Thành Thái

Last updated
Thành Thái
Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin
Emperor Thanh Thai.jpg
Emperor Thành Thái
Emperor of Đại Nam
Reign2 February 18893 September 1907
Predecessor Đồng Khánh
Successor Duy Tân
Emperor of Nguyễn Dynasty
Reign2 February 18893 September 1907
Predecessor Đồng Khánh
Successor Duy Tân
Born(1879-03-14)March 14, 1879
Imperial City, Huế, Đại Nam
DiedMarch 20, 1954(1954-03-20) (aged 75)
Saigon, State of Vietnam
Burial
Spouse12 concubines
Issue50 including 22 princes and 28 princesses
prince Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San
Full name
Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân ( )
Nguyễn Phúc Chiêu ( )
Era name and dates
Thành Thái ( ): 18851889
Posthumous name
Hoài Trạch Công (懷澤公)
Temple name
none
House Nguyễn
Father Dục Đức
MotherEmpress Dowager Từ Minh
Religion Ruism, Buddhism

Thành Thái (Hanoi:  [tʰajŋ̟˨˩ tʰaːj˧˦] , Hán tự : ; 14 March 1879 – 20 March 1954) born Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Lân (阮福寶嶙), was the son of Emperor Dục Đức and Empress Dowager Từ Minh. [1] [2] He reigned as emperor for 18 years, from 1889 to 1907. [3]

Contents

Biography

While the emperor Tự Đức was alive, Prince Quang Thái was placed under house arrest with his family for having connections with those who opposed him. When the emperor Đồng Khánh died however, the French colonial authorities and the high-ranking mandarins decided that Quang Thái was the ideal successor and enthroned him as the new Vietnamese emperor, Emperor Thành Thái.

Even at the age of 10, Thành Thái was recognized as being very intelligent and was already realizing that the French were keeping watch over him through palace spies. Whereas Đồng Khánh had tried to be friendly with the French, Emperor Thành Thái took a course of passive-resistance. Although he refrained from outright rebellion (which would have been political suicide), he made his feelings clear in other ways, symbolic gestures and biting remarks. He was also a man of the people, and a monarch who cared deeply for his country. The emperor would often slip out of the Forbidden City dressed in the clothes of a commoner to talk with his people directly and see how they were being affected by government policies.

To show that he was friendly with western civilization, Thành Thái was the first Vietnamese monarch to cut his hair in the French style and learn to drive a car. He encouraged French-style education, but maintained bitter feelings over their control of his country. [4] He also supported numerous building projects and took an interest in the everyday lives of his subjects. When traveling among his people, he would hold impromptu "town hall meetings" where the Emperor sat on a mat with his subjects in a circle around him, discussing the issues of the day and hearing their point of view.

Slowly, as the emperor began to realize how thoroughly his palace had been infiltrated with French spies, he had to feign insanity to escape their constant scrutiny. With his enemies believing he was a harmless lunatic, Thành Thái was able to work more forcefully for Vietnamese autonomy while waiting for the right time to throw off colonial rule. He was on his way to join a resistance movement in China when he was arrested by French forces who declared him insane and forced the Emperor to abdicate.

Actually, all of the above is disputed. According to other reliable sources such as Tim Doling's book "Exploring Hue." According to his research, the stories about Thanh Thai pretending to be crazy were generated by his advisors due to the stigma associated with actual mental illness. In fact he shot and killed one of his own advisors and physically abused and even tortured and killed his own concubines when they failed to please him. There is no evidence to support any other stories that explain his madness.

In 1907, his son was installed as Emperor Duy Tân. Thành Thái was exiled first to Vũng Tàu in South Vietnam and when Duy Tân rebelled against the French they were both exiled to Réunion Island in 1916.

Unlike Hàm Nghi, the life of Thành Thái and Duy Tân were tough. they even had no money to pay for rent. In 1925, Emperor Khải Định knew his situation, sent 1,000 piastres to him. Later, Khải Định gave money to him occasionally.

He never gave up hope for the liberation of his country. In 1945, just after the death of Duy Tân, he was allowed to return home, but was kept under house arrest in Vũng Tàu. He died in Saigon on 24 March 1954.

Honours

Images

Related Research Articles

Khải Định Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin

Khải Định was the 12th Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty in Vietnam, reigning from 1916 to 1925. His name at birth was Prince Nguyễn Phúc Bửu Đảo. He was the son of Emperor Đồng Khánh, but he did not succeed him immediately.

Duy Tân Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin

Emperor Duy Tân, born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh San, was an emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty who reigned for 9 years between 1907 and 1916.

Đồng Khánh Emperor of Đại Nam under French protectorate of Annam and Tonkin

Đồng Khánh, born Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Kỷ (阮福膺祺) or Nguyễn Phúc Ưng Đường (阮福膺禟), also known as Chánh Mông (正蒙), was the ninth emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. He reigned three years between 1885 and 1889. His royal temple name was Cảnh Tông (景宗).

