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Thừa Thiên Huế Province
Tỉnh Thừa Thiên Huế
Location of Thừa Thiên Huế within Vietnam
|Region||North Central Coast|
|• People's Council Chair||Nguyễn Ngọc Thiện|
|• People's Committee Chair||Nguyễn Văn Cao|
|• Total||5,033.2 km2 (1,943.3 sq mi)|
|• Density||223/km2 (580/sq mi)|
|• Ethnicities||Vietnamese, Chăm, Tà Ôi, Cơ Tu, Bru, Hoa|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||VN-26|
Thừa Thiên Huế ( listen ) is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, approximately in the centre of the country. It borders Quảng Trị Province to the north and Đà Nẵng to the south, Laos to the west and the East Sea to the east. The province has 128 km of coastline, 22,000 ha of lagoons and over 200,000 ha of forest. There is an extensive complex of imperial tombs and temples in Huế.
The region's history dates back some 2,800 years according to archaeological findings from the Sa Huynh Culture as well as from relics in the region. Đại Việt became an independent nation around 938 BC of which territorial conflict lasts for about four centuries between the Đại Việt and the Champa. The two provinces then changed their names to Thanh and Hóa. In 1307, Đoàn Nhữ Hài was appointed by the emperor, Trần Anh Tông, to administer the area. The people from the north (Thanh Hóa) migrated south and integrated with the people of the Kingdom of Champa. During this time, had the settlement of Hoa Chau Province began, which included the area of present-day Thừa Thiên.
Between the settlement of Thuận Hóa (1306) to the founding of Phú Xuân (1687), there were conflicts and uncertainties for the local people, which including the fall of the Trần Dynasty to the renaissance of the Hồ dynasty. Thuận Hóa and Phú Xuân became the location of the Đại Việt kingdom once Nguyễn Hoàng was appointed head of Thuận Hóa (1511–1558). Lord Nguyễn Hoàng (1558–1613) established bases at Ai Tu, Tra Bat and Dinh Cat, while his lords moved palaces to Kim Long(1636), where they would eventually base their operations in Phú Xuân (1687). The Nguyễn lords ruled the area until it taken over the Trinh clan in 1775. The farmers movement led by the Tây Sơn brothers gained momentum in 1771. The Tây Sơn insurgent army won the battle in Phú Xuân to take over the Nguyễn capital in 1786, where they continued north and overthrew the Trinh Dynasty. In Phú Xuân, Nguyễn Huệ appointed himself king, and with internal differences with the Tây Sơn Movement and the death of Nguyễn Huệ (1792), Nguyễn Ánh took advantage of the situation and took over Gia Định with the support of foreign forces. Nguyễn Ánh attached to the Tây Sơn movement and took over Phú Xuân and the throne, thereby choosing the dynasty title of Gia Long (1802). Phú Xuân was again chosen as the capital of Vietnam until 1945's August Revolution. Prior to 1975, the province was known simply as Thừa Thiên.
The province is known as an area of heavy fighting during the Vietnam War, as it was the second-most northerly province of the South Vietnam, close to the North Vietnamese border (DMZ) at the 17th parallel. More U.S. soldiers died in this province than in any other province in Vietnam (2,893). [ citation needed ]The Massacre at Huế occurred here; an estimated 2,800 to 6,000 civilians and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) prisoners of war (POWs) were slaughtered by the Việt Cộng. Thừa Thiên Huế province saw a large influx of North Vietnamese settlers soon after the Vietnam War ended, as with the rest of the former South. This province and neighbouring Quảng Nam Province suffered greatly from flooding in November 1999.
Thừa Thiên Huế Province borders Quảng Trị Province to the north, the city of Đà Nẵng to the east, Quảng Nam Province to the south, and the Savannakhet, Salavan and Sekong provinces of Laos to the west. The Perfume River (called Sông Hương or Hương Giang in Vietnamese) passes through the province. The province also accommodates the Tam Giang Cầu Hai Lagoon, the largest lagoon in Southeast Asia, which is 68 kilometres (42 mi) long with a surface area of 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi). The province comprises four different zones: a mountainous area, hills, plains and lagoons separated from the sea by sandbanks. It has 128 kilometres (80 mi) of beaches. The mountains, covering more than half the total surface of the province, are along the west and southwest border of the province, their height varying from 500 metres (1,600 ft) to 1,480 metres (4,860 ft). The hills are lower, between 20 metres (66 ft) and 200 metres (660 ft), with some points at 400 metres (1,300 ft), and occupy about a third of the province's area, between the mountains and the plains. The plains account for about a tenth of the surface area, with a height of only up to 20 metres (66 ft) above sea level. Between the hills are the lagoons which occupy the remaining five per cent of the province's surface area.
