The Canadian Encyclopedia (abbreviated as TCE) is a source of information on Canada published by Historica Canada of Toronto. Articles appear in English and French. It is available online, at no cost. The Canadian Encyclopedia includes 14,000 articles in each language on numerous subjects including history, popular culture, events, people, places, politics, arts, First Nations, sports and science.
The website also provides access to the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, the Canadian Encyclopedia Junior Edition, Maclean's magazine articles, and Timelines of Canadian History.
Canada had been without a national encyclopedia since the 1957 edition of Encyclopedia Canadiana . When looking through the Canadian entries in existing encyclopedias such as Random House, Canadian nationalist and book publisher Mel Hurtig found blatant errors (e.g., Brian Mulroney was described as a Liberal, rather than Conservative, prime minister) and omissions. In response, in the 1980s he launched a project to create a wholly new Canadian encyclopedia with support from the Alberta Premier Peter Lougheed.The Editor-in-Chief James Harley Marsh recruited more than 3,000 authors to write for it.
They made index cards for every fact in the encyclopedia, signed off by the researcher, utilized three sources, and had every article read by three outside readers. Then the entire encyclopedia was proofread by an independent source.Over 3,000 people contributed to the content and accuracy of the encyclopedia's entries.
The first edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia was published in three volumes, in 1985 ( ISBN 0-88830-269-X), for $125 per set, and it sold out within days of publication, making it a Canadian bestseller (150,000 sets sold in six months). A revised and expanded edition (in four volumes) was released in 1988 ( ISBN 0-88830-326-2) and sold out, as well. It was the first encyclopedia in the world to use a computer to help compile, typeset, design, and print it. It was encoded in a markup language precursor of HTML.
In September 1990, Hurtig published the five-volume Junior Encyclopedia of Canada ( ISBN 0-88830-334-3), the first encyclopedia for young Canadians.
Hurtig sold his publishing company to McClelland & Stewart in May 1991 and with it the encyclopedia. 0-7710-2041-4). In 1999, the Historica Foundation made a full version of The Canadian Encyclopedia available online.In 1995, the first edition of The Canadian Encyclopedia Plus was published as a digital CD-ROM ( ISBN
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. The second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989.
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition (1910–11), is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopaedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic. Some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group. First published in 1935, and continuing its relationship with Columbia University, the encyclopedia underwent major revisions in 1950 and 1963; the current edition is the sixth, printed in 2000. It contains over 51,000 articles totaling some 6.5 million words and has also been published in two volumes.
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is an encyclopedic dictionary of music and musicians. Along with the German-language Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, it is one of the largest reference works on western music. Originally published under the title A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, and later as Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, it has gone through several editions since the 19th century and is widely used. In recent years it has been made available as an electronic resource called Grove Music Online, which is now an important part of Oxford Music Online.
An online encyclopedia, also called a digital encyclopedia, is an encyclopedia accessible through the internet. The idea to build a free encyclopedia using the Internet can be traced at least to the 1994 Interpedia proposal; it was planned as an encyclopedia on the Internet to which everyone could contribute materials. The project never left the planning stage and was overtaken by a key branch of old printed encyclopedias.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet Union from 1926 to 1990. After 2002, the encyclopedia's data was partially included into the later Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya in an updated and revised form. The GSE claimed to be "the first Marxist-Leninist general-purpose encyclopedia".
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, which was repaid by December 1990. The printed version consists of 20 volumes with 172,000 articles; the Internet version comprises 260,000 articles.
Collier's Encyclopedia was a United States-based general encyclopedia published by Crowell, Collier and Macmillan. Self-described in its preface as "a scholarly, systematic, continuously revised summary of the knowledge that is most significant to mankind", it was long considered one of the three major contemporary English-language general encyclopedias, together with Encyclopedia Americana and Encyclopædia Britannica: the three were sometimes collectively called "the ABCs".
The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 22-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism. It covers diverse areas of the Jewish world and civilization, including Jewish history of all eras, culture, holidays, language, scripture, and religious teachings. As of 2010, it had been published in two editions accompanied by a few revisions.
Ukrainian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Ukrainian descent or Ukrainian-born people who immigrated to Canada. In 2016, there were an estimated 1,359,655 persons of full or partial Ukrainian origin residing in Canada, making them Canada's eleventh largest ethnic group and giving Canada the world's third-largest Ukrainian population behind Ukraine itself and Russia. Self-identified Ukrainians are the plurality in several rural areas of Western Canada. According to the 2011 census, of the 1,251,170 who identified as Ukrainian, only 144,260 could speak either the modern Ukrainian language or the historic Canadian Ukrainian dialect.
Mel Hurtig (1932–2016) was a Canadian publisher, author, political activist, and political candidate. He was president of the Edmonton Art Gallery, and a noted political activist who wrote several books critical of the Canadian government and its various policies.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy is an encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998 (ISBN 978-0415073103). Originally published in both 10 volumes of print and as a CD-ROM, in 2002 it was made available online on a subscription basis. The online version is regularly updated with new articles and revisions to existing articles. It has 1,300 contributors providing over 2,000 scholarly articles.
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience.
The Benezit Dictionary of Artists is an extensive publication of bibliographical information on painters, sculptors, designers and engravers created primarily for art museums, auction houses, historians and dealers. It was published by Éditions Gründ in Paris but has been sold to Oxford University Press.
James Harley Marsh, CM is a Canadian editor, writer and encyclopedist.
Eric Patrick Nicol was a Canadian writer, best known as a longtime humour columnist for the Vancouver, British Columbia newspaper The Province. He also published over 40 books, both original works and compilations of his humour columns, and won the Stephen Leacock Memorial Medal for Humour three times.
Store norske leksikon, abbreviated SNL, is a Norwegian language online encyclopedia.
Everyman's Encyclopaedia is an encyclopedia published by Joseph Dent from 1913 as part of the Everyman's Library.
Lucille Lessard is a Canadian archer. Introduced to the sport of archery while in high school she won the 1972 Canadian Junior Championship in Field Archery. In 1973 she won the National Target Outdoor Junior Championship. She won her 1st National Outdoor Senior Championship in 1974 at just 17 and defended her title in 1975 and 1980. She gained the title of women's champion of World Field in 1974, and was champion of Americas in 1975. Field Archery means competitors face targets at various distances on varied terrain. Tat same year she was top female athlete in Quebec and she won the Elaine Tanner Award as Canada's Junior Athlete of the Year. She also won the Canadian Indoor National Championships in 1975 and 1976. After having been classified seventh with the championships of the world, in 1975, she was held with high hopes for the Canadian Olympic team for 1976 in Montreal but did not make the 1976 Canadian Olympic Team. In 1977 she was inducted into the Canadian Sport Hall of Fame. She made the Canadian archery Olympic team in 1980 but Canada boycotted the Moscow Games.
Joan Arden Charlat Murray, is a Canadian writer, independent curator and art historian. Her curatorial projects are wide-ranging and cover a wide spectrum of the visual arts in Canada: contemporary, modern, historical, regional, national and interdisciplinary: she has a special interest in Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven, abstraction and women artists. She is the author of many books, catalogues and articles as well as being a former Gallery curator and director, having worked at institutions such as the Art Gallery of Ontario (1968–1973), The Robert McLaughlin Gallery in Oshawa (1974–1999) and the McMichael Canadian Art Gallery in Kleinburg (2005–2006).