Théophile de Donder | |
---|---|

Born | |

Died | 11 May 1957 84) | (aged

Nationality | Belgian |

Alma mater | Université Libre de Bruxelles |

Known for | Being the father of irreversible thermodynamics |

Scientific career | |

Fields | Physicist and mathematician |

Institutions | Université Libre de Bruxelles |

Academic advisors | Henri Poincaré |

Doctoral students | Ilya Prigogine Léon Van Hove Théophile Lepage |

**Théophile Ernest de Donder** (French: [dədɔ̃dɛʁ] ; 19 August 1872 – 11 May 1957) was a Belgian mathematician, physicist and chemist famous for his work (published in 1923) in developing correlations between the Newtonian concept of chemical affinity and the Gibbsian concept of free energy.

He received his doctorate in physics and mathematics from the Université Libre de Bruxelles in 1899, for a thesis entitled *Sur la Théorie des Invariants Intégraux* (*On the Theory of Integral Invariants*).^{ [1] }

He was professor between 1911 and 1942, at the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Initially he continued the work of Henri Poincaré and Élie Cartan. From 1914 on, he was influenced by the work of Albert Einstein and was an enthusiastic proponent of the theory of relativity. He gained significant reputation in 1923, when he developed his definition of chemical affinity. He pointed out a connection between the chemical affinity and the Gibbs free energy.

He is considered the father of thermodynamics of irreversible processes.^{ [2] } De Donder's work was later developed further by Ilya Prigogine. De Donder was an associate and friend of Albert Einstein. He was in 1927, one of the participants of the fifth Solvay Conference on Physics, that took place at the International Solvay Institute for Physics in Belgium.

*Thermodynamic Theory of Affinity: A Book of Principles.*Oxford, England: Oxford University Press (1936)-
*The Mathematical Theory of Relativity.*Cambridge, MA: MIT (1927)^{ [3] } *Sur la théorie des invariants intégraux*(thesis) (1899).-
*Théorie du champ électromagnétique de Maxwell-Lorentz et du champ gravifique d'Einstein*(1917) *La gravifique Einsteinienne*(1921)*Introduction à la gravifique einsteinienne*(1925)^{ [4] }*Théorie mathématique de l'électricité*(1925)^{ [5] }-
*Théorie des champs gravifiques*(1926)^{ [6] } *Application de la gravifique einsteinienne*(1930)*Théorie invariantive du calcul des variations*(1931)^{ [7] }

**Gaston Maurice Julia** was a French mathematician who devised the formula for the Julia set. His works were popularized by Benoit Mandelbrot; the Julia and Mandelbrot fractals are closely related. He founded, independently with Pierre Fatou, the modern theory of holomorphic dynamics.

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**Luther Pfahler Eisenhart** was an American mathematician, best known today for his contributions to semi-Riemannian geometry.

**Friedrich Engel** was a German mathematician.

**Stefan Bergman** was a Congress Poland-born American mathematician whose primary work was in complex analysis. He is known for the kernel function he discovered in 1922 at University of Berlin. This function is now known as the Bergman kernel. Bergman taught for many years at Stanford University.

**Georg Scheffers** was a German mathematician specializing in differential geometry.

**Léon Lecornu** was a French engineer and physicist.

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- ↑ Acad. Roy. Belg., Bull. Cl. Sc., page 169, 1968.
- ↑ Perrot, Pierre (1998).
*A to Z of Thermodynamics*. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856556-9. - ↑ Struik, D. J. (1930). "Review:
*The Mathematical Theory of Relativity*, by Th. de Donder" (PDF).*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**36**(1): 34. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1930-04878-8 . - ↑ Reynolds Jr., C. N. (1926). "Review:
*Introduction à la Gravifique einsteinienne*, by Th. de Donder" (PDF).*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**32**(5): 563. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1926-04273-7 . - ↑ Page, Leigh (1926). "Review:
*Théorie Mathématique de l'Électricité*, by Th. de Donder" (PDF).*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**32**(2): 174. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1926-04191-4 . - ↑ Reynolds Jr., C. N. (1929). "Review:
*Théorie des Champs Gravifiques*, by Th. de Donder" (PDF).*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**35**(6): 884. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1929-04828-6 . - ↑ Busemann, Herbert (1937). "Review:
*Théorie Invariantive du Calcul des Variations*, by Th. de Donder" (PDF).*Bull. Amer. Math. Soc*.**43**(9): 598–599. doi: 10.1090/s0002-9904-1937-06582-7 .

Wikiquote has quotations related to ** Théophile de Donder **.

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