Théodore Pescatore

Last updated

Théodore Pescatore (6 February 1802 – 23 August 1878) was a Luxembourgian politician. One of the most important liberals in the mid-19th century, [1] he was president of the Constituent Assembly that wrote Luxembourg's Constitution in 1848. He later held the position of President of the Chamber of Deputies for two years.

Luxembourg grand duchy in Western Europe

Luxembourg, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south. Its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture, people, and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French, German, and the national language, Luxembourgish. The repeated invasions by Germany, especially in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union.

Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support civil rights, democracy, secularism, gender equality, racial equality, internationalism, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and free markets.

The Constituent Assembly of Luxembourg was a constituent assembly called in 1848 in Luxembourg to write and pass a new national constitution.

Pescatore studied law at the University of Liège, but, instead of pursuing a career in the law, Pescatore attended a military academy in the Netherlands, and, upon returning to Luxembourg, in 1827, he was recruited as a lieutenant into the guard of Luxembourg City. [1] However, after three years, Pescatore's anti-Orangist and pro-Belgian political sympathies forced him out of the military. [1] Instead, he joined with his cousins to set up a faience factory in Eich, where his brother was mayor. [1] After seven years, they merged into the Société d'industrie luxembourgeoise, [1] and Pescatore helped set up Auguste Metz & Cie with Auguste Metz and his brothers Charles and Norbert. [2]

University of Liège Belgian university

The University of Liège (ULiège), in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium. Its official language is French. As of 2016, ULiège is ranked in the #251–300 category worldwide according to Times Higher Education, 265nd by QS World University Rankings, and between the 205th and 300th place by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. More than 2000 people, academics, scientists and technicians, are involved in research of a wide variety of subjects from basic research to applied research.

Military academy higher education institution operated by or for the military

A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

Netherlands Constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Europe

The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Including three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.

In 1841, he was appointed to the 'Commission of Nine' in the Hague that advised the King-Grand Duke on the Luxembourgian issues, including the drafting of a constitution. [3] From 30 October 1841, he was a member of the Assembly of Estates for Mersch, and entered the Commission of Government under the governor, Gaspard-Théodore-Ignace de la Fontaine. [3] Pescatore was charged with negotiating a treaty on the terms of Luxembourg's membership of the Zollverein, in place of F. H. W. de Scherff, who had fallen ill. [4]

The Hague City and municipality in South Holland, Netherlands

The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is also the seat of government of the Netherlands.

The designation of King-Grand Duke was held by the three monarchs of the House of Orange-Nassau that ruled Luxembourg and the Netherlands in personal union, between 1815 and 1890. These monarchs thus held the titles of King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg concurrently, and, although not strictly a title in its own right, that of 'King-Grand Duke' was used in legislation and official documents in Luxembourg throughout the period.

The Assembly of Estates was the legislature of Luxembourg from 1841 to 1848, and again from 1856 to 1868.

He was elected to the 1848 Constituent Assembly, representing Luxembourg canton. Appointed the first chair of the constituent assembly, he advocated heavy involvement with the Frankfurt Parliament. [4] In the elections to the first Chamber of Deputies after the promulgation of the constitution, Pescatore ran for Luxembourg canton, and found himself in the unique position of being top of the electoral lists of all three parties. [5] Despite having been in government before 1848, he showed no interest in returning afterwards, [4] and remained a legislator, being elected Vice-President of the Chamber in 1852, with Charles Metz as President. [5] With the death of Metz the following year, Pescatore became the new President of the Chamber, whilst the Willmar government was replaced by one under Charles-Mathias Simons. [5]

Frankfurt Parliament first parliament for all of Germany (1849-1849)

The Frankfurt Parliament was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany, elected on 1 May 1848.

Jean-Jacques Willmar Prime Minister of Luxembourg

Jean-Jacques Madeleine Willmar was a Luxembourgian politician and jurist. An Orangist, he was the second Prime Minister of Luxembourg, serving for five years, from 6 December 1848 until 23 September 1853.

Charles-Mathias Simons Belgian politician

Charles-Mathias Simons was a Luxembourgian politician and jurist. He was the third Prime Minister of Luxembourg, serving for seven years, from 1853 until 1860.

With, however, the death of Auguste Metz in 1855, and the subsequent retirement of Charles Metz, the radicals that formed Pescatore's support base withered, and he was replaced as President of the Chamber by Victor de Tornaco. [6] He decided to resign as deputy, as well, but returned when reelected at the head of the liberals' list in Luxembourg canton on 30 November 1857. [6] He returned as President of the Chamber, being elected by 21 votes to 3. [7] He held this position until 1866, when he stood down as President, and he retired as a deputy in 1869. [8]

Victor de Tornaco Luxembourgish politician

Baron Victor de Tornaco was a Luxembourgian politician. An Orangist, he was the fourth Prime Minister of Luxembourg, serving for seven years, from 26 September 1860 until 3 December 1867.

