The Creation (Haydn)

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The Creation
Oratorio by Joseph Haydn
Europe a Prophecy, copy D, object 1 (Bentley 1, Erdman i, Keynes i) British Museum.jpg
Native nameDie Schöpfung
Text Gottfried van Swieten
LanguageGerman
Based on
Composed1796 (1796)–1798
Scoring

The Creation (German : Die Schöpfung) is an oratorio written between 1797 and 1798 by Joseph Haydn (Hob. XXI:2), and considered by many to be one of his masterpieces. The oratorio depicts and celebrates the creation of the world as described in the Book of Genesis.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium and Liechtenstein. It is one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages that are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch, including Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists. Like most operas, an oratorio includes the use of a choir, soloists, an instrumental ensemble, various distinguishable characters, and arias. However, opera is musical theatre, while oratorio is strictly a concert piece – though oratorios are sometimes staged as operas, and operas are sometimes presented in concert form. In an oratorio the choir often plays a central role, and there is generally little or no interaction between the characters, and no props or elaborate costumes. A particularly important difference is in the typical subject matter of the text. Opera tends to deal with history and mythology, including age-old devices of romance, deception, and murder, whereas the plot of an oratorio often deals with sacred topics, making it appropriate for performance in the church. Protestant composers took their stories from the Bible, while Catholic composers looked to the lives of saints, as well as to Biblical topics. Oratorios became extremely popular in early 17th-century Italy partly because of the success of opera and the Catholic Church's prohibition of spectacles during Lent. Oratorios became the main choice of music during that period for opera audiences.

Joseph Haydn Austrian composer

Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

Contents

The libretto was written by Gottfried van Swieten. The work is structured in three parts and scored for soprano, tenor and bass soloists, chorus and a symphonic orchestra. In parts I and II, depicting the creation, the soloists represent the archangels Raphael (bass), Uriel (tenor) and Gabriel (soprano). In part III, the bass and soprano represent Adam and Eve.

Gottfried van Swieten Diplomat in the Austrian Empire

Gottfried, Freiherr van Swieten was a Dutch-born Austrian diplomat, librarian, and government official who served the Holy Roman Empire during the 18th century. He was an enthusiastic amateur musician and is best remembered today as the patron of several great composers of the Classical era, including Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, and Ludwig van Beethoven.

A soprano[soˈpraːno] is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) = 880 Hz in choral music, or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) = 1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which often encompasses the melody. The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, soubrette, lyric, spinto, and dramatic soprano.

A tenor is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone voice types. It is one of the highest of the male voice types. The tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The low extreme for tenors is roughly A2 (two As below middle C). At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to the second F above middle C (F5). The tenor voice type is generally divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, heldentenor, and tenor buffo or spieltenor.

The first public performance was held in Vienna at the old Burgtheater on 19 March 1799. The oratorio was published with the text in German and English in 1800.

Burgtheater state drama theatre in Vienna, Austria

The Burgtheater, originally known as K.K. Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. Hofburgtheater, is the Austrian National Theatre in Vienna, the most important German language theatre and one of the most important theatres in the world. The Burgtheater was created in 1741 and has become known as "die Burg" by the Viennese population; its theatre company of more or less regular members has created a traditional style and speech typical of Burgtheater performances.

Inspiration

Portrait of Joseph Haydn by Johann Carl Rossler (1799) Rossler Joseph Haydn.jpg
Portrait of Joseph Haydn by Johann Carl Rößler (1799)

Haydn was inspired to write a large oratorio during his visits to England in 1791–1792 and 1794–1795, when he heard oratorios of George Frideric Handel performed by large forces. [1] It is likely that Haydn wanted to try to achieve results of comparable weight, using the musical language of the mature classical style. Among the Handel works Haydn heard was Israel in Egypt , which includes various episodes of tone painting, perhaps an inspiration to Haydn's own pervasive use of this device in The Creation. [2]

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

George Frideric Handel 18th-century German, later British, Baroque composer

George FridericHandel was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727. He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition.

<i>Israel in Egypt</i> oratorio by Georg Friedrich Händel

Israel in Egypt is a biblical oratorio by the composer George Frideric Handel. Most scholars believe the libretto was prepared by Charles Jennens, who also compiled the biblical texts for Handel's Messiah. It is composed entirely of selected passages from the Old Testament, mainly from Exodus and the Psalms.

