Тернопілля (Ternopillya), Тернопільщина (Ternopilshchyna), Галичина (Galychyna)
|Administrative center|| Ternopil |
|• Governor||Volodymyr Trush (Servant of the People)|
|• Oblast council||64 seats|
|• Chairperson||Viktor Ovcharuk (Petro Poroshenko Bloc)|
|• Total||13,823 km2 (5,337 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 22nd|
|• Rank||Ranked 21st|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-61|
|• Regional cities||1|
Ternopil Oblast (Ukrainian : Тернопільська область, translit. Ternopilska oblast; also referred to as Ternopilshchyna - Ukrainian : Тернопільщина) and Ternopillya - (Ukrainian : Тернопілля) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. Its administrative center is Ternopil, through which flows the Seret, a tributary of the Dniester. Population: 1,030,562 (2021 est.)
One of the natural wonders of the region are its cave complexes. 230 km (140 mi) in total length, it is the longest cave in Eurasia and the fifth longest in the world (see list of longest caves ). Twenty percent of the land in the region is chernozem soil.Although Ternopil Oblast is among the smallest regions in Ukraine, over 100 caves have been discovered there. Scientists believe these are only 20% of all possible caves in the region. The biggest cave is Optymistychna Cave. Measuring
Among its attractions, Ternopil Oblast has 34 castles. 16 ha (40 acres) and was the epicenter of a 17th-century standoff between troops of Bohdan Khmelnytsky and the army of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Dniester Canyon passes through the oblast; it is considered one of the wonders of Ukraine stretching for 250 km (160 mi).By at least one account, the most prominent is the Zbarazh Castle with fortifications that expand over
The oblast is located in Western Ukraine and has an area of 13,800 km2 (5,300 sq mi). It is situated at the western part of the Podilian Upland, which is known for its rocky terrain. Among noticeable mountains there are the Kremenets Mountains. The oblast is also famous for its caves.
One of the major rivers in the country Dniester forms southern and southwestern borders of Ternopil Oblast with the adjacent Chernivtsi Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. Its tributaries that flow through the oblast include Zbruch, Seret, and Strypa among just a few of them. The Seret River (not to be confused with Siret nor Seret) is a left tributary of the Dniester flowing through the oblast administrative center, i.e. Ternopil.
Ternopil Oblast is one of two oblasts in West Ukraine that do not have an international border. It is surrounded by five other oblasts of Ukraine: Chernivtsi Oblast – to the south, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast – to the southwest, Lviv Oblast – to the northwest, Rivne Oblast – to the north, and Khmelnytskyi Oblast – to the east.
Historic administrative affiliation of the area:
The oblast was created during the Second World War when both Nazi Germany and later the Soviet Union invaded Poland. Due to the Polish national policy in the area (Pacification action), many people favored the Soviet invasion of Eastern Galicia at first. However, soon thereafter, the Soviet security agencies started a witchhunt among nationally oriented members of Ukrainian resistance who emigrated to Poland after the Soviet-Ukrainian War as well as other reasons. Many people of local population regardless of their ethnic background were exiled to Siberia. On December 4, 1939, the voivodeship division in the West Ukraine was abolished and replaced with the existing Soviet administrative division oblast. Ternopil Oblast (originally Tarnopol Oblast) was established based mostly on the Tarnopol Voivodeship and southern portions of the Volhynian Voivodeship.
During the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany, Ternopil became an object of fierce fighting between Soviet and German forces because of its importance as a rail transportation hub. During German occupation, the region (except for its Volhynian portion) became part of the District of Galicia and transferred to administration by the General Government. After the war, a destroyed residential section of Ternopil, near the river, was turned into an artificial lake rather than being rebuilt. Additionally, upon annexation to the Soviet Union's Ukrainian SSR, most ethnic Poles in the region were forcibly relocated to Poland, whose national borders had shifted far to the west. The area of the former Polish voivodeship was expanded by adding territory in the north, though the westernmost parts were transferred to the Lviv oblast. After 1945 Soviet authorities also encouraged ethnic Russians to settle in territories newly annexed to the Soviet Union, including the Ternopil oblast, though western Ukraine remained considerably less Russian than eastern Ukraine.
