Théodule Devéria

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Théodule Charles Devéria
Eugene Francois Marie Joseph Deveria, Portrait of Charles Theodule Deveria, 1864 cropped.jpg
1864 portrait of Théodule by Eugène Devéria
Born(1831-07-01)1 July 1831
Died31 January 1871(1871-01-31) (aged 39)
NationalityFrench
Occupation Egyptologist
Parent(s) Achille Devéria
Céleste Motte

Théodule Charles Devéria (French:  [teodyl dəveʁja] ; 1 July 1831 – 31 January 1871) was a French photographer and Egyptologist who lived in the 19th century. He is known for his collaboration with Auguste Mariette. His younger brother was Gabriel Devéria.

Auguste Mariette French archaeologist and egyptologist

François Auguste Ferdinand Mariette was a French scholar, archaeologist and Egyptologist, and founder of the Egyptian Department of Antiquities.

Gabriel Devéria born 1844; died 1899; VIAF 29652334

Jean-Gabriel Devéria, known as Gabriel Devéria, was a French diplomat and interpreter who worked for the French diplomatic service in China from the age of sixteen. He was also a noted sinologist and pioneer Tangutologist who published one of the first studies of the Tangut script in 1898.

Contents

Life

Photograph of Theodule Deveria Theodule Charles Deveria.jpg
Photograph of Théodule Deveria

Théodule Charles Devéria was born in Paris on 1 July 1831, son of the painter Achille Devéria. In 1843 he met the Egyptologist Émile Prisse d'Avennes, who instilled in him an interest in the subject that was confirmed during a visit to the Leiden museum in 1846. He studied Coptic and Arabic, and attended the Collège de France where he was taught by Étienne Marc Quatremère. [1] He entered the Cabinet of Prints in 1851, where his father was the preserving assistant, and where he learned photography. [1]

Achille Devéria French painter

Achille Jacques-Jean-Marie Devéria was a French painter and lithographer known for his portraits of famous writers and artists. His younger brother was the Romantic painter Eugène Devéria, and two of his six children were Théodule Devéria and Gabriel Devéria.

Émile Prisse dAvennes French egyptologist

Achille-Constant-Théodore-Émile Prisse d'Avennes was a French archaeologist, Egyptologist, architect and writer.

Collège de France Higher education and research establishment

The Collège de France, founded in 1530, is a higher education and research establishment in France. It is located in Paris, in the 5th arrondissement, or Latin Quarter, across the street from the historical campus of La Sorbonne.

In 1855 Devéria created lithographs for publication from a set of negatives of photographs made in Egypt of excavations in Thebes. That year he joined the Louvre's Department of Egyptian Antiquities with the task of cataloging the many objects that Auguste Mariette had discovered during his excavations and sent to France. In 1856 he illustrated Mariette's Choix de monuments et de dessins découverts ou exécutés pendant le déblaiement du Sérapéum de Memphis. [1]

Louvre Art museum and Historic site in Paris, France

The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. Approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum, receiving 10.2 million visitors.

In December 1858 Devéria left for Egypt to help Mariette read inscriptions in Cairo and its surroundings. He tried to accurately document the archaeological sites using drawings, stampings and photographs. His calotype pictures from this trip are often poor in quality, showing a lack of technical skills. In 1860 he was appointed preserving assistant at the Louvre's Department of Egyptology. He revisited Egypt in 1861–62, traveling up the Nile to Philae at the First Cataract, and into Nubia to the Abu Simbel temples. After returning he helped Mariette prepare descriptions of the excavation in Egypt in 1850–54 for publication. [1]

Calotype an early photographic process

Calotype or talbotype is an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide. The term calotype comes from the Greek καλός (kalos), "beautiful", and τύπος (tupos), "impression".

Philae island in Nile, Egypt

Philae is an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt. Philae was originally located near the expansive First Cataract of the Nile in Upper Egypt and was the site of an Egyptian temple complex. These rapids and the surrounding area have been variously flooded since the initial construction of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The temple complex was dismantled and moved to nearby Agilkia Island as part of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign project, protecting this and other complexes before the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam. The hieroglyphic reliefs of the temple complex are being studied and published by the Philae Temple Text Project of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna.

Nubia region along the Nile river, which is located in northern Sudan and southern Egypt

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2500 BC onward with the Kerma culture. The latter was conquered by the New Kingdom of Egypt under pharaoh Thutmose I around 1500 BC. Nubia was home to several empires, most prominently the kingdom of Kush, which conquered Egypt during the 8th century BC during the reign of Piye and ruled the country as its Twenty-fifth Dynasty.

In November 1864 Devéria met the future oriental scholar Arthur Rhoné (1836–1910). A month later Devéria, Rhoné and some friends sailed to Egypt, where they visited Alexandria, Cairo, Memphis, and saw the work on the Suez Canal by Ferdinand de Lesseps. [2] Devéria made drawings and took photographs that were reproduced in an album of 77 plates. [1] The party went on to the Holy Land, Damascus and Istanbul. [3] Devéria made a fourth and last visit to Egypt in 1865-66, traveling with Mariette. In 1868 he was made a knight of the Legion of Honor. He died in Paris on 31 January 1871.

Arthur Rhoné

Arthur-Ali Rhoné was a wealthy amateur French Arabist and Egyptologist. He was known for his efforts to prevent the vandalism of monuments in Cairo, Egypt, and in Paris, France. Often the destruction was done in the name of restoration, or of other improvements to the city.

Alexandria Metropolis in Egypt

Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also a popular tourist destination.

Cairo City in Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.

The renowned Sir E. A. Wallis Budge noted of him, "No other scholar had such a wide and competent knowledge of the Book of the Dead ", and that his death was a "great loss" to Egyptology. [4]

Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge was an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum and published numerous works on the ancient Near East. He made numerous trips to Egypt and the Sudan on behalf of the British Museum to buy antiquities, and helped it build its collection of cuneiform tablets, manuscripts, and papyri. He published many books on Egyptology, helping to bring the findings to larger audiences. In 1920, he was knighted for his service to Egyptology and the British Museum.

<i>Book of the Dead</i> Ancient Egyptian funerary text

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Bajac 2013, p. 414.
  2. Volait 2006, p. 2.
  3. Volait 2006, p. 3.
  4. Budge 2003, p. 53.

Sources