Libretto

The text of The Creation has a long history. The three sources are Genesis, the Biblical book of Psalms, and John Milton's Paradise Lost . In 1795, when Haydn was leaving England, the impresario Johann Peter Salomon (1745–1815) who had arranged his concerts there handed him a new poem entitled The Creation of the World. This original had been offered to Handel, but the old master had not worked on it, as its wordiness meant that it would have been 4 hours in length when set to music. The libretto was probably passed on to Salomon by Thomas Linley Sr. (1733–1795), a Drury Lane oratorio concert director. Linley (sometimes called Lidley or Liddel) himself could have written this original English libretto, but scholarship by Edward Olleson, A. Peter Brown (who prepared a particularly fine "authentic" score) and H. C. Robbins Landon, tells us that the original writer remains anonymous.

Book of Genesis first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament

The Book of Genesis, the first book of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, is Judaism's account of the creation of the world and the origins of the Jewish people.

Psalms Book of the Bible

The Book of Psalms, commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and thus a book of the Christian Old Testament. The title is derived from the Greek translation, ψαλμοί, psalmoi, meaning "instrumental music" and, by extension, "the words accompanying the music". The book is an anthology of individual psalms, with 150 in the Jewish and Western Christian tradition and more in the Eastern Christian churches. Many are linked to the name of David, but his authorship is not accepted by modern scholars.

John Milton 17th-century English poet and civil servant

John Milton was an English poet and intellectual, who served as a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under its Council of State and later under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.

Portrait of the librettist Gottfried van Swieten, Austrian politician and librarian SWIETEN.jpg
Portrait of the librettist Gottfried van Swieten, Austrian politician and librarian

When Haydn returned to Vienna, he turned this libretto over to Baron Gottfried van Swieten. [1] The Baron led a multifaceted career as diplomat, director of the Imperial Library, amateur musician, and patron of music. He had already collaborated with Haydn as librettist, editing the text for the oratorio version of The Seven Last Words of Christ , premiered in Vienna in 1796. Swieten recast the English libretto of The Creation in a German translation (Die Schöpfung) that Haydn could use to compose. He also made suggestions to Haydn regarding the setting of individual numbers. The work was published bilingually (1800) and is still performed in both languages today.

Austrian National Library largest library in Austria

The Austrian National Library is the largest library in Austria, with more than 12 million items in its various collections. The library is located in the Neue Burg Wing of the Hofburg in center of Vienna. Since 2005, some of the collections have been relocated within the baroque structure of the Palais Mollard-Clary. Founded by the Habsburgs, the library was originally called the Imperial Court Library ; the change to the current name occurred in 1920. The library complex includes four museums, as well as multiple special collections and archives.

<i>The Seven Last Words of Christ</i> (Haydn) composition for string quartet

The Seven Last Words of Our Saviour on the Cross is an orchestral work by Joseph Haydn, commissioned in 1786 for the Good Friday service at Oratorio de la Santa Cueva in Cádiz, Spain. Published in 1787 and performed then in Paris, Rome, Berlin and Vienna, the composer adapted it in 1787 for string quartet and in 1796 as an oratorio, and he approved a version for solo piano.

For the quotations from the Bible, Swieten chose to adhere very closely to the English King James Version. According to Temperley, "the German text corresponds to no known German Bible translation. Instead, it is so constructed that the word order, syllabification, and stress patterns are as close as possible to the English. Haydn and Swieten must have realized that English audiences would not easily accept changes in the hallowed text of their Bible; and there were the formidable precedents of Messiah and Israel in Egypt to bear in mind." [3]

In the final form of the oratorio, the text is structured as recitative passages of the text of Genesis, often set to minimal accompaniment, interspersed with choral and solo passages setting Swieten's original poetry to music. Swieten incorporated excerpts from Psalms for choral movements. [1]

Haydn lived in this large house, then in the suburbs of Vienna, while composing The Creation. It is a Haydn museum today. Haydnhaus Haydngasse 19.jpg
Haydn lived in this large house, then in the suburbs of Vienna, while composing The Creation. It is a Haydn museum today.

Van Swieten was evidently not a fully fluent speaker of English, and the metrically-matched English version of the libretto suffers from awkward phrasing that fails to fit idiomatic English text onto Haydn's music. For example, one passage describing the freshly minted Adam's forehead ended up, “The large and arched front sublime/of wisdom deep declares the seat”. Since publication, numerous attempts at improvement have been made, but many performances in English-speaking countries avoid the problem by performing in the original German. The discussion below quotes the German text as representing van Swieten's best efforts, with fairly literal renderings of the German into English; for the full versions of both texts see the links at the end of this article.

Premiere and reception history

The old Burgtheater, site of the 1799 public premiere in Vienna August Gerasch Vor dem alten Burgtheater.jpg
The old Burgtheater, site of the 1799 public premiere in Vienna
The old Covent Garden theatre, site of the English premiere in 1800. Engraving from 1808. Covert Garden Theatre edited.jpg
The old Covent Garden theatre, site of the English premiere in 1800. Engraving from 1808.

The first performances in 1798 were mounted by the Gesellschaft der Associierten, a group of music-loving noblemen organized by van Swieten to sponsor concerts of serious music; the Gesellschaft paid the composer handsomely for the right to stage the premiere (Salomon briefly threatened to sue, on grounds that the English libretto had been translated illegally). The performance was delayed until late April—the parts were not finished until Good Friday—but the completed work was rehearsed before a full audience on April 29.

The first performance the next day was a private affair, but hundreds of people crowded into the street around the old Schwarzenberg Palace at the New Market to hear this eagerly anticipated work. Admission was by invitation only. [1] Those invited included wealthy patrons of the arts, high government officials, prominent composers and musicians, and a sprinkling of the nobility of several countries; the common folk, who would have to wait for later occasions to hear the new work, so crowded the streets near the palace that some 30 special police were needed to keep order. Many of those lucky enough to be inside wrote glowing accounts of the piece. In a letter to the Neue teutsche Merkur, one audience member wrote, "Already three days have passed since that happy evening, and it still sounds in my ears and heart, and my breast is constricted by many emotions even thinking of it."

The first public performance at Vienna's old Burgtheater at the Michaelerplatz on 19 March 1799 was sold out far in advance, [1] and Die Schöpfung was performed nearly forty more times in the city during Haydn's life. The work became a favourite of the Tonkünstlersocietät, a charitable organization for the support of widows and orphans of musicians, for which Haydn frequently conducted the work, often with very large ensembles, throughout the remainder of his career. The Creation had its London premiere in 1800, using its English text, at Covent Garden.

The 1808 performance of "The Creation" in honour of Haydn; reproduction of a stationery box lid painted in watercolours by Balthazar Wigand. Click to enlarge. 1808PerformanceOfHaydnCreation.jpg
The 1808 performance of "The Creation" in honour of Haydn; reproduction of a stationery box lid painted in watercolours by Balthazar Wigand. Click to enlarge.

The last performance Haydn attended was on March 27, 1808, just a year before he died: the aged and ill Haydn was carried in with great honour on an armchair. According to one account, the audience broke into spontaneous applause at the coming of "light" and Haydn, in a typical gesture, weakly pointed upwards and said: "Not from me—everything comes from up there!"

The Creation was also performed more than forty times outside Vienna during his life: elsewhere in Austria and Germany, throughout England, and in Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Russia and the United States. Despite the eclipse in Haydn's reputation as a composer in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the work never left the repertoire during this time, [4] and today it is frequently performed by both professional and amateur ensembles. There are many recordings (see below).

A typical performance lasts about one hour and 45 minutes.

Music

Musical forces

The oratorio is scored for three vocal soloists (soprano, tenor, and bass; there is also an incidental solo for alto in the finale), four-part chorus (soprano, alto, tenor, bass), and a large Classical orchestra consisting of the following:

There seems little doubt that Haydn wanted a big sound (by the standard of his day) for his work. Between the private premieres for nobles and the public premiere in 1799, Haydn added extra instrumental parts to the work. The forces for the public premiere numbered about 120 instrumentalists and 60 singers.

In Parts I and II of the work, the three soloists represent angels who narrate and comment on the successive six days of creation: Gabriel (soprano), Uriel (tenor), and Raphael (bass). Part III introduces as characters the first man and first woman of the Bible, Adam and Eve, during the time they spent in the Garden of Eden before the Fall. Adam, a bass role, is usually sung by the same soloist that sings Raphael, and the soprano role of Eve is usually sung by the same soloist who sings Gabriel. This was the practice Haydn followed, but some conductors prefer to cast each of the five roles with a different soloist.

The choral singers are employed in a series of monumental choruses, several of them celebrating the end of one particular day of creation.

The orchestra often plays alone, notably in the episodes of tone painting: the appearance of the sun, the creation of various beasts, and above all in the overture, the famous depiction of the Chaos before the creation.