In Ukraine today, there are three provinces (oblasts) that formed the eastern part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Two of these, Lviv Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast were entirely contained in the kingdom; the third oblast of Ternopil was mainly in the kingdom apart from four of its most northerly counties (raions). These four counties, Kremenets Raion, Shumsk Raion, Lanivtsi as well as the northern half of Zbarazh Raion, were formerly part of the county of Krzemieniec in the Wolyn voivodeship (province) of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period. Prior to World War I, they were part of Congress Poland. They never formed part of the Kingdom of Galicia. The remaining raions of Ternopil Oblast, listed below, were all part of the Kingdom of Galicia and mainly coterminous with the Kingdom's counties.
|Berezhany Raion||Western part of |
|Buchach Raion||Buczacz county|
|Chortkiv Raion|| Czortków and the southern part|
of Kopychyntsi county
|Kozova Raion||Eastern part of Brzeżany county|
except for the city of Brzeżany itself.
|Monastyryska Raion||Western part of Buczacz county.|
|Pidhaitsi Raion||Western part of Podhajce county.|
|Pidvolochysk Raion|| Skalat county and the |
eastern part of Zbaraż county
|Terebovlia Raion|| Trembowla county in the east and|
Podhajce county in the west.
|Ternopil Raion||Tarnopol county|
|Zbarazh Raion||The western part of Zbaraż county |
and the southern part of Brody county.
|Zboriv Raion||Zborów county|
As Ukraine achieved independence in the 1990s, western Ukraine remained the heartland of Ukrainian political and cultural nationalism, and the political affiliations of Ternopil voters reflected that viewpoint. In the first elections after independence, the People's Movement of Ukraine was the leading party in the oblast. A majority of oblast voters supported the Ukrainian nationalist-oriented Electoral Bloc Yuliya Tymoshenko in the 2002 Ukrainian parliamentary election. Over 88% of voters supported Yulia Tymoshenko of the All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election.
By 2005, the population of the oblast had grown to roughly 225,000, consisting primarily of ethnic Ukrainians with a large Russian or Russian-speaking minority. The city of Ternopil has important institutions of higher education, including two teacher's colleges, an international medical school with instruction in English, and one of three economics institutes in Ukraine.
The religion of the majority is Eastern Rite Catholic (Uniate), though there is a notable Orthodox presence and a small Protestant minority. Many churches which were closed or destroyed under Soviet rule have rebuilt since independence. The local Jewish community, which was very large before 1939, disappeared in the Holocaust and was not reestablished after 1945. There are no active synagogues in the oblast and only a few isolated individuals affiliating with the Jewish faith.
The oblast is known for its castles and fortresses. Due to the underfunding of the state program for the preservation of cultural heritage, many of objects of historical significance are in poor condition. The following historic-cultural sites were nominated for the Seven Wonders of Ukraine.
The population is predominantly Ukrainophone and about 98% consider themselves Ukrainians. Among the biggest minorities are Poles and Russians who combine 1.6% of the total population. Most of the population is bilingual and the Ukrainian language is accepted in daily communications. The estimated population is 1,038,694 (2020 est.)
In historical comparison, before World War II national composition was very different and according to the 1931 Polish Census Ukrainians were a slight majority in the Tarnopol Voivodeship at 54.8%, while there was almost no Russians. On the other hand, the Polish and Jewish population decreased drastically from 36.6% and 8.4% respectively.[ citation needed ]
The economy is predominantly agriculturally oriented. Among industries, there is a well developed food industry particularly sugar production, alcohol, and dairy (such as butter). There is also number of factories such as "Vatra" (lighting equipment), Ternopil Harvester Plant, "Orion" (radio communication) among a few.
Ternopil Oblast has an adequate network of highways, while the city of Ternopil is located at the intersection of main European corridors along the E50 and E85 highways. There is a small airport in Ternopil (Ternopil Airport) which however mostly is used for charter flights. There is a well developed railroad network which is a part of the Lviv Railways. Water transportation is very limited and mostly along the Dniester River.
