Théo Bretin in 1932
11 January 1879
Saint-Gengoux-le-National, Saône-et-Loire, France
|Died|| 12 July 1956 77) (aged|
Chagny, Saône-et-Loire, France
|Known for||Deputy for Saône-et-Loire|
Théo Bretin (born Louis Bretin, 11 January 1879 – 12 July 1956) was a French teacher and socialist politician who was deputy for Saône-et-Loire from 1914 to 1919 and again from 1924 to 1928.
Saône-et-Loire is a French department, named after the Saône and the Loire rivers between which it lies.
Louis Bretin was born on 11 January 1879 in Saint-Gengoux-le-National, Saône-et-Loire). He attended the Ecole normale primaire in Mâcon, and qualified as a teacher. He joined the Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière (SFIO: French section of the workers' international), and in 1899 founded the socialist group of the Épinac mining center.He used the pseudonym "A. Théo", which sounds in French like "atheist".
Saint-Gengoux-le-National is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
Mâcon, historically anglicised as Mascon, is a city in east-central France. It is the prefecture of the department of Saône-et-Loire in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Mâcon is home to over 34,000 residents, who are referred to in French as Mâconnais. The city gave its name to the nearby vineyards and wine 'appellation'.
Épinac is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department located in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
Bretin was secretary-general of the Jeunesses Laïques de Chalon (Secular youths of Chalon) in 1904, and the next year was elected deputy secretary general of the socialist federation. In 1905 at a conference on working class action in the event of war he was censured for "unpatriotic proposals."He probably influenced Marie Guillot, another teacher from Saône-et-Loire, to become a socialist. She went on to become prominent in the syndicalist movement.
Marie Guillot was a teacher in Saône-et-Loire and a pioneer of trade unionism in primary education. She associated the social emancipation that syndicalism would bring with the empowerment of women. An anarcho-syndicalist, she was a member of the national leadership of the Confédération générale du travail unitaire in 1922–1923. She was active in the struggle of the anarchists, who believed in a decentralized or federal organization of workers' syndicates, against the communists who believed in a central organization.
In 1908 Bretin and Guillot were among those involved in organizing a section of the teacher's federation in Saône-et-Loire.On 7 November 1905 the government had made it clear that it was illegal to form a teacher's union. Guillot was brought before the school inspector on 29 May 1908, and Theo Bretin on 1 June 1908. They used different lines of defense: Guillot said she had the right to form a section of a federation which was, if not legal, at least tolerated. Bretin said that the section was not a union, and the proof was that it had not filed statutes. Both, however, were forced to dissociate themselves from the federation to avoid sanctions.
Bretin became a councilor and then mayor of Chagny, Saône-et-Loire.
Chagny is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
In the general elections of 26 April and 10 May 1914 Bretin was elected in the second round of voting for the second district of Chalon-sur-Saône. He was an outspoken supporter of a radical reform of the tax system, education reform and the establishment of the United States of Europe. He joined the Socialist Group, and was a member of the Commissions of education and fine arts, tax legislation, the merchant navy, economic reorganization and the army. When World War I (July 1914 – November 1918) began he was drafted into the 59th Territorial Infantry. He was promoted to lieutenant and transferred to the 65th Territorial regiment on 6 March 1915. He later returned to the chamber, where he was intensely active, participating in numerous debates.
Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.
In the general election of 16 November 1919 Bretin was placed second on the Socialist list. He was defeated by the Republicans. In the elections of 11 May 1924 he was placed third on the Socialist list, and was one of five returned. In the general elections of 22 and 29 April 1928 Bretin suffered a setback in the Macon district, losing to Vincent Jacoulat in the second round.
Betin retired to Chagny in 1928.He continued to be active in the SFIO. In 1937 he was a member of the Commission administrative permantente (CAP), the leadership of the SFIO. The others were René Cabannes, Xavier Magnien, Chatignon and Perigaud. During World War II (1939–1945) he supported Paul Faure. After France was liberated in 1944 he was excluded from the CAP due to his complaisance with the Vichy regime. Théo Bretin died in Chagny on July 12, 1956, aged 77.
The Radical-Socialist and Radical Republican Party was a liberal and social-liberal political party in France. It was also often referred to simply as the Radical Party or, to prevent confusion with other French Radical parties, as the Parti radical valoisien, abbreviated to Rad, PR or PRV.
Pierre Joxe is a former French Socialist politician and has been a member of the Constitutional Council of France since 2001.
Dominique Perben is a French politician. Born in Lyon, he was French Minister of Transportation from 2005 to 2007. He was previously Minister of Justice (2002–05), Minister of Civil Service and Administration (1995–1997) and Minister of Overseas France (1993–1995).
Damerey is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.
Pierre Semard was a trade unionist, secretary general of the federation of railway-workers and leader of the French Communist Party. He was shot in prison by the Germans in 1942, and is buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. He was key figure in the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and a trade unionist in the Confédération générale du travail unitaire (CGTU) and Confédération générale du travail (CGT).
The Democratic Socialist Party was a French socialist political party during the French Fourth Republic, founded on 24 August 1945 by members expelled from the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) following the Liberation of France for wartime collaboration with the German occupiers. These included Émile Berlia, Albert Bedouce and Antoine Ellen-Prévot
The Socialist-Communist Union, later renamed the Socialist-Communist Party, was a socialist political party in France between 1923 and 1932.
Arthur Théophile Chaussy was a French politician.
Adéodat Constant Adolphe Compère-Morel was a French Socialist politician, agronomist, orator and writer. Characterized as a Marxist doctrinaire, he was one of the founders of the Socialist Party of France. A gifted propagandist, he was a particular expert on social reform in rural France and became viewed as his party's agrarian specialist. He was an associate of the likes of revolutionary Marxist socialist journalist and literary critic Paul Lafargue and authored many books and papers, several of which were partly written with Lafargue. His best known and most influential work was Encyclopédie socialiste syndicale et coopérative de l'International ouvrière, published in 1912.
Louis Bouët was a French teacher and anarcho-syndicalist. He played a leading role in the National Federation of Teachers' Unions and in the socialist party. He was briefly a member of the steering committee of the French Communist Party. For many years he edited the pedagogical review L'Ecole Emancipée, which he had founded.
Alphonse Adolphe Merrheim was a French copper smith and trade union leader.
Albert Henri Bourderon was a French cooper and syndicalist who became a leading socialist. During World War I he supported a pacifist position in line with internationalist principles.
Marie Mayoux was a French teacher, revolutionary syndicalist, pacifist and libertarian. She and her husband François Mayoux were imprisoned during World War I (1914–18) for her pacifist activities.
François Mayoux was a French teacher who became in turn a socialist, communist and revolutionary syndicalist. He and his wife Marie Mayoux were imprisoned during World War I (1914–18) for publishing a pacifist pamphlet. He wrote many articles for anarchist journals.
Émiland Marie Gauthey was a French mathematician, civil engineer and architect. As an engineer for the États de Bourgogne, he was the creator of a great deal of the region's civil infrastructure, such as the Canal du Centre between Digoin and Chalon-sur-Saône (1784–1793), bridges including those at Navilly (1782–1790) and Gueugnon (1784–1787), and buildings such as the Eglise Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul at Givry (Saône-et-Loire) and the theatre at Chalon-sur-Saône.
Fernand Jean-Baptiste Dubief was a French doctor and Radical politician who was Minister of Commerce, Industry and PTT in 1905 and then Minister of the Interior in 1905–06.