Théophile Raynaud

Last updated
Theophile Raynaud Portret van Theophile Raynaud op 79-jarige leeftijd P. Theophilus Raynaudus (titel op object), RP-P-1909-5559.jpg
Théophile Raynaud

Théophile Raynaud (15 November 1583 31 October 1663) was a French Jesuit theologian and writer.

Contents

Biography

Théophile Raynaud was born November 15, 1583, at Sospel, near Nice. He studied at Avignon, and became quite accomplished as a student of philosophy. In 1602 he entered the Society of Jesus, and was made one of their teachers at Lyon. At first he taught elementary branches, but soon found advancement, and was finally given a professorship of philosophy and theology. In 1631 he was chosen confessor to prince Maurice of Savoy, and repaired to Paris. Here he was made uncomfortable by unpleasant relations to Richelieu, who, having been attacked by a Spanish theologian for the alliance of the French government with the German Protestants, had asked Raynaud for a reply and been refused. Raynaud was, at his request to the order, transferred to Chambéry, and this bishopric soon becoming vacant, he was solicited to fill it. But he was far from being pleased, and even prepared to return to Lyon. He did not again revisit Savoy until 1639, and then only to his unhappiness. He had, during his sojourn at Chambéry, contracted a close friendship with father Pierre Monod, his companion; and when he heard of his detention in the fortress of Montmélian, he tried in every way to have it brought to an end. Richelieu took offence at this ardent affection, which was natural between friends, and, not being willing to permit relations between Raynaud and a prisoner of the state, he solicited and obtained from the court of Savoy the arrest of the unfortunate Jesuit. At the end of three months he was released, and songht refuge at Carpentras, which then belonged to the Papal States. But the aversion of his enemies would not leave him long undisturbed. By order of the cardinal-legate Antonio Barberini, he was conducted to Avignon, and locked in a chamber of the pontifical palace. With difficulty released, he left for Rome, with the manuscript of Heteroclita Spiritualia, of which the impression had been sutspended, submitted it for examination to father Alegambe, and obtained the authority to publish. In 1645 he returned to Rome in company with cardinal Federico Sforza, and was presented to the pope and the Sacred College as one of the most ardent champions of the papal rights. He afterwards made two journeys to the Eternal City, the first time in 1647, and there occupied for some time a theological chair; the second time in 1651, when he assisted at the general assembly of his order. He afterwards obtained permission to establish himself at Lyon, and there passed the rest of his life in teaching and composing his works. He died October 31, 1663.

Works

Hagiologium exoticum Hagiologium exoticum BEIC3 V00107-9 F0007.tif
Hagiologium exoticum

In 92 separate works, covering almost the entire field of Catholic theology, he showed himself an erudite theologian and a writer of great fertility. His style, however, is often prolix and sometimes obscure, whilst in his controversial writings he indulges in satire and invective.

His collected works, revised by himself shortly before his death, were published under the direction of his confrère, John Bertet, in nineteen volumes (Lyons, 1665). A twentieth volume, entitled "Th. Raynaudi Apopompaeus" (i.e. the scapegoat), containing a number of writings which the author had purposely excluded from the collection, was published by an anonymous editor a few years later (Cracow, 1669); this volume was condemned by the Congregation of the Index.

The main titles of the "Opera" are:

XIX contains general indices.

Related Research Articles

Pope Gregory XI

Pope Gregory XI was head of the Catholic Church from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378. He was the seventh and last Avignon pope and the most recent French pope recognized by the modern Catholic Church. In 1377, Gregory XI returned the Papal court to Rome, ending nearly 70 years of papal residency in Avignon, France. His death shortly after was followed by the Western Schism involving two Avignon-based antipopes.

1583 Calendar year

1583 (MDLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1583, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.

Pontifical Gregorian University

The Pontifical Gregorian University is a higher education ecclesiastical school located in Rome, Italy. It was originally a part of the Roman College founded in 1551 by Ignatius of Loyola, and included all grades of schooling. The university division of philosophy and theology of the Roman College was given Papal approval in 1556, making it the first university founded by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). In 1584 the Roman College was given a grandiose new home by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom it was renamed. It was already making its mark not only in sacred but also in natural science.

Western Schism Split within the Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417

The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope, and each excommunicated the other. Driven by authoritative politics rather than any theological disagreement, the schism was ended by the Council of Constance (1414–1418). For a time these rival claims to the papal throne damaged the reputation of the office.

Georges Cottier

Georges Marie Martin Cottier O.P., was a Swiss Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, Archbishop, Dominican, Theologian emeritus of the Pontifical Household.

Antipope Benedict XIII Antipope from 1328 to 1423

Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor, known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope by the Catholic Church.

The papal household or pontifical household, called until 1968 the Papal Court, consists of dignitaries who assist the pope in carrying out particular ceremonies of either a religious or a civil character.

Adam Tanner (Jesuit theologian)

Adam Tanner was an Austrian Jesuit theologian.

Antonio Possevino

Antonio Possevino was a Jesuit protagonist of Counter Reformation as a papal diplomat and a Jesuit controversialist, encyclopedist and bibliographer. He acted as papal legate and the first Jesuit to visit Moscow, vicar general of Sweden, Denmark and northern islands, Muscovy, Livonia, Rus, Hungary, Pomerania, Saxony between 1578 and 1586.

Jacques de Billy (abbot)

Jacques de Billy (Billi) de Prunay was a French patristic scholar, theologian, jurist, linguist, and Benedictine abbot.

John de Lugo

John de Lugo (1583–1660), a Spanish Jesuit and Cardinal, was an eminent theologian of the Baroque.

Vincent Baron was a French Dominican theologian and preacher.

In the Roman Catholic Church, Theologian of the Pontifical Household is a Roman Curial office which has always been entrusted to a Friar Preacher of the Dominican Order and may be described as the pope's theologian. The title was formerly known as the Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace before the changes implemented in Pope Paul VI's 1968 apostolic letter Pontificalis Domus.

Nicolas Caussin

Nicolas Caussin (1583–1651) was a French Jesuit, a theorist of the passions. His treatise, The Holy Court Fourth Tome, was published in 1638. This work gives a Christianized account of what he calls the four principal passions: Love, Desire, Anger, and Envy, as well as many variants and subgenres of these types. The intent of the work is to instruct the proper means for controlling these affects.

Enrico Dante

Enrico Dante was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Papal Master of Ceremonies from 1947 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

Louis Billot was a French Jesuit priest and theologian. He became a cardinal in 1911 and resigned from that status in 1927, the only person to do so in the twentieth century.

Germain Audran (1631–1710) was a French engraver.

Louis de Gorrevod was a Roman Catholic bishop and cardinal.

Events from the year 1663 in France

References

    Attribution