Théodore Olivier

Last updated
Théodore Olivier
Theodore Olivier.jpg
Born(1793-01-14)January 14, 1793
DiedAugust 5, 1853(1853-08-05) (aged 60)
Resting place Montparnasse Cemetery
48°50′17″N2°19′37″E / 48.83806°N 2.32694°E / 48.83806; 2.32694
Alma mater École Polytechnique
Scientific career
Fields Mathematics
Institutions Ecole centrale des arts et manufactures
Influences Gaspard Monge

Théodore Olivier (1793–1853) was a French mathematician.

Contents

Life and work

Olivier studied in the Licée Imperial of Lyon where he obtained in 1811 a degree in mathematics with high honours. After this, he went to the École Polytechnique. [1] Olivier looked like Napoleon, but nobody could prove that Olivier was an illegitimate son of the Emperor. [2]

In 1815, he was an adjunct professor in the Artillery School at Metz and, in 1819, he became a full professor. In 1821, at the request of the King of Sweden, Charles XIV John (Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte), he went to Sweden to organize the military school of Mariemberg. [3]

Returning to France, Oliver criticized the pedagogical system in the École Polytechnique and in 1829, jointly with Alphonse Lavallée, Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean Claude Eugène Péclet, founded the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, where he was professor of geometry and mechanics for the rest of his life. [4] He also was, between 1830 and 1844, a professor at the École Polytechnique and, from 1838, a professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers. [5]

Example of an Olivier's geometrical model conserved in the Canadian Science Museum Hiperboloide Theodore Olivier.jpg
Example of an Olivier's geometrical model conserved in the Canadian Science Museum

Olivier is mainly known for the construction of three-dimensional models of geometry for pedagogical purposes. [4] Most of them were sold to North American institutions such as Union College, the University of Columbia and West Point, where they are preserved. [6]

Olivier also studied the theory of gears, writing an extensive treatise on the subject, and constructing models, preserved in the Musée des Art et Offices in Paris. [7]

Olivier had no children, but he was the uncle of the French explorer Aimé Olivier de Sanderval.

Related Research Articles

Jean Claude Eugène Péclet French physicist

Jean Claude Eugène Péclet was a French physicist.

Anselme Payen French chemist

Anselme Payen was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

Gaspard Monge French mathematician, inventor of descriptive geometry and father of differential geometry (1746-1818)

Gaspard Monge, Comte de Péluse was a French mathematician, the inventor of descriptive geometry, and the father of differential geometry. During the French Revolution he served as the Minister of the Marine, and was involved in the reform of the French educational system, helping to found the École Polytechnique.

École Centrale Paris French university-level institution (grande école) in the field of engineering

École Centrale Paris, often referred to as École Centrale or Centrale, was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was also known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures.

André Sainte-Laguë was a French mathematician who was a pioneer in the area of graph theory. His research on seat allocation methods led to one being named after him, the Sainte-Laguë method. Also named after him is the Sainte-Laguë Index for measuring the proportionality of an electoral outcome.

Conservatoire national des arts et métiers French engineering school founded in 1794

The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public.

Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde was a French mathematician, musician and chemist who worked with Bézout and Lavoisier; his name is now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics.

University of Toulouse former French university in Toulouse existing from 1229 to 1793, and 1896 to 1969

The University of Toulouse is a university in France that was established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name.

Pierre-Louis Lions French mathematician and Fields Medalist

Pierre-Louis Lions is a French mathematician. He is a recipient of the 1994 Fields Medal.

The grands établissements are French public institutions under ministerial charter under the administrative category referred to as Établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (EPCSP).

Yves Meyer French mathematician

Yves F. Meyer is a French mathematician. He is among the progenitors of wavelet theory, having proposed the Meyer wavelet. Meyer was awarded the Abel Prize in 2017.

Charles Dupin French mathematician (1784-1873)

Baron Pierre Charles François Dupin was a French Catholic mathematician, engineer, economist and politician, particularly known for work in the field of mathematics, where the Dupin cyclide and Dupin indicatrix are named after him; and for his work in the field of statistical and thematic mapping, In 1826 he created the earliest known choropleth map.

Paris Dauphine University, often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine, is a public research institution in Paris, France. It is the only institution in France to be both a grande école and University. Dauphine was founded as a faculty of economics and management in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in western Paris, in the 16th arrondissement.

Jean-Baptiste Bélanger French applied mathematician

Jean-Baptiste Charles Joseph Bélanger was a French applied mathematician who worked in the areas of hydraulics and hydrodynamics. He was a professor at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, École Polytechnique and École des Ponts et Chaussées in France. In hydraulic engineering, he is often credited improperly for the application of the momentum principle to a hydraulic jump in a rectangular open channel in 1828. His true contribution in 1828 was the development of the backwater equation for gradually varied flows in open channels Bélanger 1828 and the application of the momentum principle to the hydraulic jump flow in 1838.Bélanger 1841

Thierry de Montbrial economist

Thierry de Montbrial is the Executive Chairman of the French Institute of International Relations (Ifri), which he founded in 1979. He is also the founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference (WPC), which he created in 2008. He has been a member of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences since 1992, and he was President of the Institut de France. He is an honorary member of numerous foreign academies.

Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui French economist (1798-1854)

Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui was a French economist. His most important contributions were made in labour economics, economic history and especially the history of economic thought, in which field his 1837 treatise has been the first major work. He was a disciple of Jean-Baptiste Say to whom he succeeded in 1833 to the chair of political economy at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, and a free trader.

Alphonse Du Breuil or Dubreil was a French botanist and horticulturist. He was born and died in Rouen. In the Jardin des Plantes de Rouen he started the first school for the care of fruit trees. From 1853 he was professor of arboriculture at the Conservatoire des arts et métiers in Paris, and from 1848 was professor of agriculture at the École d'Agriculture.

Claude Lucien Bergery (1787–1863) was a French economist and management theorist. He was a founder of scientific management.

Jean Salençon is a French physicist born on November 13, 1940. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the French Academy of Technologies.

References

  1. Nesme, page 4.
  2. Hervé, page 294.
  3. Nesme, pages 5–6.
  4. 1 2 Nesme, page 7.
  5. Hervé, page 296.
  6. Hervé, page 298.
  7. Hervé, pages 305 and follow.

Bibliography