Théophile-Jules Pelouze

Last updated
Theophile-Jules Pelouze Theophile-Jules Pelouze.jpg
Théophile-Jules Pelouze
Theophile-Jules Pelouze Theophile Jules Pelouze.jpg
Théophile-Jules Pelouze

Théophile-Jules Pelouze (also known as Jules Pelouze, Théophile Pelouze, Theo Pelouze, or T. J. Pelouze, pronounced  [pəluz] ; 26 February 1807 – 31 May 1867) was a French chemist.

Contents

Life

He was born at Valognes, and died in Paris.

His father, Edmond Pelouze, was an industrial chemist and the author of several technical handbooks. The son, after spending some time in a pharmacy at La Fère acted as laboratory assistant to Gay-Lussac and Jean Louis Lassaigne at Paris from 1827 to 1829. In 1830 he was appointed associate professor of chemistry at Lille, but returning to Paris next year became repetiteur, and subsequently professor at the École polytechnique. He also held the chair of chemistry at the Collège de France, and in 1833 became assayer to the mint and in 1848 president of the Commission des Monnaies. He resigned all his public positions in 1852. [1]

After the coup d'état in 1851 he resigned his appointments, but continued to conduct an experimental laboratory-school he had started in 1846. There he worked with the explosive material guncotton and other nitrosulphates. His student Ascanio Sobrero was the discoverer of nitroglycerin (1847), and another student, Alfred Nobel, was to take that discovery on to great heights in the form of commercial explosives including dynamite. He was a major inspiration for both students.

Though Pelouze made no discovery of outstanding importance, he was a busy investigator, his work including researches on salicin, on beetroot sugar, on various organic acids (gallic, malic, tartaric, butyric, lactic, etc.), on oenanthic ether (with Liebig), on the nitrosulphates, on guncotton, and on the composition and manufacture of glass.

He also carried out determinations of the atomic weights of several elements, and with E. Fremy, published Traité de chimie générale (1847–1850); Abrégé de chimie (1848); and Notions générales de chimie (1853).

His son Eugène-Philippe Pelouze married Marguerite Wilson  [ fr ], a rich heiress, in 1857. The couple purchased the Château de Chenonceau in 1864. Marguerite continued to live there until 1888, when she ran out of money and was forced to sell. [2]

His name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Notes

  1. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Théophile-Jules Pelouze"  . Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. James David Draper; Edouard Papet (2014). The Passions of Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, p. 226–227. Yale University Press. ISBN   9780300204315.

Related Research Articles

Louis Pasteur French chemist and microbiologist

Louis Pasteur was a French biologist, microbiologist, and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

Nitrocellulose Highly flammable compound

Nitrocellulose is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through exposure to nitric acid, or to a mixture of nitric acid and another acid, usually either hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, or to another powerful nitrating agent. One of its first major uses was as guncotton, a replacement for gun powder as propellant in firearms. It was also used to replace gunpowder as a low-order explosive in mining and other applications.

Asparagine group of stereoisomers

Asparagine, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group, an α-carboxylic acid group, and a side chain carboxamide, classifying it as a polar, aliphatic amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesize it. It is encoded by the codons AAU and AAC.

Picric acid Explosive chemical compound

Picric acid is an organic compound with the formula (O2N)3C6H2OH. Its IUPAC name is 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP). The name "picric" comes from the Greek πικρός (pikros), meaning "bitter", reflecting its bitter taste. It is one of the most acidic phenols. Like other highly nitrated organic compounds, picric acid is an explosive, hence its primary use. It has also been used in medicine (antiseptic, burn treatments) and dyes.

Marcellin Berthelot French chemist and politician (1827-1907)

Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot was a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen–Berthelot principle of thermochemistry. He synthesized many organic compounds from inorganic substances, providing a large amount of counter-evidence to the theory of Jöns Jakob Berzelius that organic compounds required organisms in their synthesis. Berthelot was convinced that chemical synthesis would revolutionize the food industry by the year 2000, and that synthesized foods would replace farms and pastures. "Why not", he asked, "if it proved cheaper and better to make the same materials than to grow them?"

