The Thánh Trần worship (tín ngưỡng Đức Thánh Trần) is a spiritual practice in Vietnamese folk religion associated with the spirit of historical general Trần Hưng Đạo, who repulsed the Mongolian invasions. The shrines are sometimes collectively called Trần Triều, literally "Trần dynasty".
Mediumship with the spirit of Thánh Trần is part of votive dance lên đồng mediumship and particularly associated with Đạo Mẫu (道母), mother goddess worship.Mediums are mainly female, possession of a male by the spirit is viewed as unusual.
Caodaism is a monotheistic syncretic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926. The full name of the religion is Đại Đạo Tam Kỳ Phổ Độ.
In Shinto, a miko (巫女) is a shrine maiden or a supplementary priestess. Miko were once likely seen as a shaman but are understood in modern Japanese culture to be an institutionalized role in daily shrine life, trained to perform tasks, ranging from sacred cleansing to performing the sacred Kagura dance.
Trần Hưng Đạo, also known as Grand Prince Hưng Đạo, was an imperial prince, statesman and military commander of Đại Việt military forces during the Trần Dynasty. Trần commanded the Đại Việt armies that repelled two out of three major Mongol invasions in the 13th century. His multiple victories over the Yuan Dynasty under Kublai Khan are considered among the greatest military feats in Vietnamese history.
Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts: one patrilineal family name, one or more middle name(s), and one given name, used in that order. The "family name first" order follows the system of Chinese names and is common throughout the Chinese cultural sphere. However, it is different from Chinese, Korean, and Japanese names in the usage of "middle names", as they are less common in China and Korea and do not exist in Japan. Persons can be referred to by the whole name, the given name or a hierarchic pronoun, which usually connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship, in normal usage.
Hộ PhápPhạm Công Tắc (1890–1959), was one of the most important leaders in the establishment, construction, development and consolidation of the system of the Cao Đài religion. This religion was founded in 1926.
Long-established religions in Vietnam include the Vietnamese folk religion, which has been historically structured by the doctrines of Confucianism and Taoism from China, as well as a strong tradition of Buddhism. According to official statistics from the government, as of 2014 there are 24 million people identified with one of the recognised organised religions, out of a population of 90 million. Of these, 11 million are Buddhists (12.2%), 6.2 million are Catholics (6.9%), 4.4 million are Caodaists (4.8%), 1.4 million are Protestants (1.6%), 1.3 million are Hoahaoists (1.4%), and there are 75,000 Muslims, 7,000 Bahá'ís, 1,500 Hindus and other smaller groups (<1%). Traditional folk religions have experienced a rebirth since the 1980s.
The Lý Bát Đế Temple or Đô Temple, formal Buddhist name Cổ Pháp Điện, is a temple near Hanoi of which the central section was built in 1028 on the death of Lý Thái Tổ (李太祖), and the complex enlarged as seven of his descendant Lý Dynasty emperors were also buried at the shrine – Lý Bát Đế means "Eight Lý Emperors." Traditionally the shrine serves for ancestor worship of the eight emperors. It is located in Đình Bảng Commune, Từ Sơn District, in the Red River Delta province of Bắc Ninh. Another national monument, Đình Bảng communal house, is adjacent.
Lên đồng is a ritual practiced in Vietnamese folk religion and the mother goddess religion Đạo Mẫu, in which followers become spirit mediums for various deities. Also known as hầu bóng, hầu đồng, or đồng bóng, sessions involve a number of artistic elements, such as music, singing, dance and the use of costumes. The invocation songs used to induce a trance in mediums have been described as a "particularly noteworthy expression of the performing art of the Kinh people"; the lên đồng ritual itself is considered to be an element of Vietnam's intangible cultural heritage.
Lý Chiêu Hoàng was the ninth and last sovereign of the Lý dynasty from 1224 to 1225 and the only empress regnant in the history of Vietnam.
Thiên Y A Na is a Vietnamese goddess. She is worshipped in the Vietnamese folk religion and Đạo Mẫu, the mother goddess religion. She is also known as Lady Po Nagar, the Cham deity from whom she originated. The Cham people of Vietnam had been much influenced by India, and it is believed that Pô Nagar is represented with the characteristics of Bhagavati Uma. The cult of Thiên Y A Na is popular in Vietnam, particularly among women. She is channeled through Lên đồng rituals. There have been many temples and shrines devoted to her throughout the last several centuries.
