv Monastery PochaevInside.jpg
Pochaiv Monastery

The religion of the majority is Eastern Rite Catholic (Uniate), though there is a notable Orthodox presence and a small Protestant minority. Many churches which were closed or destroyed under Soviet rule have rebuilt since independence. The local Jewish community, which was very large before 1939, disappeared in the Holocaust and was not reestablished after 1945. There are no active synagogues in the oblast and only a few isolated individuals affiliating with the Jewish faith.

Points of interest

Vyshnivets Palace Vishnevets'. Palats 05.jpg
Vyshnivets Palace
Dzhuryn Waterfall, one of the highest in Ukraine. Dzhuryn - Waterfall Chervonohorod.jpg
Dzhuryn Waterfall, one of the highest in Ukraine.

The oblast is known for its castles and fortresses. Due to the underfunding of the state program for the preservation of cultural heritage, many of objects of historical significance are in poor condition. The following historic-cultural sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.

Population

National composition

The population is predominantly Ukrainophone and about 98% consider themselves Ukrainians. Among the biggest minorities are Poles and Russians who combine 1.6% of the total population. Most of the population is bilingual and the Ukrainian language is accepted in daily communications. The estimated population is 1,038,694 (2020 est.) [6]

In historical comparison, before World War II national composition was very different and according to the 1931 Polish Census Ukrainians were a slight majority in the Tarnopol Voivodeship at 54.8%, while there was almost no Russians. On the other hand, the Polish and Jewish population decreased drastically from 36.6% and 8.4% respectively.[ citation needed ]

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.7% Increase2.svg (male 86,309/female 81,940)
15-64 years: 69.0% Steady2.svg (male 360,305/female 381,271)
65 years and over: 15.3% Decrease2.svg (male 53,364/female 110,887) (2013 official)

Median age

total: 38.6 years Increase2.svg
male: 35.8 years Increase2.svg
female: 41.4 years Increase2.svg (2013 official)

Economy and Transportation

Bridge near Terebovlia Viaduk. Terebovlia. Plebanivka.jpg
Bridge near Terebovlia

The economy is predominantly agriculturally oriented. Among industries, there is a well developed food industry particularly sugar production, alcohol, and dairy (such as butter). There is also number of factories such as "Vatra" (lighting equipment), Ternopil Harvester Plant, "Orion" (radio communication) among a few.

Ternopil Oblast has an adequate network of highways, while the city of Ternopil is located at the intersection of main European corridors along the E50 and E85 highways. There is a small airport in Ternopil (Ternopil Airport) which however mostly is used for charter flights. There is a well developed railroad network which is a part of the Lviv Railways. Water transportation is very limited and mostly along the Dniester River.

Subdivisions

Map of Ternopil Oblast after July 2020. Ternopil Oblast 2020 subdivisions.jpg
Map of Ternopil Oblast after July 2020.
Map of Ternopil Oblast before July 2020. Ternopil Oblast.png
Map of Ternopil Oblast before July 2020.

After 18 July 2020

#NameCenterYearArea
(km2)
PopulationHromadasPopulated place
CityTownVillage
1 Kremenets Kremenets 144,7841
2 Ternopil Ternopil 566,92576
3 Chortkiv Chortkiv 334,32279

Before 18 July 2020 Before the 2020 administrative reform, Ternopil Oblast was administratively subdivided into 17 raions (districts), as well as 1 city (municipality) which is directly subordinate to the oblast government: Ternopil, the administrative center of the oblast. The average area of a raion was around 808 km2 (312 sq mi), the biggest one was Terebovlia Raion covering 1,130 km2 (440 sq mi) and the smallest one - Pidhaitsi Raion with 496 km2 (192 sq mi). The average population number was around 50.6 thousands which is just below the national average.

Raions of the Ternopil Oblast
In EnglishIn UkrainianAdministrative Center
Berezhany Raion Бережанський район
Berezhanskyi raion
Berezhany
(City)
Borshchiv Raion Борщівський район
Borshchivskyi raion
Borshchiv
(City)
Buchach Raion Бучацький район
Buchatskyi raion
Buchach
(City)
Chortkiv Raion Чортківський район
Chortkivskyi raion
Chortkiv
(City)
Husiatyn Raion Гусятинський район
Husiatynskyi raion
Husiatyn
(Urban-type settlement)
Kozova Raion Козівський район
Kozivskyi raion
Kozova
(Urban-type settlement)
Kremenets Raion Кременецький район
Kremenetskyi raion
Kremenets
(City)
Lanivtsi Raion Лановецький район
Lanovetskyi raion
Lanivtsi
(City)
Monastyryska Raion Монастириський район
Monastyryskyi raion
Monastyryska
(City)
Pidhaitsi Raion Підгаєцький район
Pidhayetskyi raion
Pidhaitsi
(City)
Pidvolochysk Raion Підволочиський район
Pidvolochyskyi raion
Pidvolochysk
(Urban-type settlement)
Shumsk Raion Шумський район
Shumskyi raion
Shumsk
(City)
Terebovlia Raion Теребовлянський район
Terebovlanskyi raion
Terebovlia
(City)
Ternopil Raion Тернопільський район
Ternopilskyi raion
Ternopil
(City)
Zalishchyky Raion Заліщицький район
Zalishchytskyi raion
Zalishchyky
(City)
Zbarazh Raion Збаразький район
Zbarazkyi raion
Zbarazh
(City)
Zboriv Raion Зборівський район
Zborivskyi raion
Zboriv
(City)

