Théodore Cornut

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Théodore Cornut
Cournut handwriting and signature 25 October 1767.jpg
Théodore Cornut handwriting and signature on his map of Essaouira, 25 October 1767.
NationalityFrench
Known forArchitect of Essaouira, Morocco.
Map of Essaouira bay, by Theodore Cornut, 1767. Map of Mogador by Theodore Cornut 1767.jpg
Map of Essaouira bay, by Théodore Cornut, 1767.
Map of Essaouira by Theodore Cornut. When he left Morocco in 1767, areas in pink were already built (streets are still recognizable), whether areas in yellow (harbour front, and medina) were only projected. Theodore Cornut Essaouira 1767.jpg
Map of Essaouira by Théodore Cornut. When he left Morocco in 1767, areas in pink were already built (streets are still recognizable), whether areas in yellow (harbour front, and medina) were only projected.
Theodore Cornut designed the Royal quarters or kasbah of the city of Essaouira. EssaouiraRamparts.png
Théodore Cornut designed the Royal quarters or kasbah of the city of Essaouira.

Théodore Cornut, also Cornout, was a French mathematician and military architect of the 18th century, born in Avignon, who worked for the King of Morocco.

France Republic in Europe with several non-European regions

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Mathematician person with an extensive knowledge of mathematics

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

Architect Person trained to plan and design buildings, and oversee their construction

An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.

Cornut initially worked as an architect for military fortifications in Roussillon. He then entered the service of the English Crown, and participated to the Seven Years' War. Later, based in Gibraltar, he was invited by Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah, an Alaouite Sultan, to build the city of Mogador (modern Essaouira) in 1766.

Roussillon Historical province in Pyrénées-Orientales, France

Roussillon is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia. It may also refer to Northern Catalonia or French Catalonia, the first used by Catalan-speakers and the second used by French-speakers, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrénées-Orientales save Fenouillèdes. A 1998 survey found that 34% of respondents stated they speak Catalan, and a further 21% understand it.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north­western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north­eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Seven Years War Global conflict between 1756 and 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global war fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved all five European great powers of the time plus many of the middle powers and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, India, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and a few other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, including the Electorate of Saxony and most of the smaller German states, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Spain, and Sweden. The Dutch Republic, Denmark-Norway, the Italian States, and the Ottoman Empire did not participate. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Cornut was to use the services of hundreds of French Christian prisoners, who had been taken during a failed assault in 1765 Larache expedition.

Christians people who adhere to Christianity

Christians are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. The words Christ and Christian derive from the Koine Greek title Christós (Χριστός), a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach (מָשִׁיחַ).

Larache expedition

The Larache expedition occurred in June 1765 when French Navy troops attacked the Moroccan city of Larache following a bombardment of Salé and Rabat. It is an example of the sporadic failure of Western arms against local forces in colonial campaigns.

He designed the city of Essaouira, and built it with the help of the prisoners. He built the surrounding walls similar to those of St Malo, and organized the streets of the Medina quarter according to a grid system. [1]

Medina quarter Old city section found in many North African cities

A medina quarter is a distinct city section found in a number of North African and Maltese cities. A medina is typically walled, with many narrow and maze-like streets. The word "medina" itself simply means "city" or "town" in modern-day Arabic, it cognates with Aramaic-Hebrew word referring to a city or populated area.

Walls of the Essaouira Kasbah designed and built by Cornut. Walls of the Essaouira Kasbah.jpg
Walls of the Essaouira Kasbah designed and built by Cornut.

Cornut only designed and built the Royal quarters, or kasbah area, of the current city. The rest of the medina was built afterwards, as were the sqalas, such as the harbour fortifications and the northern sqala fortifications.

Kasbah

A kasbah, or variant spelling casbah or qasbah in English, also known as qasaba, gasaba and quasabeh, in India qassabah, in Portuguese alcáçova, and in Spain alcazaba, is a type of medina or fortress (citadel). The meaning of the word kasbah is varied, including "keep", "old city" and "watchtower" or "blockhouse".

Overwhelmed by the amount of work involved in the construction of Essaouira, Cornut left his position after a year. He returned to France, where he drew his map of Essaouira with the planned constructions envisioned for the Sultan.

Notes

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Théodore Cornut at Wikimedia Commons


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