Juana María Ignacia Teresa de Cabarrús y Galabert
31 July 1773
|Died||15 January 1835 (aged 61)|
|Known for||Liaisons with high-profile men - and the role as symbol of the end of terror in France (Notre Dame du Thermidor)|
|Spouse(s)||1 Marquis de Fontenay (annulled)|
2 Jean-Lambert Tallien (annulled)
3 François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet, Prince de Chimay
|Children||11, by various husbands and lovers|
Thérésa Cabarrus, Madame Tallien (31 July 1773 – 15 January 1835), was a Spanish-born French noble, salon holder and social figure during the Revolution. Later she became Princess of Chimay.
She was born Juana María Ignacia Teresa de Cabarrús y Galabert in Carabanchel Alto, Madrid, Spain to François Cabarrus, an ethnic Basque French-born Spanish financier, and María Antonia Galabert, the daughter of a French industrialist based in Spain. Thérésa's father founded and governed the bank of San Carlos, which became the Royal Bank of Spain, and was King Joseph I of Spain's Minister of Finance. In 1789, he was ennobled by King Charles IV of Spain with the title of count.
From 1778 to 1783, Thérésa was raised by nuns in France. She was a student of the painter Jean-Baptiste Isabey. She returned home to the family castle briefly in 1785, and then her father sent her back to France at twelve years old to complete her education and get married.
The first of her many love affairs was with Alexandre de Laborde; however, the young couple was forced to separate as de Laborde's powerful father, Jean-Joseph de Laborde, disapproved of her.Cabarrus then arranged for his "very beautiful" daughter to marry a rich, powerful Frenchman in order to strengthen his position in France. On 21 February 1788 Thérésa was married to Jean Jacques Devin Fontenay (1762–1817), the last Marquis de Fontenay, a wealthy aristocrat described as small, red and ugly. The bride was fourteen years old. Even though in the 1780s Thérésa had begun to take an interest in Liberalism and the principles of the Revolution, she was presented at the court of King Louis XVI. The newlyweds visited the royal court of Spain as well. On 2 May 1789 Thérésa had a son, Devin Théodore de Fontenay (1789–1815), whose father was perhaps Felix le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, brother of Louis-Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau.
When her husband fled at the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, she resumed her maiden name and obtained a divorce in 1791.She took refuge in Bordeaux, where she was supported by her uncle and his family. While in Bordeaux she met Jean Lambert Tallien, Commissioner of the National Convention at the theatre. Some time later she began an affair with him. In December 1793 she appeared as the Goddess of Reason at a large parade organised in Bordeaux by Tallien and his fellow-Commissioner Ysabeau to celebrate the feast of Reason.
In February 1794, Tallien was denounced by Maximilien Robespierre for moderation and the easing of repression. Robespierre also reproached him for his liaison with 'one Cabarrus, an ex-noble, who gets him to pardon many enemies of the Republic' : Notre-Dame de Thermidor) as the person who was most likely to intervene in favor of the detained.She accompanied Tallien when he went to Paris to justify his conduct, only to be imprisoned on Robespierre's orders first in La Force prison, then in Carmes prison where she met Joséphine de Beauharnais. Tallien was one of the chief organisers of the Thermidorian Reaction which overthrew Robespierre. On the same day, 27 July 1794 (9 Thermidor) Tallien had Theresa and Joséphine de Beauharnais freed from prison and became one of the leading figures in French political life. Thérésa was a moderating influence on her husband: after the outbreak of the Thermidorian Reaction, she earned the moniker 'Our Lady of Thermidor' (French
Pregnant with their daughter, she married Tallien on 26 December 1794.Their marriage was relatively short-lived however as Theresa began divorce proceedings against Tallien in February 1797. Tallien accompanied Napoleon to Egypt but was captured by the British on his voyage back to France and held prisoner. On his release in 1802, the divorce was finalised.
Thérésa became one of the leaders of Parisian social life.Her salon was famous and she was one of the originators of the Greek Revival Directoire style women's fashions of the French Directory period. She was a very colorful figure; one story is that she was said to bathe in the juice of strawberries for their healing properties. She once arrived at the Tuileries Palace, then the chief residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, supported by a black page, with eight sapphire rings and six toe rings, a gold bracelet on each ankle and nine bracelets on each arm. To top the look off Theresa had a head band covered in rubies. On another occasion she appeared at the Paris Opera wearing a white silk dress without sleeves and not wearing any underwear. Talleyrand commented: "Il n'est pas possible de s'exposer plus somptueusement!" ("One could not be more sumptuously unclothed!").
After her divorce from Tallien Theresa had a brief flirtation with Napoleon.She then moved first to the powerful Paul Barras, whose former mistress was Napoleon's first wife Joséphine; then to the millionaire speculator Gabriel-Julien Ouvrard (with whom she had five children); and finally, attempting to regain respectability and to get away from Paris, she married François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet, Comte de Caraman, on 22 August 1805 - he had become the sixteenth Prince of Chimay after the death of his childless uncle in 1804. She spent the rest of her life first in Paris, then on the Chimay estates (now in Belgium). After the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, these became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
She had become one of the most famous women of her age, and she resented this role. Once when she appeared at the Louvre accompanied by her children, so many spectators flocked to see her up close, that she had to escape down a staircase to save herself. The marriage to Caraman meant that she returned to the class in which she had been born - and educated.
The couple invited musicians such as Daniel Auber, Rodolphe Kreutzer, Luigi Cherubini, Charles de Bériot and Maria Malibran to Paris and later to Chimay, where Thérésa held a little court. Cherubini composed his Messe en fa majeur dite Messe de Chimay at their castle there in 1809, derived from a Kyrie and Gloria he wrote in 1808 for the village church of Chimay.