Louis Nicolas Vauquelin professor of chemistry, University of Paris (1763-1829)

Prof Louis Nicolas Vauquelin FRS(For) HFRSE was a French pharmacist and chemist. He was the discoverer of both chromium and beryllium.

Henri Victor Regnault French physicist

Prof Henri Victor Regnault FRS HFRSE was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. He was an early thermodynamicist and was mentor to William Thomson in the late 1840s. He never used his first given name, and was known throughout his lifetime as Victor Regnault.

Marguerite Perey 20th-century French physicist

Marguerite Catherine Perey was a French physicist and a student of Marie Curie. In 1939, Perey discovered the element francium by purifying samples of lanthanum that contained actinium. In 1962, she was the first woman to be elected to the French Académie des Sciences, an honor denied to her mentor Curie. Perey died of cancer in 1975.

ESPCI Paris Engineering school founded in 1882 by The City of Paris, France

ESPCI Paris is a prestigious institution of higher education founded in 1882 by the city of Paris, France. It educates undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and biology and conducts high-level research in those fields. It is ranked as the first French École d'Ingénieurs in the 2017 Shanghai Ranking.

Christian Friedrich Schönbein German-Swiss chemist, discoverer of guncotton and ozone (1799-1868)

Christian Friedrich Schönbein HFRSE(18 October 1799 – 29 August 1868) was a German-Swiss chemist who is best known for inventing the fuel cell (1838) at the same time as William Robert Grove and his discoveries of guncotton and ozone.

Louis Jacques Thénard French chemist (1777-1857)

Louis Jacques Thénard was a French chemist.

Charles Frédéric Gerhardt French chemist

Charles Frédéric Gerhardt was a French chemist, born in Alsace and active in Paris, Montpellier, and his native Strasbourg.

Ascanio Sobrero Italian chemist

Ascanio Sobrero was an Italian chemist, born in Casale Monferrato. He was studying under Théophile-Jules Pelouze at the University of Turin, who had worked with the explosive material guncotton.

Henri Moissan French chemist

Ferdinand Frédéric Henri Moissan was a French chemist and pharmacist who won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in isolating fluorine from its compounds. Moissan was one of the original members of the International Atomic Weights Committee.

Charles Adolphe Wurtz French chemist (1817-1884)

Charles Adolphe Wurtz was an Alsatian French chemist. He is best remembered for his decades-long advocacy for the atomic theory and for ideas about the structures of chemical compounds, against the skeptical opinions of chemists such as Marcellin Berthelot and Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville. He is well known by organic chemists for the Wurtz reaction, to form carbon-carbon bonds by reacting alkyl halides with sodium, and for his discoveries of ethylamine, ethylene glycol, and the aldol reaction. Wurtz was also an influential writer and educator.

Theodore Nicolas Gobley French chemist

Theodore (Nicolas) Gobley, who first isolated, and ultimately determined the chemical structure of lecithin, the first identified and characterized member of the phospholipids class, and a pioneer researcher in the study and analysis of the chemical components of brain tissues, was born in Paris on 11 May 1811 and died in Bagneres-de-Luchon on 1 September 1876.

Georges Urbain French chemist, painter, sculptor and composer

Georges Urbain was a French chemist, a professor of the Sorbonne, a member of the Institut de France, and director of the Institute of Chemistry in Paris. Much of his work focused on the rare earths, isolating and separating elements such as europium and gadolinium, and studying their spectra, their magnetic properties and their atomic masses. He discovered the element lutetium. He also studied the efflorescence of saline hydrates.

Louis Joseph Troost French chemist

Louis Joseph Troost was a French chemist.

Charles Moureu French chemist and professor

François Charles Léon Moureu was a French organic chemist and pharmacist. In 1902 Charles Moureu published Notions fondamentales de chimie organique, translated into English as Fundamental principles of organic chemistry (1921).

Jean-Baptiste Senderens French chemist

Jean-Baptiste Senderens was a French priest and chemist. He was one of the pioneers of catalytic chemistry, and a co-discoverer of catalytic hydrogenation, a process used commercially to make margarine.

References