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Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré (better known as Théophile Thoré-Bürger) (23 June 1807 – 30 April 1869) was a French journalist and art critic. He is best known today for rediscovering the work of painter Johannes Vermeer and several other prominent Dutch artists.
Thoré-Bürger was born in La Flèche, Sarthe. His career as art critic started in the 1830s, but he was also active as a political journalist. In March 1848 he founded La Vraie République, which Louis-Eugène Cavaignac soon banned. A year later, in March 1849, he founded another newspaper, Le Journal de la vraie République, which Cavaignac also banned. Consequently, Thoré-Bürger went into exile to Brussels and continued publishing articles as Willem Bürger. He returned to France after the amnesty of 1859, dying in Paris ten years later.
Today, Thoré-Bürger is best known for rediscovering the work of Johannes Vermeer and several other prominent Dutch artists, such as Frans Hals (he was the first to describe the portrait of Malle Babbe ), Carel Fabritius, and others. Thoré-Bürger's interest in Vermeer began in 1842 when he saw the View of Delft in the Mauritshuis of The Hague. Vermeer's name was wholly forgotten at the time; Thoré-Bürger was so impressed with the View of Delft that he spent the years before his exile searching for other works by the painter. He would eventually publish descriptions and a catalogue of Vermeer's work, although many of the paintings he attributed to the master were later proven to have been executed by others.
He lived for more than a decade with Apolline Lacroix, the wife of his collaborator Paul Lacroix, the curator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal.  On Thoré-Bürger's death, she inherited his valuable art collection, much of which was eventually sold.   
Paul Lacroix was a French author and journalist. He is known best by his pseudonym P.L. Jacob, bibliophile, or Bibliophile Jacob, suggested by his great interest in libraries and books generally.
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Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire was a French philosopher, journalist, statesman, and possible illegitimate son of Napoleon I of France.
Albert Gleizes was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm, and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art. He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists, founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil. Gleizes exhibited regularly at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris; he was also a founder, organizer and director of Abstraction-Création. From the mid-1920s to the late 1930s much of his energy went into writing, e.g., La Peinture et ses lois, Vers une conscience plastique: La Forme et l’histoire and Homocentrisme.
Joseph Méry was a French writer, journalist, novelist, poet, playwright and librettist.
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Sire Philippe Van Dievoet called Vandive, écuyer, (1654–1738) was a celebrated goldsmith and jeweller. He was goldsmith to King Louis XIV, councillor of the King, officier de la Garde Robe du Roi, trustee of the Hôtel de ville of Paris, and Consul of Paris.
Arsène Alexandre was a French art critic.
Albert de La Fizelière was a French littérateur, writer on electoral and constitutional law, art critic, and historian, known for his friendship with Champfleury and for his ties to the Café Guerbois circle. He was described by Edmond Antoine Poinsot as one "of the small number of our learned men who are both spiritual and without pedantry". He was a friend of Baudelaire and published the first bibliography of the latter a year after his death.
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The Goldfinch is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age artist Carel Fabritius of a life-sized chained goldfinch. Signed and dated 1654, it is now in the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The work is a trompe-l'œil oil on panel measuring 33.5 by 22.8 centimetres that was once part of a larger structure, perhaps a window jamb or a protective cover. It is possible that the painting was in its creator's workshop in Delft at the time of the gunpowder explosion that killed him and destroyed much of the city.
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Louis-François L'Héritier, also known under the name L'Héritier de l'Ain was a 19th-century French playwright, essayist, novelist and journalist.
Albert-Antoine Cimochowski, called Albert Cim, was a French novelist, literary critic and bibliographer.
Jean Pavans is a French writer and translator, born in Tunis on September 20, 1949.
See also Bullfight (Manet), Bullfight – Death of the Bull, and The Dead Man (Manet)
Apolline Lacroix was a French actress who married Paul Lacroix, the curator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris, on May 7, 1834. She also lived with Paul Lacroix's collaborator, art collector Théophile Thoré-Bürger, for more than a decade. Their affair only ended with his death in 1869.
Charles-Caius Renoux was a French painter, lithographer, and illustrator. He first achieved success with paintings of medieval churches, particularly the ruins of cloisters and monasteries destroyed during the French Revolution, works for which he is still best known. Renoux also painted landscapes, large-scale battle scenes, and historical subjects, works which uniquely prepared him for the final phase of his career, the creation of spectacular dioramas, the “moving pictures” of the era. He also taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris; his notable students included Narcisse Berchère and Hector Hanoteau.