Pescatore died on 23 August 1878 after a long illness. [8]

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Mersch (1949), p. 506
  2. Mersch (1963), p. 550
  3. 1 2 Mersch (1949), p. 507
  4. 1 2 3 Mersch (1949), p. 508
  5. 1 2 3 Mersch (1949), p. 509
  6. 1 2 Mersch (1949), p. 510
  7. Mersch (1949), p. 511
  8. 1 2 Mersch (1949), p. 512

Related Research Articles

Emmanuel Servais Prime Minister of Luxembourg

Lambert Joseph Emmanuel Servais was a Luxembourgian politician. He held numerous offices of national importance, foremost amongst which was in serving as the fifth Prime Minister of Luxembourg, for seven years, from 3 December 1867 until 26 December 1874.

Antoine Lefort-Mousel was a Luxembourgish politician and diplomat. A member of Luxembourg's Chamber of Deputies for the Party of the Right, he served as the Director-General for Public Works from 24 February 1916 until 28 September 1918. Later, he served as a diplomat, including as chargé d'affaires in Switzerland.

Théophile Funck-Brentano was a Luxembourgian-French sociologist.

Émile Servais Luxembourgian politician

Émile Servais was a Luxembourgian left liberal politician. He was an engineer by profession.

Charles-Gérard Eyschen was a Luxembourgish politician and jurist. An Orangist, Eyschen served in the cabinet of Charles-Mathias Simons as Director-General for Justice.

Robert Brasseur was a Luxembourgish politician, jurist, and journalist.

Xavier Brasseur Luxembourgian politician

François Xavier Brasseur was a Luxembourgian politician and jurist.

Dominique Alexis Brasseur-Brasseur was a Luxembourgian politician and jurist. He served as Mayor of Luxembourg City between 1891 and 1894.

Charles Mathias Édouard Simonis was a Luxembourgian politician and jurist. Simonis was Mayor of Luxembourg City from 1873 until his premature death, in 1875. He also sat in the Chamber of Deputies. In the Chamber, he was notable for his leadership of the campaign against the creation of a National Bank, which he maintained until his death. Simonis was one of 26 subscribers, along with various other notable liberal politicians, to the Companie des Hauts Fourneaux Luxembourgeois.

François Altwies was a Luxembourgian politician. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies, of which he served as President from 1917 until 1925.

Auguste Laval Luxembourgian politician

Antoine Marie Auguste Laval-Metz was a Luxembourgish politician and industrialist. He sat in the Chamber of Deputies, of which he served as President from 1905 until 1915.

Jean-Joseph Norbert Metz was a Luxembourgish politician and engineer. With his two brothers, members of the powerful Metz family, Charles and Auguste, Metz defined political and economic life in Luxembourg in the mid-nineteenth century.

The Metz family is a family in Luxembourg that was prominent in politics and industry in the mid- and late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The head of the household was Jean Metz, who had nine children. This second generation included Auguste Metz, Charles Metz, and Norbert Metz, who were all leading liberal politicians during the early stages of Luxembourg's independence, in the mid-nineteenth century. These three brothers defined political and economic life in Luxembourg in the mid-nineteenth century, and their children included further political and industrial leaders.

Charles-Léon Metz was a Luxembourgish politician and industrialist. He was a member of the Chamber of Deputies for forty-three years (1875–1918), and served as Mayor of Esch-sur-Alzette from 1906 to 1909.

Jean-Antoine Auguste Metz was a Luxembourgian entrepreneur, politician, and lawyer. He was a major player in the growing steel industry in Luxembourg during the nineteenth century, as well as a leading liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, along with his brothers.

Charles Metz Luxembourgian politician

Charles Gérard Emmanuel Metz was a Luxembourgian politician, journalist, and lawyer. He was a prominent pro-Belgian in the Belgian Revolution, serving in the Belgian national legislature, before entering the Chamber of Deputies of Luxembourg, of which he was the first President, from 1848 to 1853.

Paul de Scherff was a Luxembourgian politician.

Pierre-Ernest Dams was a Luxembourgish politician, judge, and journalist. He was a major figure in the formative years of Luxembourg as an independent country.

Constantin-Joseph-Antoine Pescatore, known as Antoine Pescatore, was born on 16 December 1787 in Luxembourg City, and died on 31 October 1858 in Sandweiler. He was a businessman and politician.

References

Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Metz
President of the Chamber of Deputies
1st time

1853–1855
Succeeded by
Baron de Tornaco
Preceded by
Norbert Metz
President of the Chamber of Deputies
2nd time

1860–1866
Succeeded by
Michel Witry