Portrait of Doctor Théodore Tronchin (1709–1781), in Geneva by René Gaillard in 1785, from a work by Jean-Etienne Liotard
|Born||24 May 1703|
|Died||30 November 1781|
|Alma mater||University of Cambridge|
Théodore Tronchin (24 May 1709 – 30 November 1781) was a Genevan physician.
A native of Geneva, he studied initially at the University of Cambridge, then transferred to the University of Leiden, where he was a pupil of Herman Boerhaave (1668–1738). In 1730 he obtained his medical doctorate, and subsequently practiced medicine in Amsterdam. In the early 1750s he returned to Geneva, where he received the title of Professor Emeritus of Medicine, and later moved to Paris, where he opened a medical practice in 1766.
Tronchin was an influential 18th-century physician, whose popularity spread amongst European royalty and the upper classes. He was a good friend to several illustrious men, including Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot.In 1762 Tronchin was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1779 a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Tronchin is mentioned in passing as a great physician in the Marquis de Sade's " Philosophy in the Bedroom ".
He was a major proponent of inoculation for smallpox, and was responsible for the inoculation of several thousand patients in Switzerland, France and the Netherlands.
He was distrustful of traditional medical practices such as bloodletting and purging, and was an advocate of a simple and natural hygiene that stressed fresh air, diet and exercise. He was scornful of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive sleep, and dedicated several hours of the week to medical assistance for the poor.
Tronchin's written works were few, although he did publish a treatise titled "De colica pictonum", a work that explained the cause of Poitou colic due to lead poisoning. He also wrote part of the article "Innoculation" for Diderot's Encyclopédie (1751–1772).
François Quesnay was a French economist and physician of the Physiocratic school. He is known for publishing the "Tableau économique" in 1758, which provided the foundations of the ideas of the Physiocrats. This was perhaps the first work attempting to describe the workings of the economy in an analytical way, and as such can be viewed as one of the first important contributions to economic thought. His Le Despotisme de la Chine, written in 1767, describes Chinese politics and society, and his own political support for constitutional despotism.
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist. Until 1759 he was co-editor with Denis Diderot of the Encyclopédie. D'Alembert's formula for obtaining solutions to the wave equation is named after him. The wave equation is sometimes referred to as d'Alembert's equation.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations. It had many writers, known as the Encyclopédistes. It was edited by Denis Diderot and, until 1759, co-edited by Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton was a French naturalist and contributor to the Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers.
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Jean Le Clerc, also Johannes Clericus, was a Genevan theologian and biblical scholar. He was famous for promoting exegesis, or critical interpretation of the Bible, and was a radical of his age. He parted with Calvinism over his interpretations and left Geneva for that reason.
Chevalier Louis de Jaucourt was a French scholar and the most prolific contributor to the Encyclopédie. He wrote about 18,000 articles on subjects including physiology, chemistry, botany, pathology, and political history, or about 25% of the entire encyclopaedia, all done voluntarily. In the generations after the Encyclopédie's, mainly due to his aristocratic background, his legacy was largely overshadowed by the more bohemian Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and others, but by the mid-20th century more scholarly attention was being paid to him.
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Charles-Benjamin de Langes de Montmirail, baron de Lubières, 1714, Berlin – 1 June 1790, was a Genevan mathematician.
Jean Robert Tronchin, Attorney General, member of the State Council of Geneva was the son of Jean Tronchin (1672–1761). He busied himself on a friendly basis in Voltaire's interests and maintained a correspondence on artistic subjects with Denis Diderot.
Louis Necker, called de Germany was a Genevan mathematician, physicist, professor and a banker in Paris. He was the elder brother of Jacques Necker, minister of Finance in France when the French Revolution broke out.
Urbain de Vandenesse was an 18th-century French physician and Encyclopédiste.
Louis-Anne La Virotte was an 18th-century French physician and encyclopédiste.
Pierre-Jacques Willermoz was an 18th-century French physician and chemist.
Jean-Joseph Menuret, called Menuret de Chambaud was a French physician and author of a number of medical treatises.He also contributed to the Encyclopédie by Diderot and d'Alembert.
Michel-Philippe Bouvart was a French medical doctor.
Louis Jean Odier was a Genevan and then Swiss physician, medical campaigner and advisor; he was also a translator and publisher of medical texts - particularly from the English language. He was a major figure in medicine in 18th-century Europe because of his promotion of vaccination against smallpox and more broadly his lobbying for medical funds and usage of data from historical medical records, relating them to probability in life expectancy and subsequent advice for economic planning.