After 18 July 2020
Before 18 July 2020 Before the 2020 administrative reform, Ternopil Oblast was administratively subdivided into 17 raions (districts), as well as 1 city (municipality) which is directly subordinate to the oblast government: Ternopil, the administrative center of the oblast. The average area of a raion was around 808 km2 (312 sq mi), the biggest one was Terebovlia Raion covering 1,130 km2 (440 sq mi) and the smallest one - Pidhaitsi Raion with 496 km2 (192 sq mi). The average population number was around 50.6 thousands which is just below the national average.
|In English||In Ukrainian||Administrative Center|
|Berezhany Raion||Бережанський район |
| Berezhany |
|Borshchiv Raion||Борщівський район |
| Borshchiv |
|Buchach Raion||Бучацький район |
| Buchach |
|Chortkiv Raion||Чортківський район |
| Chortkiv |
|Husiatyn Raion||Гусятинський район |
| Husiatyn |
|Kozova Raion||Козівський район |
| Kozova |
|Kremenets Raion||Кременецький район |
| Kremenets |
|Lanivtsi Raion||Лановецький район |
| Lanivtsi |
|Monastyryska Raion||Монастириський район |
| Monastyryska |
|Pidhaitsi Raion||Підгаєцький район |
| Pidhaitsi |
|Pidvolochysk Raion||Підволочиський район |
| Pidvolochysk |
|Shumsk Raion||Шумський район |
| Shumsk |
|Terebovlia Raion||Теребовлянський район |
| Terebovlia |
|Ternopil Raion||Тернопільський район |
| Ternopil |
|Zalishchyky Raion||Заліщицький район |
| Zalishchyky |
|Zbarazh Raion||Збаразький район |
| Zbarazh |
|Zboriv Raion||Зборівський район |
| Zboriv |
In town of Buchach was born a Nobel Prize recipient, writer Shmuel Yosef Agnon.The prize was given for works about fate of Galician Jews. Agnon worked for a Lviv newspaper, but after refusal to serve in the army he moved to Mandatory Palestine. In Ukraine he published over 70 of his early works.
Podolia or Podilia is a historic region in Eastern Europe, located in the west-central and south-western parts of Ukraine and in northeastern Moldova. The name derives from Old Slavic po, meaning "by/next to/along" and dol, "valley".
Tarnopol Voivodeship was an administrative region of interwar Poland (1918–1939), created on 23 December 1920, with an area of 16,500 km² and provincial capital in Tarnopol. The voivodeship was divided into 17 districts (powiaty). At the end of World War II, at the insistence of Joseph Stalin during the Tehran Conference of 1943 without official Polish representation whatsoever, the borders of Poland were redrawn by the Allies. The Polish population was forcibly resettled after the defeat of Nazi Germany and the Tarnopol Voivodeship was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union. Since 1991, most of the region is located in the Ternopil Oblast in sovereign Ukraine.
Lviv Oblast is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Lviv. Population: 2,497,750
Ternopil is a city in western Ukraine, located on the banks of the Seret. Until 1944, it was known mostly as Tarnopol. Ternopil is one of the major cities of Western Ukraine and the historical regions of Galicia and Podolia. It is served by Ternopil Airport. The population of Ternopil was estimated at 224,176
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known simply as Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, it became a kingdom under Habsburg rule. In 1804 it became a crownland of the Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was a crownland under the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary, with some degree of Polish administration, until its dissolution in 1918. The country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the kings of Hungary was "King of Galicia and Lodomeria". Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire ceded portions of Galicia to the Russian Empire, West Galicia and Tarnopol District.
Okopy (Ukrainian: Окопи, Polish: Okopy Świętej Trójcy, is a selo in western Ukraine. It is located in Chortkiv Raion of Ternopil Oblast, and had its origins as a Polish fortress at the meeting of the Zbruch and Dniester rivers. It belongs to Melnytsia-Podilska settlement hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.
Buchach is a city located on the Strypa River in Chortkiv Raion of Ternopil Oblast (province) of Western Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Buchach urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Buchach rests 135 kilometres south-east of Lviv, in the historic region of Halychyna (Galicia). The city was located in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions, followed by the Habsburg Monarchy (1772—1804), Austrian empire (1804—1867), Austro-Hungary (1867—1918), West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918—1919), and Poland (1919—1939). The population was estimated at 12,378 .
