|Literal meaning||Holy Ancestor|
Thánh Tông is the temple name used for several emperors of Vietnam. It may refer to:
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese monarchs. They should not be confused with era names and posthumous names.
Lý Thánh Tông was the posthumous title of the third emperor of the Lý dynasty of Vietnam. In his reign, Lý Thánh Tông promoted the agricultural development, reducing some harsh laws and building many Confucianist and Buddhist institutions, most notably the first Temple of Literature in Vietnam (1072). He also fought several successful wars with the Song empire and Champa, resulting in the expansion of Vietnamese territory to the areas which are Quảng Bình Province and Quảng Trị Province today.
Trần Thánh Tông, given name Trần Hoảng (陳晃), was the second emperor of the Trần dynasty, reigning over Đại Việt from 1258 to 1278. After ceding the throne to his son Trần Nhân Tông, Thánh Tông held the title Retired Emperor from 1279 to his death in 1290. During the second and the third Mongol invasions of Đại Việt, the Retired Emperor Thánh Tông and the Emperor Nhân Tông were credited as the supreme commanders who led the nation to the final victories and as a result established a long period of peace and prosperity over the country. With his successful ruling in both military and civil matters, Trần Thánh Tông was considered as one of the greatest emperors of not only the Trần dynasty but also the whole dynastic era in the History of Vietnam.
Lê Thánh Tông was the 5th emperor of Đại Việt during the Later Lê dynasty and is one of the greatest emperors in Vietnamese feudal history. He reigned for 38 years from 1460 to 1497; his era was eulogized as the Prospered reign of Hồng Đức (洪德之盛治).
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The Lý dynasty, sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. During emperor Lý Thánh Tông's reign, the official name of Vietnam became Đại Việt. Domestically, while the Lý emperors were devout to Buddhism, the influence of Confucianism from China was on the rise, with the opening of the first University in Vietnam in 1070 for selection of civil servants who are not from noble families.The first imperial examination was run in 1075 and Lê Văn Thịnh became the first Trạng Nguyên(Zhuangyuan) of Vietnam. Politically, they created a system of administration based on the rule of law rather than on autocratic principles. The fact that they chose the Đại La Citadel as the capital showed that they held onto power due to economic strength and were liked by their subjects rather than by military means like prior dynasties. Some of the noble scholar such as Lê Văn Thịnh, Bùi Quốc Khái, Doãn Tử Tư, Đoàn Văn Khâm, Lý Đạo Thành, Tô Hiến Thành made vast contributions culturally and politically, allowing the dynasty to flourish for 216 years.
The Trần dynasty ruled in Vietnam from 1225 to 1400. The dynasty was founded when emperor Trần Thái Tông ascended to the throne after his uncle Trần Thủ Độ orchestrated the overthrow of the Lý dynasty. The final emperor of the dynasty was Thiếu Đế, who at the age of five years was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of his maternal grandfather, Hồ Quý Ly. The Trần dynasty defeated three Mongol invasions, most notably in the decisive Battle of Bạch Đằng River in 1288.
Lý Nhân Tông, given name Lý Càn Đức, was the fourth emperor of the Lý Dynasty, reigning over Vietnam from 1072 to his death in 1127. Succeeding his father Lý Thánh Tông at the age of 7, during his early reign Lý Nhân Tông ruled with the assistance of his mother Ỷ Lan and the chancellor Lý Đạo Thành who were both considered competent regents and were able to help the emperor maintain the country's prosperity. Appreciated as a great emperor of the Lý Dynasty, Lý Nhân Tông made important contributions to the development of Đại Việt, especially for establishing Confucianism as the official philosophy of the state, creating Confucian-based imperial exams, and creating schools based on the Confucian system of learning During his 55-year reign, which was the longest reign for any Vietnamese monarch, Lý Nhân Tông also experienced several wars against Đại Việt's neighbours, the Song Dynasty and the kingdom of Champa in which the Lý–Song War (1075–1076) was the fiercest.
The Later Lê dynasty, sometimes referred to as the Lê dynasty, was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief six-year interruption of the Mạc dynasty usurpers (1527–1533). Vietnamese historians usually distinguish the 100-year Primitive Lê Dynasty from 256-years of figurehead emperors of the Restored Lê Dynasty following the dynasty's restoration by powerful warlords.
The Lý Bát Đế Temple or Đô Temple, formal Buddhist name Cổ Pháp Điện, is a temple near Hanoi of which the central section was built in 1028 on the death of Lý Thái Tổ (李太祖), and the complex enlarged as seven of his descendant Lý Dynasty emperors were also buried at the shrine – Lý Bát Đế means "Eight Lý Emperors." Traditionally the shrine serves for ancestor worship of the eight emperors. It is located in Đình Bảng Commune, Từ Sơn District, in the Red River Delta province of Bắc Ninh. Another national monument, Đình Bảng communal house, is adjacent.
Lý Chiêu Hoàng was the ninth and last sovereign of the Lý dynasty from 1224 to 1225 and the only empress regnant in the history of Vietnam.
Trần Nghệ Tông, given name Trần Phủ (陳暊), was the eighth emperor of the Trần Dynasty who reigned Vietnam from 1370 to 1372.
