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Étienne-Joseph-Théophile Thoré (better known as Théophile Thoré-Bürger) (23 June 1807 – 30 April 1869) was a French journalist and art critic. He is best known today for his rediscovery of the work of painter Johannes Vermeer.
Thoré-Bürger was born in La Flèche, Sarthe. His career as art critic started in the 1830s, but he was also active as a political journalist. In March 1848 he founded La Vraie République, a newspaper that was soon banned by Louis-Eugène Cavaignac. A year later, in March 1849, he founded another newspaper, Le Journal de la vraie République; that too was soon banned. Thoré-Bürger went into exile to Brussels. He continued publishing articles, now under the pseudonym Willem Bürger. He only returned to France after the amnesty of 1859. He died in Paris ten years later.
Today, Thoré-Bürger is best known for rediscovering the work of Johannes Vermeer and several other prominent Dutch artists, such as Frans Hals (he was the first to describe the portrait of Malle Babbe ), Carel Fabritius, and others. Thoré-Bürger's interest in Vermeer began in 1842 when he saw the View of Delft in the Mauritshuis of The Hague. Vermeer's name was wholly forgotten at the time; Thoré-Bürger was so impressed with the View of Delft that he spent the years before his exile searching for other works by the painter. He would eventually publish descriptions and a catalogue of Vermeer's work, although many of the paintings he attributed to the master were later proven to have been executed by others.
He lived for more than a decade with Apolline Lacroix, the wife of his collaborator Paul Lacroix, the curator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal.On Thoré-Bürger's death, she inherited his valuable art collection. Much of the collection was eventually sold off.
Paul Lacroix was a French author and journalist. He is known best by his pseudonym P.L. Jacob, bibliophile, or Bibliophile Jacob, suggested by his great interest in libraries and books generally.
Jean Antoine Letronne was a French archaeologist.
Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire was a French philosopher, journalist, statesman, and possible illegitimate son of Napoleon I of France.
Albert Gleizes was a French artist, theoretician, philosopher, a self-proclaimed founder of Cubism and an influence on the School of Paris. Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger wrote the first major treatise on Cubism, Du "Cubisme", 1912. Gleizes was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. He was also a member of Der Sturm, and his many theoretical writings were originally most appreciated in Germany, where especially at the Bauhaus his ideas were given thoughtful consideration. Gleizes spent four crucial years in New York, and played an important role in making America aware of modern art. He was a member of the Society of Independent Artists, founder of the Ernest-Renan Association, and both a founder and participant in the Abbaye de Créteil. Gleizes exhibited regularly at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de l’Effort Moderne in Paris; he was also a founder, organizer and director of Abstraction-Création. From the mid-1920s to the late 1930s much of his energy went into writing, e.g., La Peinture et ses lois, Vers une conscience plastique: La Forme et l’histoire and Homocentrisme.
Joseph Méry was a French writer, journalist, novelist, poet, playwright and librettist.
Jean-Baptiste Descamps was a French writer on art and artists, and painter of village scenes. He later founded an academy of art and his son later became a museum curator.
Marc Fumaroli was a French historian and essayist who was widely respected as an advocate for French literature and culture. While born in Marseille, Fumaroli grew up in the Moroccan city of Fez, and served in the French army during the Algerian War.
Antoine Fabre d'Olivet was a French author, poet and composer whose Biblical and philosophical hermeneutics influenced many occultists, such as Eliphas Lévi, Gérard Encausse - Papus and Édouard Schuré.
Jean Paul Louis François Édouard Leuge-Dulaurier was a French Orientalist, Armenian studies scholar and Egyptologist.
Michel, chevalier de Cubières was an 18th-century French writer, known under the pen-names of Palmézaux and Dorat-Cubières, taking the latter name as he had Claude Joseph Dorat as his master.
Arsène Alexandre was a French art critic.
Albert de La Fizelière was a French littérateur, writer on electoral and constitutional law, art critic, and historian, known for his friendship with Champfleury and for his ties to the Café Guerbois circle. He was described by Edmond Antoine Poinsot as one "of the small number of our learned men who are both spiritual and without pedantry". He was a friend of Baudelaire and published the first bibliography of the latter a year after his death.
Joseph Octave Delepierre was a Belgian lawyer, archivist, diplomat, author and antiquary. He spent his later life in the United Kingdom, and is best known for his studies of macaronic language and literature.
The Goldfinch is a painting by the Dutch Golden Age artist Carel Fabritius of a life-size chained goldfinch. Signed and dated 1654, it is now in the collection of the Mauritshuis in The Hague, Netherlands. The work is a trompe-l'œil oil on panel measuring 33.5 by 22.8 centimetres that was once part of a larger structure, perhaps a window jamb or a protective cover. It is possible that the painting was in its creator's workshop in Delft at the time of the gunpowder explosion that killed him and destroyed much of the city.
François-Maurice Allotte de La Fuÿe was a French military officer, archaeologist and numismatist.
Édouard Fournier was a 19th-century French homme de lettres, playwright, historian, bibliographer and librarian.
Louis-François L'Héritier, also known under the name L'Héritier de l'Ain was a 19th-century French playwright, essayist, novelist and journalist.
Albert-Antoine Cimochowski, called Albert Cim, was a French novelist, literary critic and bibliographer.
The Bullfight is an 1864-1865 oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet, now in the Frick Collection in New York. Its dimensions are 48x60.4cm. Like The Dead Man, it was originally part of a larger composition entitled Episode in a Bullfight. The scene was inspired by a trip that Manet took to Spain in the fall of 1865 for ten days. He described the bullfight he witnessed in a letter to Charles Baudelaire as "one of the finest, most curious and most terrifying sights to be seen."
Apolline Lacroix was a French actress who married Paul Lacroix, the curator of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris, on May 7, 1834. She lived with Paul Lacroix's collaborator, art collector Théophile Thoré-Bürger, for more than a decade until his death.