Bạch Mã National Park is a protected area near the city of Hué. It covers 220 square kilometres (85 sq mi) and comprises three zones: a strictly protected core area, an administrative area and a buffer zone. The climate is similar to central Vietnam in general: a tropical monsoon climate. In the plains and in the hills, the average annual temperature is 25 °C (77 °F), but in the mountains only 21 °C (70 °F) (statistical yearbook 2004). The cool season is from November to March with cold northeasterly winds. The lowest average monthly temperature is in January: 20 °C (68 °F). In the cool season temperatures can fall to 12 °C (54 °F) in the plains and the relative humidity is high, between 85 and 95 per cent. Then follows a warmer period from April to September with average monthly temperatures up to 29 °C (84 °F) in July, reaching up to 41 °C (106 °F) at times. It is very humid in July but relative humidity is lower, sometimes down to 50 per cent.
The annual precipitation in the province is 3,200 millimetres (130 in) but there are important variations. Depending on the year the annual average may be 2,500 millimetres (98 in) to 3,500 millimetres (140 in) in the plains and 3,000 millimetres (120 in) to 4,500 millimetres (180 in) in the mountains. In some years the rainfall may be much higher and reach more than 5,000 millimetres (200 in) in the mountains. The rainy season is from September to December—about 70 per cent of the precipitation occurring in those months. Rainfall often occurs in short heavy bursts which can cause flooding and erosion, with serious social, economic and environmental consequences. The floods of November 1999 led to 600 deaths and affected 600,000 homes. (Comité des inondations, 1999).
A remote region known as the "Green Corridor" is home to many species. New species of snake, butterfly, and orchid have been found there in 2005 and 2006, as stated by Chris Dickinson of the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) on 26 September 2007.The scientists discovered 11 new species of plants and animals, including a snake, two butterflies and five leafless orchid varieties. The new snake species is a white-lipped keelback ( Hebius leucomystax ). The new butterfly species are the " skipper " from the genus Zela and the other from Satyrinae. The new plant species also include one in the Aspidistra family, and a poisonous Arum perennial.
Thừa Thiên Huế is subdivided into 9 district-level sub-divisions:
They are further subdivided into 8 commune-level towns (or townlets), 105 communes, and 39 wards.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2008)
The average population of the province is 1.143.572, which consist of approximately 567.253 males and 576.319 females. The rural population is approximately 587.516 while the urban population is 556.056 (2015).
|Largest cities or Townships in Thừa Thiên Huế Province (2015)|
|4||Thuận An||Township||Phú Vang District||21,220|
|5||Phú Đa||Township||Phú Vang District||12,381|
|6||Lăng Cô||Township||Phú Lộc District||12,177|
|7||Phú Lộc||Township||Phú Lộc District||10,613|
|8||Sịa||Township||Quảng Điền District||10,583|
|9||A Lưới||Township||A Lưới District||7,393|
|10||Phong Điền||Township||Phong Điền District||6,743|
|11||Khe Tre||Township||Nam Đông District||3,818|
The retail sales of goods and services (trade, hotel, restaurant, tourism) in the province is 10960.6 billion đồng or 0.9 percent of the country. This is compared with 12.7 percent for Hanoi and 23.5 percent for Ho Chi Minh City (2009). km of coastline, which provides for a seafood industry that produces over 40,000 tonnes/year consisting of over 500 species of fish.The province has more than 120
There are more than 100 mines for minerals and non-mineral resources with the majority consisting of limestone, granite and kaolin.Arts (e.g. wood works, fabrics, furnitures, paper arts, pottery), literature (text books), and spicy cuisines (included dry goods, vegetarian food) are the main exports of this region. Exquisite custom-made áo dài (Vietnamese long dress), and nón lá (conical hat) are souvenir items for foreign visitors and overseas Vietnamese. The ability to make toys, design lanterns, form special papers, and figurine-making are native skills. Such fruits as rambutan, jackfruit, lychee, durian, dao, dragon fruit, star fruit, mangosteen, coconut, and kumquat are grown in this area due to sufficient amount of rain received each year.
Many historical buildings are located in Huế, largely a legacy from its time as a capital of the Nguyễn dynasty (1802–1945), including the Royal Citadel, the Flag Tower, the Royal Palace, and the Royal Tombs. Huế's Forbidden Purple City was once reserved for the royal family, but was severely damaged during the Vietnam War. Outside the city is the religious site known as Nam Giao Hill ("Heaven's Altar"). Hue Brewery Ltd is located on Hương Giang in Huế with a recognizable brand in central Vietnam. The Brewery is jointed owned by the state and private sector and was founded in 1990 with an initial investment of US$2.4 million with a capacity of 3 million liters/year, which has grown to a capacity of 100 million liters/year in 2007.
Vietnam's National Route 1A, which runs the entire length of the nation from north to south, passes through Huế. Huế and Đà Nẵng are the main intermediate stops on the railway line from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City. This province is served by two sea ports: Thuan An Port and Chân Mây Port. Phu Bai International Airport, the largest domestic airport in terms of passengers per year is situated 15 km south of Huế. This airport ranks fourth among Vietnam's airports. The government has approved the upgrade of this airport to an international airport with some air links inside Asia. [ citation needed ]
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(June 2008)
This city is home to Huế University (e.g.: Huế Economic University, Huế Medicine University, Huế Pedagogical University, Huế Forestry and Agriculture University, Huế University of Sciences, Huế University of Arts, Huế Conservatory of Music and Huế College of Foreign Languages). As of 2009 the province had 190 schools, 1302 classrooms, 2184 teachers and 36,200 pupils.
The most famous high school in Thua Thien Hue province is Quốc Học – Huế High School for the Gifted. It is well known for its high quality of education. Besides, its reputation comes from its ancient structure of France.
The province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese 承 天 順 化.[ citation needed ]
Huế is the capital of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. The city served as the administrative capital for the Nguyen dynasty, and later functioned as the administrative capital of the protectorate of Annam during the French Indochina period.
Articles related to Vietnam and Vietnamese culture include:
The Perfume River is a river that crosses the city of Huế, in the central Vietnamese province of Thừa Thiên-Huế Province. In the autumn, flowers from orchards upriver from Huế fall into the water, giving the river a perfume-like aroma, hence the sobriquet.
Lệ Thủy is a district of Quảng Bình Province in the North Central Coast of Vietnam. The district borders Quảng Ninh District on the north, Vĩnh Linh District on the south, Laos on the west. Lệ Thủy central is 40 km south of the provincial capital Đồng Hới. The district government seat is Kiến Giang Township. The district area is 1420.52 km2, population: 140,804 (1998). Lệ Thủy District is home to Võ Nguyên Giáp and the family of Ngô Đình Diệm. Economy bases on agriculture, mainly rice culture. Mỹ Trạch massacre by French army happened here on 29 November 1947.
Emperor Quang Trung or Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Nguyễn Quang Bình, was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.
Phong Điền is a rural district of Thừa Thiên Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003, the district had a population of 105,017. The district covers an area of 954 km². The district capital lies at Phong Điền.
Empress Thuận Thiên, born Trần Thị Đang in Văn Xá village, Hương Trà, Thừa Thiên, was the second wife of Emperor Gia Long of Vietnam and mother of Emperor Minh Mạng.
Lê Ngọc Bình was a Vietnamese princess, youngest daughter of Emperor Lê Hiển Tông of Lê dynasty. Her early life was unknown, when the Tây Sơn dynasty succeeded Lê dynasty as the official dynasty of Vietnam; Emperor Quang Trung ordered his Crown Prince Nguyễn Quang Toản to marry her.
Phú Xuân (富春) was the historic capital of the Nguyễn lords, the Tây Sơn dynasty, and later became the Nguyễn dynasty's capital.
Thuận Hóa was a historic territory in central Vietnam. It consisted of the modern provinces of Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị, and Thừa Thiên–Huế.
Nguyễn Nhạc was the founder of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1778 to 1788.
Bình Trị Thiên (1975-1992) was a former administrative grouping of three provinces in Vietnam: Quảng Bình, Quảng Trị and Thừa Thiên. The grouping did not work well and was reversed in 1992. The geographical term had been used previously, for example in relation to culture, folk songs (1967) and is still used after, for example in relation to dialect (1997) and folk songs again (1997).
Phan Đăng Lưu was a prominent 20th century Vietnamese revolutionary, politician, intellectual and journalist.
Flags of the Nguyễn dynasty's administrative units were used since about 1868 to 1885, with 1:1 ratio.
Nguyen Dac Xuan is a Vietnamese novelist, researcher of Huế's culture, who is best known for his poetry and his books and his research on the culture and history of Nguyen Dynasty and Ancient Hue.
The Tây Sơn rebel army incorporated during the three decades of its existence new and unconventional ideas of tactics and organization. Logistic and tactical aspects like intelligence analysis, troop co-operation, transport and movement were radically revised, imposed and coupled with deception, diplomacy and guerilla tactics, that eventually proved remarkably efficient. Conceived and applied by military leader Nguyen Hue under whom the Tây Sơn forces engaged into a series of combat operations and skillfully defeated experienced and trained, regular troops, of Cambodia, Siam, Laos, the Chinese Qing empire and the domestic feudal armies of the Trịnh Lords, Nguyễn Lords and the imperial Lê dynasty. Some of the Tây Sơn victories rank among the greatest achievements in Vietnamese military history.
Hoàng Ngũ Phúc was a general and eunuch during the Revival Lê dynasty in Vietnam.
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