Zbarazh is a city in Ternopil Raion of Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is located in the historic region of Galicia. Zbarazh hosts the administration of Zbarazh urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 13,587
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was subdivided into a number of counties for administrative purposes. In 1877 there were 73 administrative counties and in 1900 there were 78 counties. The administrative counties were responsible for storing vital records. The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was the largest and most populous crownland of Cisleithenia between 1772 and 1918. More widely, the central European region of Galicia is today split between the modern states of Poland and Ukraine. Despite having passed through several intermediate states during the great wars of the 20th century, the regions have mainly preserved their territorial integrity and continue to demarcate the jurisdiction of local government authorities in their successor states.
Terebovlia is a small city in Ternopil Raion, Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is an ancient settlement that traces its roots to the settlement of Terebovl which existed in Kievan Rus'. The name may also be variously transliterated as Terebovlya, Terebovla, or Terebovlja. Terebovlia hosts the administration of Terebovlia urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.
Staryi Sambir is a city in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine, close to the border with Poland. It is the administrative center of Staryi Sambir Raion (district). Its population is approximately 6,531 .
Skálat is a town in Ternopil, Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Skalat urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 3,833
Kopychyntsi is a small city in Chortkiv Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine. It hosts the administration of Kopychyntsi urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Kopychyntsi is the birthplace of Vasyl Ivanchuk, a chess grandmaster; Israel Jacob Kligler, who led the effort of eradicating malaria in Mandatory Palestine; and Pinhas Lavon, an Israeli politician. Population: 6,627
Monastyryska is a town in Chortkiv Raion, Ternopil Oblast, Ukraine. In 2001, the population was 6,344. The town is situated on the river Koropets, 15 km (9.32 mi) from Buchach, 140 km (86.99 mi) south east from Lviv, on the road between Ternopil or Berezhany and Ivano-Frankivsk. The river Koropets forms a wide lake. Monasteryska borders Hryhoriv and Bertnyky on the east, Ozekhiv on the south, Vycholky and Stara Huta on the west, Nova Huta, Shveykiv and Kovalivka on the north. It hosts the administration of Monastyryska urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Population: 5,551
Hlynjány is a small town in Zolochiv Raion, Lviv Oblast (region) of Ukraine. Population: 3,050 .
Kozova is an urban-type settlement in Ternopil Raion, Ternopil Oblast (province) of western Ukraine, in the area historically known as Galicia, 16 km (10 mi) east of Berezhany, some 30 km (19 mi) west of Ternopil and c. 100 km (62 mi) southeast of Lviv. It hosts the administration of Kozova settlement hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. The settlement is situated beside a lake on the Koropets River. There is presumption that the name Kozova comes from the Ukrainian word koza (goat), though other possible sources exist. The Weingarten family emigrated from Kozova to New York at the turn of the century and later became successful in New York and Canadian real estate. Population: 8,937
Brody Raion was a raion (district) of Lviv Oblast (region) of Western Ukraine. Its administrative center was Brody. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Lviv Oblast to seven. The last estimate of the raion population was 57,457 .
Halych Raion was a raion (district) of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (region) in Ukraine. The town of Halych served as the administrative center of the district. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast Oblast to six. The area of Halych Raion was merged into Ivano-Frankivsk Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 41,948 .
Borshchiv Raion was a raion (a district within Ternopil Oblast in western Ukraine, an area known as Galicia. The administrative center of the raion was Borshchiv. The raion was abolished on 18 July 2020 as part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Ternopil Oblast to three. The area of Borshchiv Raion was merged into Chortkiv Raion. The last estimate of the raion population was 64,966
Sasiv is a town in Lviv Oblast, Ukraine, since 1945. Until 1772 the town was located in the historical territory of Ruthenia, in the Ruthenian Voivodeship of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, thereafter until 1919 became part of the Austro-Hungarian Cisleithanian crown lands in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicia). From 1919 until 1945 the town was once again part of Poland within the Tarnopol Voivodeship. The town is located 8 km north-east of Zolochiv on the west bank of Western Bug River.
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