Théodore-Joseph-Dieudonné Herpin (27 August 1799 – 17 July 1865) was a French and Swiss neurologist who was a native of Lyon. He studied medicine at the Universities of Paris and Geneva, and spent most of his medical career at Geneva.
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km (292 mi) south from Paris, 320 km (199 mi) north from Marseille and 56 km (35 mi) northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais.
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, France, active 1150–1793, and 1806–1970.
The University of Geneva is a public research university located in Geneva, Switzerland.
Herpin is remembered for his extensive contributions made in the study of epilepsy. He examined hundreds of epileptic patients, and noticed that all epileptic episodes, whether they be complete or incomplete, started the same way, and surmised that they originated in the same location in the brain. Herpin's primary focus of epileptic research was to instruct other physicians to be able to recognize and treat the condition in its early stages. His pioneer research predated John Hughlings Jackson's (1835-1911) similar findings of the disorder.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can vary from brief and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can result in physical injuries, including occasionally broken bones. In epilepsy, seizures tend to recur and, as a rule, have no immediate underlying cause. Isolated seizures that are provoked by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy. People with epilepsy may be treated differently in various areas of the world and experience varying degrees of social stigma due to their condition.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 14–16 billion neurons, and the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is 55–70 billion. Each neuron is connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells.
John Hughlings Jackson, FRS was an English neurologist. He is best known for his research on epilepsy.
Herpin is also credited for his comprehensive description of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), also known as Janz syndrome, is a fairly common form of generalized epilepsy of presumed genetic origin, representing 5-10% of all epilepsy cases. This disorder typically first manifests itself between the ages of 12 and 18 with sudden brief involuntary single or multiple episodes of muscle(s) contractions caused by an abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. These events typically occur either early in the morning or upon sleep deprivation. Additional clinical presentations include seizures with either a motor or nonmotor generalized onset. Genetic studies have demonstrated several loci for JME and identified mutations in 4 genes.
Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.
A seizure, technically known as an epileptic seizure, is a period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. Outward effects vary from uncontrolled shaking movements involving much of the body with loss of consciousness, to shaking movements involving only part of the body with variable levels of consciousness, to a subtle momentary loss of awareness. Most of the time these episodes last less than 2 minutes and it takes some time to return to normal. Loss of bladder control may occur.
Horace Bénédict de Saussure was a Swiss geologist, meteorologist, physicist, mountaineer and Alpine explorer, often called the founder of alpinism and modern meteorology, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
Jean Senebier was a Genevan Calvinist pastor and naturalist. He was born in Geneva, the son of a wealthy merchant. He wrote extensively on plant physiology and was one of the major early pioneers of photosynthesis research. Senebier also published on the experimental method, first in 1775, and then in an expanded work, in 1802. His precise definition of the experimental method anticipated the work of noted French physiologist Claude Bernard fifty years later. Senebier also served as chief librarian of the Republic of Geneva.
L'Ascension du haut mal, published in English as Epileptic, is an autobiographical graphic novel by David Beauchard.
Henri Jean Pascal Gastaut was a French neurologist and epileptologist.
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure was a Swiss chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry. He is one of the major pioneers in the study of photosynthesis.
Josemir W. Sander, also known as Ley Sander, is the ES Professor of Neurology and Clinical Epilepsy at the Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, Institute of Neurology of University College London. He is Honorary Consultant Neurologist and Clinical Lead for Epilepsy at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London and at the Epilepsy Society's Sir William Gowers Assessment Centre in Buckinghamshire. Sander is Head of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Neurosciences, London and Medical Director of the Epilepsy Society, based at the Chalfont Centre for Epilepsy. Sander is also the Director for Scientific Research at SEIN – Stichting Epilepsie Instellingen Nederland in Heemstede.
Otfrid Foerster was a German neurologist and neurosurgeon, who made innovative contributions to neurology and neurosurgery, such as rhizotomy for the treatment of spasticity, anterolateral cordotomy for pain, the hyperventilation test for epilepsy, Foerster's syndrome, the first electrocorticogram of a brain tumor, and the first surgeries for epilepsy. He is also known as the first to describe the dermatomes, and he helped map the motor cortex of the cerebrum .
Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is the practice of recording electroencephalographic signals via depth electrodes. It may be used in patients with epilepsy not responding to medical treatment, and who are potential candidates to receive brain surgery in order to control seizures. It may also be used in research to collect neural data from specific regions of the brain, such as from the auditory cortex for auditory stimulus reconstruction.
Racine stages are a categorization of epileptic seizures proposed by Ronald J. Racine in 1972. Prior to Racine's research in epilepsy, a quantifiable means to describe seizure intensities and their causes was not readily available. Racine's work allowed for epilepsy to be understood on a level previously thought impossible.
Otto Ludwig Binswanger was a Swiss psychiatrist and neurologist who came from a famous family of physicians; his father was founder of the Kreuzlingen Sanatorium, and he was uncle to Ludwig Binswanger (1881–1966) who was a major figure in the existential psychology movement. He was brother-in-law to physiotherapist Heinrich Averbeck (1844–1889). Other notable family members include his son in law, Hans-Constantin Paulssen, the first president of the German Confederation of German Employers' Associations.
Louis Jean François Delasiauve was a French psychiatrist.
Epilepsy and driving is a personal and safety issue. A person with a seizure disorder that causes lapses in consciousness may be putting the public at risk from their operation of a motor vehicle. Not only can a seizure itself cause an accident, but anticonvulsants often have side effects that include drowsiness. People with epilepsy are more likely to be involved in a traffic accident than people who do not have the condition, although reports range from minimally more likely up to seven times more likely.
The exorcism of a boy possessed by a demon, or a boy with a mute spirit, is one of the miracles attributed to Jesus reported in the synoptic Gospels, involving the healing of a demonically possessed boy through exorcism. The account appears first in the Gospel of Mark and is repeated, slightly amended, in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. In the Gospel narratives, this healing takes place following the Transfiguration.
William Philip Spratling was an American neurologist known for his advances in the treatment and study of epilepsy; he is often described as the first American epileptologist — a word he is credited with having coined in his 1904 work Epilepsy and Its Treatment.
Charlotte Dravet is a French paediatric psychiatrist and epileptologist.
Fabrice Bartolomei is a French neurologist and neurophysiologist, Hospital practitioner and University Professor at Aix-Marseille University (AMU), leading the Service de Neurophysiologie Clinique of the Timone Hospital at the Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille, and he is the medical director of the ‘Centre Saint-Paul - Hopital Henri Gastaut’. He is the coordinator of the clinical network CINAPSE that is dedicated to the management of adult and pediatric cases of severe epilepsies and leader of the Federation Hospitalo-Universitaire Epinext. He is also member of the research unit Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes](INS), UMR1106, Inserm - AMU.
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