Phan Đình Phùng Vietnamese revolutionary

Phan Đình Phùng was a Vietnamese revolutionary who led rebel armies against French colonial forces in Vietnam. He was the most prominent of the Confucian court scholars involved in anti-French military campaigns in the 19th century and was cited after his death by 20th-century nationalists as a national hero. He was renowned for his uncompromising will and principles—on one occasion, he refused to surrender even after the French had desecrated his ancestral tombs and had arrested and threatened to kill his family.

Quang Trung Vietnamese emperor

Emperor Quang Trung or Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Nguyễn Quang Bình, was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.

Trần Cao Vân Vienamese official

Trần Cao Vân was a mandarin of the Nguyễn Dynasty who was best known for his activities in attempting to expel the French colonial powers in Vietnam. He orchestrated an attempt to expel the French and install Emperor Duy Tân as the boy ruler of an independent Vietnam, but the uprising failed. Vân was executed while Duy Tân was exiled by the French.

Nguyễn Tiểu La, born Nguyễn Thành was a Vietnamese scholar-gentry anti-colonial revolutionary activist who advocated independence from French colonial rule. He was a contemporary of Phan Bội Châu and Phan Chu Trinh. He was imprisoned by the French and died in custody. Today in Vietnam, he has streets and schools named in his honor.

<i>Paris by Night 91</i> An episode of Paris by Night

Paris By Night 91: Huế, Sài Gòn, Hà Nội is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Terrace Theater at the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center on January 12, 2008 and January 13, 2008.

<i>Paris by Night 77</i> An episode of Paris by Night

Paris By Night 77: 30 Năm Viễn Xứ is a Paris By Night program produced by Thúy Nga that was filmed at the Terrace Theater in the Long Beach Convention and Entertainment Center on March 5, 2005. It was released to DVD on April 28, 2005 two months later, just in time 2 days before the 30th anniversary of the Fall of Saigon on April 30, 2005.

Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam Highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam established 1930, is the highest authority within the Communist Party of Vietnam elected by the Party National Congresses. The current Central Committee has about 175 full members and 25 alternate members and nominally appoints the Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam.

The Hồ Chí Minh Prize is an honorary award given by the government of Vietnam in recognition of cultural and/or scientific achievement. The prize was established by decree in 1981, and has been awarded in 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2012, often posthumously. The prize is named for Ho Chi Minh, and is considered one of the highest honors bestowed by Vietnam.

Tomb of Dục Đức

The Tomb of Emperor Dục Đức, officially the An Mausoleum is a tomb complex in Huế in which are buried Dục Đức and his wife, his son Thành Thái, and his grandson the child-emperor Duy Tân, and several other members of Vietnam's last dynasty, the Nguyễn dynasty such as the queen mother Nguyễn Thị Định.

Nguyễn Thị Định was a wife of the Vietnamese emperor Thành Thái, and the queen mother of the emperor's fifth son, the boy emperor Duy Tân. Following the abdication, forced by the French, of Thành Thái, the new boy emperor's mother resided at court as queen mother, while Thành Thái was relegated to a duke, and lived with his large retinue of wives and retainers away from court. This did not prevent the former emperor for pressuring his wife, the queen mother, for funds. She, with her husband and son, are buried in the tomb of Dục Đức.

Phạm Thận Duật

Phạm Thận Duật was a high-ranking mandarin serving in the Nguyễn dynasty. He and Tôn Thất Phan, representing emperor Tự Đức's court, signed the Treaty of Huế. He participated in the anti-colonial Cần Vương resistance and died while being sent to exile in Tahiti by the French. Knowledge of his role in the resistance was hidden or lost for many decades after his death; he was thought to have been a French collaborator for having signed the treaty.

Nguyen Dac Xuan is a Vietnamese novelist, researcher of Huế's culture, who is best known for his poetry and his books and his research on the culture and history of Nguyen Dynasty and Ancient Hue.

References

  1. http://prezi.com/cnii5il2089i/alices-family-tree/
  2. http://dongoc.free.fr/lepelerin/stemoinguyen_phuoc_thanh_thai.html
  3. Vietnamese Royal Exile in Japan Page 97 "The young, rebellious Duy Tân vas exiled to Reunion, to join his deposed father, ex-Emperor Thành Thái, or the “mad king” ..."
  4. Van Dan Nong, Churchill, Eden and Indo-China, 1951-1955 2011 Page xiii "Thành Thái founded the 'Hué national school' and the traditional mandarinate examinations were allowed by the French to ...
Thành Thái
Born: 14 March 1869 Died: 24 March 1969
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Đồng Khánh
Emperor of Vietnam
1883–1907
Succeeded by
Duy Tân