Trần Thuận Tông, (1378–1399), given name Trần Ngung, was the eleventh emperor of the Trần Dynasty who reigned in Đại Việt from 1388 to 1398. He was chosen to succeed to this position by his father, the Retired Emperor Trần Nghệ Tông, after Nghệ Tông decided to dethrone and force Trần Phế Đế to commit suicide. Although holding the position emperor for ten years and retired emperor for one more year, Thuận Tông's reign was totally under the control of Nghệ Tông and Hồ Quý Ly. It was Hồ Quý Ly who obliged Thuận Tông to change the capital from Thăng Long to Thanh Hóa, Hồ Quý Ly was also responsible for the resignation of Thuận Tông as emperor and his death afterward. Only one year after Thuận Tông's death, the Trần Dynasty collapsed while Hồ Quý Ly established his own dynasty, Hồ Dynasty.
Trần Thừa was the head of the Trần clan and a high-ranking mandarin during the reign of Lý Huệ Tông and Lý Chiêu Hoàng. After the overthrow of the Lý Dynasty by Trần Thủ Độ, Trần Thừa's second son Trần Cảnh was enthroned as Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of the Trần Dynasty. Being the Emperor's father, Trần Thừa was honoured by the title Retired Emperor as Trần Thái Tổ (陳太祖) and thus he became the first retired emperor of the Trần Dynasty and the only one who had not held the throne.
Prince Yên Sinh Trần Liễu (1211–1251) was the elder brother of the Trần Thái Tông, the first emperor of Trần Dynasty. Initially, Trần Liễu was honoured by his younger brother with the title King Hiển but he was downgraded to Prince Yên Sinh after the short-lived revolt in fury of losing his pregnant wife, Princess Thuận Thiên, to the Emperor under the pressure of Imperial Regent Trần Thủ Độ. Besides this event, Trần Liễu was well known in the history of Vietnam for being father of Trần Hưng Đạo, commander-in-chief of the Đại Việt army during the second and third war of resistance against the Mongol invasion.
Mother of the Nation Lady Linh Từ Trần Thị Dung (?–1259) was the last empress and the last empress mother of the Lý Dynasty. She was entitled by the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông as Empress Consort of the Lý Dynasty from 1216 to 1225 before becoming Empress Mother of the Lý Dynasty when her daughter Lý Phật Kim was enthroned as Lý Chiêu Hoàng in 1225. After Trần Thủ Độ, Trần Thị Dung's cousin, successfully overthrew the Lý Dynasty and founded the Trần Dynasty, Trần Thị Dung was downgraded to Princess Thiên Cực while her brother Trần Thừa's son became Trần Thái Tông, first emperor of the Trần Dynasty. Besides Lý Chiêu Hoàng, Trần Thị Dung had another daughter who eventually also became Empress of the Trần Dynasty, the Empress Thuận Thiên.
Empress Thuận Thiên (1216–1248) was the second empress of Trần dynasty, she succeeded her younger sister Empress Chiêu Thánh in 1237 by an arrangement of Trần Thủ Độ in which Prince Hoài Trần Liễu was forced to give up his 3-month pregnant wife Princess Thuận Thiên to the Emperor Trần Thái Tông. Thuận Thiên was born in the royal family of the Lý dynasty as the first child of the Emperor Lý Huệ Tông and Lady Thuận Trinh Trần Thị Dung with whom she witnessed the turbulent time of the Late Lý and Early Trần Dynasty. She was mother of four princes including the second emperor of the Trần Dynasty Trần Thánh Tông and grand chancellor Prince Chiêu Minh Trần Quang Khải.
Lê Phụ Trần (?–?) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors: Thái Tông, Thánh Tông, and Nhân Tông.
Emperor Lý Anh Tông (1136–1175) of Đại Việt, was the sixth ruler of the later Lý Dynasty, from 1138 until his death in 1175. Since Lý Anh Tông, given name Lý Thiên Tộ (李天祚), was chosen as the successor of his father Lý Thần Tông at the age of only two, the early period of his reign witnessed the dominant position of Đỗ Anh Vũ in the royal court until his death in 1157, afterwards the Emperor ruled the country with the assistance of a prominent official named Tô Hiến Thành. The reign of Lý Anh Tông was considered the last relatively stable period of the Lý Dynasty before the turbulence during the reign of Lý Cao Tông.
Lý Thần Tông (1116–1138), given name Lý Dương Hoán, was the fifth emperor of the Lý Dynasty, reigning over Vietnam from 1127 to his death in 1138. Becoming the ruler of Đại Việt at the age of twelve, Lý Thần Tông successfully maintained the order of the royal court and strengthened the stability of the country with the assistance of capable officials. For that reason, Đại Việt under Lý Thần Tông was able to witness a peaceful period like during the reign of his predecessors. However, Lý Thần Tông died at age 23 before passing the throne to his crown prince Lý Thiên Tộ.
Lý Đạo Thành, courtesy name Bá Định (伯定), was a member of the royal family and the chancellor in the royal court of Lý Dynasty. Highly appreciated for his ability and righteousness, Lý Đạo Thành had a major role in the stability and prosperity of Annam during the early years of Lý Nhân Tông's reign when Lý Đạo Thành also acted as a regent for the young emperor. Today Lý Đạo Thành is still considered one of the great officials of the Lý Dynasty and in history of Vietnam.
Empress Mother Thượng Dương was a regent of the Lý Dynasty during the minority of her stepson in 1072-1073.
Nhân Tông is the temple name used for several emperors of Vietnam. It may refer to: