Simon in Brazil in 1928
|Died||4 September 1961 89) (aged|
Théodore Simon (French: [simɔ̃] ; 10 July 1873 – 4 September 1961) was a French psychologist who worked with Alfred Binet to develop the Binet-Simon scale, one of the most widely used scales in the world for measuring intelligence. This scale was revised in 1908 and 1911, and served as a template for the development of newer scales. Simon worked at various hospitals throughout France, including Sainte-Anne[ where? ] and Dury-les-Amiens. He also worked as the head psychiatrist at Saint-Yon [ where? ] hospital and as a medical director at Perray-Vaucluse.[ where? ] He was also the founder of the first nursing school in psychiatry at the Maison Blanche hospital in Neuilly-sur-Marne, in 1946. The training institute which continues to this day bears his name.
Théodore Simon was born on 10 July 1873 in Dijon, France. Simon's father worked as a railroad engineer for PLM.His early life was filled with great loss of family members. After becoming orphaned, Simon lived with his uncle in Sens. Simon's older brother also died at the young age of 23. During much of his early life, he was fascinated by Alfred Binet's work and constantly read his books. Simon was a medical doctor and was interested in questions of both philosophy and psychology. His interest in psychology continually increased, especially as the need for clinical experience in the field decreased.
In 1899, Simon was appointed as an intern at the asylum at Perray-Vaucluse where he began his famous work on abnormal children.This drew Binet's attention, who was at the time studying the correlation between physical growth and intellectual development. Binet came to the asylum and continued his work there with Simon. This research led to Simon's medical thesis on the topic in 1900.
From 1901-1905, Simon worked in various hospitals, from Sainte-Anne[ where? ] to Dury-les-Amiens. In March 1903, Simon worked with Binet in the Free Society for the Psychological Study of Children, which was dedicated to the discussion and the creation of a plan to aid in identifying and improving the education of abnormal children. This sparked Binet and Simon's work on establishing a scale to identify abnormal children. Simon and Binet released the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale to the public for the first time in 1905. The Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale would become the most widely used device for measuring a person's intelligence. The Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale premiered in L'Année psychologique a journal founded by Binet in 1895.
Simon was critical of the immoderate and improper use of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale by other psychologists and professionals due to his belief that the scale was being over-used, which may have been an inappropriate use of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale, which prevents other psychologists from achieving Binet's ultimate goal of understanding human beings, their nature, and their development.
The Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale was revised in 1908 and again in 1911.Simon kept the scale the same after Binet's death as a sign of respect for one of history's greatest psychologists and Simon's true idol.
After 1905 until 1920, Simon worked as the head psychiatrist at Saint-Yon hospital in Essonne department in Île-de-France (northern France).[ where? ] In 1920, he returned as medical director at Perray-Vaucluse until 1930. From there, he moved to act as medical director until late 1936, when he retired. Starting in 1912, Simon was also a long-time president and editor for Bulletin of Société Alfred Binet. In 1946 Simon established the first specialized nursing school. Originally the Ecole des Bleues, and later renamed L'Ecole d'Infirmières de Maison-Blanche, it is now the Institut de Formation Interhospitalier Theodore Simon. He served as the technical director for 11 years (1946–1957).
Simon died in 1961.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests or subtests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book.
Alfred Binet, born Alfredo Binetti, was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test. In 1905, the French Ministry of Education asked psychologist Alfred Binet to devise a method that would determine which students did not learn effectively from regular classroom instruction so they could be given remedial work. Along with his collaborator Théodore Simon, Binet published revisions of his test in 1908 and 1911, the last of which appeared just before his death.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests. Psychological tests are administered by trained evaluators. A person's responses are evaluated according to carefully prescribed guidelines. Scores are thought to reflect individual differences in the construct the test purports to measure.The science behind psychological testing is psychometrics.
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David Wechsler was a Romanian-American psychologist. He developed well-known intelligence scales, such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Wechsler as the 51st most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context.
Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the human mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.
Lewis Madison Terman was an American psychologist and author. He was noted as a pioneer in educational psychology in the early 20th century at the Stanford Graduate School of Education. He is best known for his revision of the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales and for initiating the longitudinal study of children with high IQs called the Genetic Studies of Genius. He was a prominent eugenicist and was a member of the Human Betterment Foundation. He also served as president of the American Psychological Association. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Terman as the 72nd most cited psychologist of the 20th century, in a tie with G. Stanley Hall.
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Samuel Calmin Kohs was an American psychologist who spent his career in clinical and educational psychology. He was awarded a B.A. degree at City College of New York, an M.A. at Clark University. He developed for his doctoral dissertation in 1919 at Stanford University a set of small variously colored blocks that are used to form test patterns in psychodiagnostic examination.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human intelligence:
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Elizabeth Kite was an American historian specializing in Franco-American history.