Tetsu Katayama

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Tetsu Katayama
片山 哲
Tetsu Katayama.jpg
33rd Prime Minister of Japan
In office
24 May 1947 10 March 1948
Monarch Shōwa
Governor Douglas MacArthur
Preceded by Shigeru Yoshida
Succeeded by Hitoshi Ashida
Personal details
Born(1887-07-28)28 July 1887
Tanabe, Japan
Died30 May 1978(1978-05-30) (aged 90)
Political party Democratic Socialist Party (1928–1978)
Other political
affiliations
Socialist Party (Before 1948)
Alma mater Tokyo Imperial University
Signature KatayamaT kao.png
Katayama's cabinet. Katayama cabinet.jpg
Katayama's cabinet.

Tetsu Katayama(片山 哲,Katayama Tetsu, 28 July 1887 30 May 1978) was a Japanese politician and the 46th prime minister from 24 May 1947 to 10 March 1948. He bears the distinction of having been the first socialist to serve as prime minister of Japan and the first prime minister of the State of Japan.

Japanese people ethnic group native to Japan

Japanese people are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of the country. Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan. People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan are referred to as nikkeijin(日系人), the Japanese diaspora. The term ethnic Japanese is often used to refer to Japanese people, as well as to more specific ethnic groups in some contexts, such as Yamato people and Ryukyuan people. Japanese are one of the largest ethnic groups in the world.

Prime Minister of Japan Head of government of Japan

The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. He is the chairman of the Cabinet and appoints and dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet.

Contents

Early life

He was born in Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture on 28 July 1887. [1] He attended Tokyo Imperial University and received a bachelor's degree in law. [1] Raised in the Christian faith, he was strongly influenced by the Christian socialism of Abe Isoo. After graduating, he opened a law office in a rented YMCA dormitory, and worked as an attorney. [1]

Tanabe, Wakayama City in Kansai, Japan

Tanabe is the second biggest city located in Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The city was founded on May 20, 1942.

Wakayama Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Wakayama Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan on the Kii Peninsula in the Kansai region on Honshū island. The capital is the city of Wakayama.

Christian usually refers to:

Early political life

Katayama became secretary-general of the Social Democratic Party when it was established in 1926. [1] He was elected to the House of Representatives, representing Kanagawa Prefecture, in 1930. [1] Later in 1932, he joined the executive committee of the Socialist Masses Party. However, he was removed from the party, since he did not participate in the session of the House where Takao Saito was expelled from the House due to his antimilitary speech. [1] After World War II, Katayama began to serve as secretary-general of the Japan Socialist Party when it was established in November 1945. [1] Next in September 1946, he became the chairman of the party's executive committee. [1]

The Social Democratic Party was a political party in Japan between 1926 and 1932. Amongst the three main proletarian parties in Japan at the time, the Social Democratic Party occupied a rightist position.

House of Representatives (Japan) lower house of Japan

The House of Representatives is the lower house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Councillors is the upper house.

Kanagawa Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Kanagawa Prefecture is a prefecture located in Kantō region of Japan. The capital of the prefecture is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area. Kanagawa Prefecture is home to Kamakura and Hakone, two highly popular side trip destinations from Tokyo.

Prime Minister and later life

Following the 1947 elections, in which the Socialist Party came in first, Katayama formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party and the National Cooperative Party. Despite leading a short-lived administration, Katayama's time in office saw the enactment of a wide range of progressive social reforms, such as the establishment of Japan's first Labour Ministry, [2] an Unemployment Compensation Act and an Unemployment Insurance Act, and the overhaul revision of the Civil Code, whose section on the family institution was completely rewritten (to provide, for instance, the eldest son with a greater inheritance share). [3] [4]

Democratic Party was a centrist political party in Japan. It was founded in spring 1947 by merging the Progressive Party (Shinpo-tō) of Inukai Takeru with a faction of Liberal Party led by Hitoshi Ashida and obtained 124 seats in 1947 elections. The party had held seven seats in Tetsu Katayama's government in 1947-1948. For some months in 1948, party's leader Ashida was Prime minister.

The National Cooperative Party was a political party in Japan.

The Labour Standards Act of September 1947 introduced maternity leave for a five weekly mandatory post-natal period, and prohibited dismissal of women during maternity leave and for thirty days after the end of the leave, although not all workers were covered. [5] In addition, the law provided for equal pay for equal work. [6] The Employment Security Law of November 1947 contained authority for the government to operate a system of free public employment exchanges on a broader and more democratic basis than under the former Employment Exchange Law. It also provided for public services to the handicapped in securing employment, and outlawed labor bosses and other undemocratic forms of labor recruitment. [7] The Child Welfare Law of December 1947 extended special protection to abused, abandoned, and neglected children, guaranteed the privacy rights of children born out of wedlock, established health-care programmes for mothers and children, provided for prenatal care, outlawed the employment of minors in dangerous occupations, and abolished the practice of indentured labour. The legislation also laid the institutional foundation for a nationwide system of childcare centres, created standards for foster parentage, and made the state responsible for setting up and supervising orphanages and other juvenile institutions. [4]

The Law for the Elimination of Excessive Economic Concentration (passed in December 1947) provided for the dissolution of any company considered to be monopolistic, [8] while the "law on the expulsion of Zaibatsu-affiliated controls" of January 1948 enforced the resignation of Zaibatsu board members who were related closely to Zaibatsu families, while a measure was taken to ban on holding the concurrent board posts of their affiliated companies. In addition, a government employees law was enacted, the first group of Japanese Supreme Court justices was appointed, local government and the police were reorganised, the Ministries of Home Affairs, Navy, and War were abolished, [9] extensive revisions were made to criminal law, and progress was made on land reform. [10]

At the end of the 1950s, Katayama was also the president of the Japan's Temperance Union. [11] The influence of left-wing socialists such as Suzuki Mosaburō forced Katayama to resign early in his term. After his resignation, Katayama became a member of the Democratic Socialist Party and advocated the maintenance of the pacifist constitution, election reform, and formation of a global commonwealth. In 1963, Katayama left politics after he lost his seat in the general elections. [1]

Honours

From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

Political offices
Preceded by
Shigeru Yoshida
Prime Minister of Japan
1947–1948
Succeeded by
Hitoshi Ashida
Preceded by
Tokutaro Kimura
Minister of Justice
Interim

1947
Succeeded by
Yoshio Suzuki
Preceded by
Mitsujiro Ishii
Minister of Commerce and Industry
1947
Succeeded by
Chōzaburō Mizutani
Preceded by
Sadayoshi Hitomatsu
Minister of Communications
1947
Succeeded by
Takeo Miki
Preceded by
Tanzan Ishibashi
Minister of Finance
Interim

1947
Succeeded by
Shōtaro Yano

See also

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References

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  4. 1 2 Mackie, Vera (2003-02-26). Feminism in Modern Japan: Citizenship, Embodiment and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521527194.
  5. http://www.oecd.org/els/family/PF2.5%20Trends%20in%20leave%20entitlements%20around%20childbirth%20since%201970%20-%2010%20oct%202012%20-%20FINAL%20-%20Annex.pdf
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  8. The economic emergence of modern Japan, Volume 1 by Kōzō Yamamura
  9. Socialist Parties in Postwar Japan, by Allan B. Cole, George O. Totten And Cecil H. Uyehara, with a Contributed Chapter by Ronald P. Dore
  10. Stockwin, Prof J. A. A.; Stockwin, J. A. A. (2003-12-16). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Japan. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   9780203402177.
  11. "Soviet leader may give up vodka toping". St. Petersburg Times. 26 October 1957. Retrieved 13 January 2013.