Personalities

In town of Buchach was born a Nobel Prize recipient, writer Shmuel Yosef Agnon. [5] The prize was given for works about fate of Galician Jews. [5] Agnon worked for a Lviv newspaper, but after refusal to serve in the army he moved to Mandatory Palestine. [5] In Ukraine he published over 70 of his early works. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 de facto
  2. 1 2 de iure

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Buchach City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Buchach is a city located on the Strypa River in Chortkiv Raion of Ternopil Oblast (province) of Western Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Buchach urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Buchach rests 135 kilometres south-east of Lviv, in the historic region of Halychyna (Galicia). The city was located in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy (1772—1804), Austrian empire (1804—1867), Austro-Hungary (1867—1918), West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918—1919), and Poland (1919—1939). The population was estimated at 12,378 .

Zbarazh City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Zbarazh is a city in Ternopil Raion of Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is located in the historic region of Galicia. Zbarazh hosts the administration of Zbarazh urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 13,587

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Terebovlia City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

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Monastyryska City in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Monastyryska is a town in Chortkiv Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine. In 2001, the population was 6,344. The town is situated on the river Koropets, 15 km (9.32 mi) from Buchach, 140 km (86.99 mi) south east from Lviv, on the road between Ternopil or Berezhany and Ivano-Frankivsk. The river Koropets forms a wide lake. Monasteryska borders Hryhoriv and Bertnyky on the east, Ozekhiv on the south, Vycholky and Stara Huta on the west, Nova Huta, Shveykiv and Kovalivka on the north. It hosts the administration of Monastyryska urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 5,551

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Kozova Urban locality in Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Kozova is an urban-type settlement in Ternopil Raion, Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, in the area historically known as Galicia, 16 km (10 mi) east of Berezhany, some 30 km (19 mi) west of Ternopil and c. 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Lviv. It hosts the administration of Kozova settlement hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. The settlement is situated beside a lake on the Koropets River. There is presumption that the name Kozova comes from the Ukrainian word koza (goat), though other possible sources exist. The Weingarten family emigrated from Kozova to New York at the turn of the century and later became successful in New York and Canadian real estate. Population: 8,937

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Halych Raion Former subdivision of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine

Halych Raion was a raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region) in Ukraine. The town of Halych served as the administrative center of the district. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast Oblast to six. The area of Halych Raion was merged into Ivano-Frankivsk Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 41,948 .

Borshchiv Raion Former subdivision of Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine

Borshchiv Raion was a raion (a district within Ternopil Oblast in western Ukraine, an area known as Galicia. The administrative center of the raion was Borshchiv. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three. The area of Borshchiv Raion was merged into Chortkiv Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 64,966

Sasiv Town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine

Sasiv is a town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, since 1945. Until 1772 the town was located in the historical territory of Ruthenia, in the Ruthenian Voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, thereafter until 1919 became part of the Austro-Hungarian Cisleithanian crown lands in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicia). From 1919 until 1945 the town was once again part of Poland within the Tarnopol Voivodeship. The town is located 8 km north-east of Zolochiv on the west bank of Western Bug River.

References

  1. Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). "Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division . scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. p. 20. ISBN   978-966-475-839-7 . Retrieved 2020-10-06.
  2. Snitovsky, O. Five centuries of Ternopil. The city of Hetman Jan and mason Leontiy [ permanent dead link ]. Ukrinform. 28 August 2015
  3. Zelensky appoints Trush as head of Ternopil regional state administration
  4. 1 2 "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine . Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Tell about Ukraine. Ternopil Oblast. 24 Kanal (youtube).
  6. "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine . Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  7. wrestler, football and basketball

Coordinates: 49°23′35″N25°33′35″E / 49.39306°N 25.55972°E / 49.39306; 25.55972