Théodore Olivier

Last updated
Théodore Olivier
Theodore Olivier.jpg
Born(1793-01-14)January 14, 1793
DiedAugust 5, 1853(1853-08-05) (aged 60)
Resting place Montparnasse Cemetery
48°50′17″N2°19′37″E / 48.83806°N 2.32694°E / 48.83806; 2.32694
Alma mater École Polytechnique
Scientific career
Fields Mathematics
Institutions Ecole centrale des arts et manufactures
Influences Gaspard Monge

Théodore Olivier (1793–1853) was a French mathematician.

Contents

Life and work

Olivier studied in the Licée Imperial of Lyon where he obtained in 1811 a degree in mathematics with high honours. After this, he went to the École Polytechnique. [1] Olivier looked like Napoleon, but nobody could prove that Olivier was an illegitimate son of the Emperor. [2]

In 1815, he was an adjunct professor in the Artillery School at Metz and, in 1819, he became a full professor. In 1821, at the request of the King of Sweden, Charles XIV John (Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte), he went to Sweden to organize the military school of Mariemberg. [3]

Returning to France, Oliver criticized the pedagogical system in the École Polytechnique and in 1829, jointly with Alphonse Lavallée, Jean-Baptiste Dumas and Jean Claude Eugène Péclet, founded the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, where he was professor of geometry and mechanics for the rest of his life. [4] He also was, between 1830 and 1844, a professor at the École Polytechnique and, from 1838, a professor at the École Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Métiers. [5]

Example of an Olivier's geometrical model conserved in the Canadian Science Museum Hiperboloide Theodore Olivier.jpg
Example of an Olivier's geometrical model conserved in the Canadian Science Museum

Olivier is mainly known for the construction of three-dimensional models of geometry for pedagogical purposes. [4] Most of them were sold to North American institutions such as Union College, the University of Columbia and West Point, where they are preserved. [6]

Olivier also studied the theory of gears, writing an extensive treatise on the subject, and constructing models, preserved in the Musée des Art et Offices in Paris. [7]

Olivier had no children, but he was the uncle of the French explorer Aimé Olivier de Sanderval.

Related Research Articles

Jean Claude Eugène Péclet

Jean Claude Eugène Péclet was a French physicist.

Anselme Payen French chemist

Anselme Payen was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.

École Centrale Paris

École Centrale Paris, often referred to as École Centrale or Centrale, was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was also known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures.

André Sainte-Laguë was a French mathematician who was a pioneer in the area of graph theory. His research on seat allocation methods led to one being named after him, the Sainte-Laguë method. Also named after him is the Sainte-Laguë Index for measuring the proportionality of an electoral outcome.

Conservatoire national des arts et métiers

The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a grand établissement and grande école of engineering, located in Paris, France. It is dedicated to provide education and conduct research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public.

Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde was a French mathematician, musician and chemist who worked with Bézout and Lavoisier; his name is now principally associated with determinant theory in mathematics.

University of Toulouse

The University of Toulouse was a university in France that was established by papal bull in 1229, making it one of the earliest universities to emerge in Europe. Since the closing of the university in 1793 due to the French Revolution, the University of Toulouse no longer exists as a single institution. However, there have been several independent "successor" universities inheriting the name.

Pierre-Louis Lions French mathematician (born 1956)

Pierre-Louis Lions is a French mathematician. He is a recipient of the 1994 Fields Medal.

Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette French mathematician

Jean Nicolas Pierre Hachette, French mathematician, was born at Mézières, where his father was a bookseller.

The grands établissements are French public institutions under ministerial charter under the administrative category referred to as Établissements publics à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel (EPCSP).

Yves Meyer French mathematician

Yves F. Meyer is a French mathematician. He is among the progenitors of wavelet theory, having proposed the Meyer wavelet. Meyer was awarded the Abel Prize in 2017.

Charles Dupin

Baron Pierre Charles François Dupin was a French Catholic mathematician, engineer, economist and politician, particularly known for work in the field of mathematics, where the Dupin cyclide and Dupin indicatrix are named after him; and for his work in the field of statistical and thematic mapping, In 1826 he created the earliest known choropleth map.

Paris Dauphine University, often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine, is a public research institution of PSL University, in Paris, France. It is the only institution in France to be both a grande école and University. Dauphine was founded as a faculty of economics and management in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in western Paris, in the 16th arrondissement.

Jean-Baptiste Bélanger French mathematician

Jean-Baptiste Charles Joseph Bélanger was a French applied mathematician who worked in the areas of hydraulics and hydrodynamics. He was a professor at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, École Polytechnique and École des Ponts et Chaussées in France. In hydraulic engineering, he is often credited improperly for the application of the momentum principle to a hydraulic jump in a rectangular open channel in 1828. His true contribution in 1828 was the development of the backwater equation for gradually varied flows in open channels Bélanger 1828 and the application of the momentum principle to the hydraulic jump flow in 1838.Bélanger 1841

Thierry de Montbrial

Thierry de Montbrial is the Executive Chairman of the French Institute of International Relations (Ifri), which he founded in 1979. He is also the founder and Chairman of the World Policy Conference (WPC), which he created in 2008. He has been a member of the French Academy of Moral and Political Sciences since 1992. He is an honorary member of numerous foreign academies.

Alphonse Du Breuil or Dubreil was a French botanist and horticulturist. He was born and died in Rouen. In the Jardin des Plantes de Rouen he started the first school for the care of fruit trees. From 1853 he was professor of arboriculture at the Conservatoire des arts et métiers in Paris, and from 1848 was professor of agriculture at the École d'Agriculture.

Claude Lucien Bergery (1787–1863) was a French economist and management theorist. He was a founder of scientific management.

Jean Salençon is a French physicist born on November 13, 1940. He is a member of the French Academy of Sciences and the French Academy of Technologies.

Georges Baptiste François Allix was a military engineer in the French Navy. In particular, he was the designer of the screw frigate La Souveraine, launched in Lorient on 3 June 1856.

References

  1. Nesme, page 4.
  2. Hervé, page 294.
  3. Nesme, pages 5–6.
  4. 1 2 Nesme, page 7.
  5. Hervé, page 296.
  6. Hervé, page 298.
  7. Hervé, pages 305 and follow.

Bibliography