Thérésa died in Chimay, where she was interred with François-Joseph de Riquet under the sacristy of the local church where a memorial stands to her memory.She bore eleven children during her various liaisons, including Joseph de Riquet, first son of François-Joseph-Philippe, who became the seventeenth Prince of Chimay in 1843.
Thérésa bore eleven children by various husbands and lovers.
Issue by a man via an affair named Ferdinand Louis Félix Lepeletier.
Issue by Jean Lambert Tallien:
Issue by Paul Barras:
Ouvrard was the father of five of her children, born during her marriage to Tallien and after her divorce:
She and Riquet had three children together:
As Teresa Cabarrús, she is a prominent character in Baroness Orczy's novel The Triumph of the Scarlet Pimpernel .
She was played by Carolyn Jones in the 1954 film Désirée , starring Marlon Brando, and by Florence Pernel in the 2002 miniseries Napoleon .
Jean-Andoche Junot, 1st Duke of Abrantes was a French military officer during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.
The Thermidorian Reaction is the common term, in the historiography of the French Revolution, for the period between the ousting of Maximilien Robespierre on 9 Thermidor II, or 27 July 1794, and the inauguration of the French Directory on 2 November 1795.
Jean-Lambert Tallien was a French politician of the revolutionary period. Though initially an active agent of the Reign of Terror, he eventually clashed with its leader, Maximilien Robespierre, and is best known as one of the key figures of the Thermidorian Reaction that led to the fall of Robespierre and the end of the Terror.
François Cabarrus or Francisco Cabarrús Lalanne, Countde Cabarrús (1752–1810) was a French adventurer and Spanish financier.
François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet, comte de Caraman was the 16th Prince de Chimay from 24 July 1804 to 1843.
Laure Junot, Duchess of Abrantès was a French writer. She was the spouse of French general Jean-Andoche Junot.
Countess Marie Anatole Louise Élisabeth Greffulhe was a French socialite, known as a renowned beauty and queen of the salons of the Faubourg Saint-Germain in Paris.
Marie-Clotilde-Elisabeth Louise de Riquet was a Belgian pianist. She was the eldest daughter of Michel Gabriel Alphonse Ferdinand de Riquet (1810–1865), created prince de Chimay 1834, for himself only, and Rosalie de Riquet de Caraman (1814–1872)
Clara Ward was a wealthy American socialite who married a prince from Belgium.
The Triumph of the Scarlet Pimpernel, first published in 1922, is a book in the series about the Scarlet Pimpernel's adventures by Baroness Orczy. Again Orczy interweaves historic fact with fiction, this time through the real life figures of Thérésa Cabarrus, and Jean-Lambert Tallien; inserting the Scarlet Pimpernel as an instigator of the role Tallien played in the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794.
Émilie Louise Marie Françoise Joséphine Pellapra, comtesse de Brigode, princesse de Chimay, was the daughter of Françoise-Marie LeRoy and possibly Napoleon I of France. She claimed to be the product of her mother's affair with the French Emperor which supposedly took place in April 1805, but this date is impossible with Émilie's birth in November 1806. She was first married to Count Louis-Marie of Brigode (1777–1827) and later married to Prince Joseph de Riquet de Caraman (1808–1886), 17th prince de Chimay.
The Incroyables and their female counterparts, the Merveilleuses, were members of a fashionable aristocratic subculture in Paris during the French Directory (1795–1799). Whether as catharsis or in a need to reconnect with other survivors of the Reign of Terror, they greeted the new regime with an outbreak of luxury, decadence, and even silliness. They held hundreds of balls and started fashion trends in clothing and mannerisms that today seem exaggerated, affected, or even effete. They were also mockingly called "incoyable" or "meveilleuse", without the letter R, reflecting their upper class accent in which that letter was lightly pronounced, almost inaudibly. When this period ended, society took a more sober and modest turn.
Jean-Louis Titon La Neuville, called Jean-Louis Laneuville was a French painter, art dealer and expert. He was a gifted portraitist who made portraits of eminent persons of the French Revolution in a style similar to that of his teacher Jacques-Louis David.
Gabriel-Julien Ouvrard was a French financier who was born in Moulins d'Antières at Cugand (Vendée) on 11 October 1770 and who died in London in October 1846.
Henriette-Lucy, Marquise de La Tour-du-Pin-Gouvernet was a French aristocrat famous for her posthumously published memoirs entitled Journal d'une femme de 50 ans. The memoirs are a first-hand account of her life through the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution, and the Imperial court of Napoleon, ending in March 1815 with Napoleon's return from exile on Elba. Her memoirs serve as unique testimony to much unchronicled history.
Adélaïde de La Rochefoucauld, was a French courtier. She served as the principal lady in waiting, or dame d'honneur, to empress Joséphine de Beauharnais in 1804–09.
Joseph de Riquet de Caraman, 17th Prince de Chimay was a Belgian diplomat and industrialist.
Marie-Joseph-Guy-Henry-Philippe de Riquet de Caraman, 18th Prince de Chimay, was a Belgian diplomat and politician. He was notable as Ambassador to the Holy See (1846-1847), governor of the province of Hainaut (1870-1878) and Foreign Minister (1884-1892).
Countess Valentine de Riquet de Caraman was a Belgian princess. She was the daughter of Joseph de Riquet de Caraman-Chimay (1808-1886) and Émilie Pellapra. Her first marriage was to prince Paul de Bauffremont on 13 April 1861, but this ended in divorce in 1875 - she gained custody of her two children and later the same year married Georges Bibescu, son of Gheorghe Bibescu, with whom she had three more children - Georges, Nadège and Georges-Valentin (1880-1941).
Edme-Bonaventure Courtois was a deputy of the National Convention. He found the will of Marie-Antoinette in the collection of papers of Robespierre hidden under his bed.