The Four Immortals refers to the four chief cult figures in the pantheon of genii worshiped by the Vietnamese people of the Red River Delta region. They are Tản Viên Sơn Thánh, also known as Sơn Tinh (山精) the god of Tản Viên Mountain, Phù Đổng Thiên Vương a giant who defeated northern invaders, Chử Đồng Tử (褚童子) a sage, and Princess Liễu Hạnh (柳杏公主), a heavenly spirit and Mother Goddess.
Phạm Ngũ Lão (1255–1320) was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reigns of three successive emperors Nhân Tông, Anh Tông and Minh Tông. His talent was noticed by Prince Hưng Đạo Trần Quốc Tuấn who married his adopted daughter to Phạm Ngũ Lão and recommended him for the royal court. Renowned as a prominent general in battlefield, Phạm Ngũ Lão was one of the few commanders of the Vietnamese army during the second and third Mongol invasion who did not come from the Trần clan. After the war of resistance against the Yuan dynasty, Phạm Ngũ Lão continued to participate in numerous military campaigns of the Trần Dynasty in which he often succeeded. Today, Phạm Ngũ Lão is still considered one of the most capable military commanders of both the Trần Dynasty and history of Vietnam.
Trần Quốc Tảng was the third son of Trần Hưng Đạo. He was a general of the Trần Dynasty during the reign of emperors Trần Nhân Tông and Trần Anh Tông who was also his son-in-law. As a member of Yên Sinh's line in Trần clan, Trần Quốc Tảng supported the plot of taking over the throne from Trần Cảnh's line which was opposed by his father Trần Quốc Tuấn and his elder brother Trần Quốc Nghiễn, this difference made Hưng Đạo break off the paternal relation with Trần Quốc Tảng until his death in 1300.
Tô Hiến Thành was an official in the royal court of Lý Anh Tông and Lý Cao Tông, the sixth and seventh emperors of the Lý Dynasty. Being a capable official of Lý Anh Tông who helped the emperor in civil and military matters, Tô Hiến Thành was chosen by Lý Anh Tông for the regentship of his son Lý Long Trát. He was granted the title Prince and thus became the only possessor of the title who did not come from the Lý royal family. The achievements and loyalty of Tô Hiến Thành to the infant emperor Lý Cao Tông made him a highly praised figure in the history of Vietnam. Today, Tô Hiến Thành is considered one of the most prominent mandarins in the dynastic time of Vietnam.
Đạo Mẫu is the worship of mother goddesses shakti in Vietnam. While scholars like Ngô Đức Thịnh propose that it represents a systematic mother goddess, Đạo Mẫu draws together fairly disparate beliefs and practices. These include the worship of goddesses such as Thiên Y A Na, The Lady of the Realm, The Lady of the Storehouse and Princess Liễu Hạnh, legendary figures like Âu Cơ, the Trưng Sisters, and Lady Triệu, as well as the cult of the Four Palaces. Đạo Mẫu is commonly associated with spirit mediumship rituals—known in Vietnam as lên đồng—much as practiced in other parts of Asia, such as Southern China, Myanmar and some community in India... Although the Communist government had initially proscribed the practice of such rituals, deeming them to be superstitions, they relented in 1987, once again legalizing their practice.
Lý Đạo Thành, courtesy name Bá Định (伯定), was a member of the royal family and the chancellor in the royal court of Lý Dynasty. Highly appreciated for his ability and righteousness, Lý Đạo Thành had a major role in the stability and prosperity of Annam during the early years of Lý Nhân Tông's reign when Lý Đạo Thành also acted as a regent for the young emperor. Today Lý Đạo Thành is still considered one of the great officials of the Lý Dynasty and in history of Vietnam.
Mẫu Thoải, or Thủy cung Thánh Mẫu (水宮聖母) is a goddess in Vietnamese non-Buddhist traditional religion. The goddess features in Chầu văn religious ceremonies and music.
Mẫu Thượng Thiên (上天) is one of the four heavenly mothers in the Four Palaces in Vietnamese folk religion. She is one of the spirits invoked in the form of lên đồng mediumship particularly associated with Đạo Mẫu worship.
Lục Cung Thánh Mẫu, also known as Mẫu Địa Phủ, is the heavenly mother of the Địa Phủ, fourth of the heavenly Four Palaces in Vietnamese folk religion.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion, is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people. About 45.3% of the population in Vietnam are associated with this religion, making it dominant in Vietnam.