Théophile de Donder

Last updated
Théophile de Donder
Theophile Ernest de Donder.jpg
Théophile Ernest de Donder (1872 – 1957) at the 1927 Solvay Conference. Appearing in front of de Donder is Paul Dirac.
Born(1872-08-19)19 August 1872
Died11 May 1957(1957-05-11) (aged 84)
NationalityBelgian
Alma mater Université Libre de Bruxelles
Known for Being the father of irreversible thermodynamics
Scientific career
Fields Physicist and mathematician
Institutions Université Libre de Bruxelles
Academic advisors Henri Poincaré
Doctoral students Ilya Prigogine
Léon Van Hove
Théophile Lepage
Influences Albert Einstein

Théophile Ernest de Donder (French:  [də dɔ̃dɛʁ] ; 19 August 1872 – 11 May 1957) was a Belgian mathematician and physicist famous for his work (published in 1923) in developing correlations between the Newtonian concept of chemical affinity and the Gibbsian concept of free energy.

Contents

Education

He received his doctorate in physics and mathematics from the Université Libre de Bruxelles in 1899, for a thesis entitled Sur la Théorie des Invariants Intégraux (On the Theory of Integral Invariants). [1]

Career

He was professor between 1911 and 1942, at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Initially he continued the work of Henri Poincaré and Élie Cartan. From 1914 on, he was influenced by the work of Albert Einstein and was an enthusiastic proponent of the theory of relativity. He gained significant reputation in 1923, when he developed his definition of chemical affinity. He pointed out a connection between the chemical affinity and the Gibbs free energy.

He is considered the father of thermodynamics of irreversible processes. [2] De Donder’s work was later developed further by Ilya Prigogine. De Donder was an associate and friend of Albert Einstein. He was in 1927, one of the participants of the fifth Solvay Conference on Physics, that took place at the International Solvay Institute for Physics in Belgium.

Books by De Donder

See also

Related Research Articles

Gaston Julia

Gaston Maurice Julia was a French mathematician who devised the formula for the Julia set. His works were popularized by French mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot; the Julia and Mandelbrot fractals are closely related.

Jacques Hadamard

Jacques Salomon Hadamard ForMemRS was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex analysis, differential geometry and partial differential equations.

Claude Chevalley

Claude Chevalley was a French mathematician who made important contributions to number theory, algebraic geometry, class field theory, finite group theory, and the theory of algebraic groups. He was a founding member of the Bourbaki group.

Élie Cartan

Élie Joseph Cartan, ForMemRS was an influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups, differential systems, and differential geometry. He also made significant contributions to general relativity and indirectly to quantum mechanics. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of the twentieth century.

Oswald Veblen American mathematician

Oswald Veblen was an American mathematician, geometer and topologist, whose work found application in atomic physics and the theory of relativity. He proved the Jordan curve theorem in 1905; while this was long considered the first rigorous proof of the theorem, many now also consider Camille Jordan's original proof rigorous.

Jean Dieudonné

Jean Alexandre Eugène Dieudonné was a French mathematician, notable for research in abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and functional analysis, for close involvement with the Nicolas Bourbaki pseudonymous group and the Éléments de géométrie algébrique project of Alexander Grothendieck, and as a historian of mathematics, particularly in the fields of functional analysis and algebraic topology. His work on the classical groups, and on formal groups, introducing what now are called Dieudonné modules, had a major effect on those fields.

Szolem Mandelbrojt

Szolem Mandelbrojt was a Polish-French mathematician who specialized in mathematical analysis. He was a Professor at the Collège de France from 1938 to 1972, where he held the Chair of Analytical Mechanics and Celestial Mechanics.

Max Abraham German physicist

Max Abraham was a German physicist. Abraham was born in Danzig, Imperial Germany to a family of Jewish merchants. His father was Moritz Abraham and his mother was Selma Moritzsohn. Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck. He graduated in 1897. For the next three years, Abraham worked as Planck's assistant..

Arnaud Denjoy was a French mathematician.

Luther Pfahler Eisenhart was an American mathematician, best known today for his contributions to semi-Riemannian geometry.

Marcel Brillouin

Louis Marcel Brillouin was a French physicist and mathematician.

Paul Matthieu Hermann Laurent

Paul Matthieu Hermann Laurent was a French mathematician. Despite his large body of works, Laurent series expansions for complex functions were not named after him, but after Pierre Alphonse Laurent.

Lucien Godeaux (1887–1975) was a prolific Belgian mathematician. His total of more than 1000 papers and books, 669 of which are found in Mathematical Reviews, made him one of the most published mathematicians. He was the sole author of all but one of his papers.

Georg Scheffers

Georg Scheffers was a German mathematician specializing in differential geometry. He was born on November 21, 1866 in the village of Altendorf near Holzminden. Scheffers began his university career at the University of Leipzig where he studied with Felix Klein and Sophus Lie. Scheffers was a coauthor with Lie for three of the earliest expressions of Lie theory:

Georges Louis Bouligand was a French mathematician who introduced paratingent cones and contingent cones.

Jacques Charles Émile Jouguet was a French engineer and scientist, whose name is attached to the Chapman–Jouguet condition.

Léon Lecornu

Léon Lecornu was a French engineer and physicist.

Gustave Juvet was a Swiss mathematician.

Louis-Gustave du Pasquier was a Swiss mathematician and historian of mathematics and mathematical sciences.

Adolphe Buhl was a French mathematician and astronomer.

References

  1. Acad. Roy. Belg., Bull. Cl. Sc., page 169, 1968.
  2. Perrot, Pierre (1998). A to Z of Thermodynamics. Oxford University Press. ISBN   0-19-856556-9.
  3. Struik, D. J. (1930). "Review: The Mathematical Theory of Relativity, by Th. de Donder" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 36 (1): 34. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1930-04878-8.
  4. Reynolds Jr., C. N. (1926). "Review: Introduction à la Gravifique einsteinienne, by Th. de Donder" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 32 (5): 563. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1926-04273-7.
  5. Page, Leigh (1926). "Review: Théorie Mathématique de l'Électricité, by Th. de Donder" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 32 (2): 174. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1926-04191-4.
  6. Reynolds Jr., C. N. (1929). "Review: Théorie des Champs Gravifiques, by Th. de Donder" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 35 (6): 884. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1929-04828-6.
  7. Busemann, Herbert (1937). "Review: Théorie Invariantive du Calcul des Variations, by Th. de Donder" (PDF). Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 43 (9): 598–599. doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1937-06582-7.