Structure

The Creation in L'Antiquite Judaique (1460/1470) The Creation in L'Antiquite Judaique - Google Art Project.jpg
The Creation in L'Antiquité Judaïque (1460/1470)

The oratorio is structured in three parts. The first deals with the creation of light, of heaven and earth, of the sun and moon, of the land and water, and of plants. The second treats the creation of the animals, and of man and woman. The final part describes Adam and Eve during their happy time in the Garden of Eden, portraying an idealized love in harmony with the "new world". [1]

The oratorio is described below, for each part by both a table of the movements and description of individual movements. [5] As in other oratorios, the larger musical numbers (arias and choruses) are often prefaced with a brief recitative; here, the recitative gives the actual words of Genesis, while the following number elaborates the bare Biblical narrative in verse. Choral movements are highlighted in a different background colour.

Part I

No.TitleFormVoiceKeyTempoTimeSourceTranslation
Die Vorstellung des Chaos C minor Largo Commontime.svg The Representation of Chaos
Day 1
1 Im Anfange schuf Gott Himmel und ErdeRecitativeBassC minor Commontime.svg Gen 1:1–2 In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth
Und der Geist Gottes schwebte [n 1] Chorus Gen 1:2–3 And the Spirit of God moved
Und Gott sah das LichtRecitativeTenor C major Gen 1:4 And God saw the light
2 Nun schwanden vor dem heiligen StrahleAriaTenor A major Andante Commontime.svg Now vanished by the holy beams
Erstarrt entflieht der Höllengeister ScharAllegro moderatoAffrighted fled hell's spirits
Verzweiflung, Wut und SchreckenChorus, fugueDesparing, cursing rage
Day 2
3 Und Gott machte das FirmamentRecitative seccoBass Commontime.svg Gen 1:6–7 And God made the firmament
4 Mit Staunen sieht das WunderwerkSolo with chorusSopranoC majorAllegro moderato Commontime.svg The marv'lous work beholds amazed
Day 3
5 Und Gott sprach: Es sammle sich das WasserRecitative seccoBass Commontime.svg Gen 1:9–10 And God said let the waters
6 Rollend in schäumenden WellenAriaBass D minor Allegro assai Commontime.svg Rolling in foaming billows
7 Und Gott sprach: Es bringe die Erde Gras hervorRecitative seccoSoprano Commontime.svg Gen 1:11 And God said, Let all the earth bring forth grass
8 Nun beut die Flur das frische GrünAriaSoprano B-flat major Andante6/8With verdure clad the fields appear delightful
9 Und die himmlischen Heerscharen verkündigten den dritten TagRecitative seccoTenor Commontime.svg And the Heavenly host proclaimed the third day
10 Stimmt an die SaitenChorus D major Vivace Commontime.svg Awake the harp
Day 4
11 Und Gott sprach: Es sei'n Lichter an der Feste des HimmelsRecitative seccoTenor Commontime.svg Gen 1:14–16 And God said : Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven
12 In vollem Glanze steiget jetzt die Sonne strahlend aufRecitativeTenorD majorAndante Commontime.svg In splendour bright is rising now the sun
Mit leisem Gang und sanftem SchimmerPiù AdagioWith softer beams and milder light
Den ausgedehnten HimmelsraumPiù AdagioThe space immense of th'azure sky
13 Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre GottesChorusC majorAllegro Commontime.svg Ps 19:1 The heavens are telling the glory of God
Dem kommenden Tage sagt es der TagTrioS B T Ps 19:2 To day that is coming speaks it the day
Die Himmel erzählen ...ChorusThe heavens are telling ...
Dem kommenden Tage ...TrioS B TTo day that is coming ...
Die Himmel erzählen ...ChorusPiù allegroThe heavens are telling ...
Und seiner Hände WerkChorus, fugueThe wonder of his works

Part I celebrates the creation of the primal light, the Earth, the heavenly bodies, bodies of water, weather, and plant life.

Prelude. Die Vorstellung des Chaos (The Representation of Chaos)

One of the most famous numbers in the work, an overture in C minor in slow tempo, written in sonata form. Haydn depicts Chaos by withholding musical cadences from the ends of phrases. [6]

The first day of creation, from Michelangelo's Sistine chapel ceiling First Day of Creation.jpg
The first day of creation, from Michelangelo's Sistine chapel ceiling

No. 1. Im Anfange schuf Gott Himmel und Erde (In the beginning God created Heaven and Earth)

This movement relates the words of Genesis 1:1–4. It begins with a recitative for bass solo in C minor, followed by choral presentation of the creation of light. The latter is depicted first with a soft pizzicato note from the strings, followed by a sudden surprise fortissimo C major chord on the word Licht (Light).

This moment created a sensation when the work was first played in public. According to a friend of the composer/:

At that moment when light broke out for the first time, one would have said that rays darted from the composer's burning eyes. The enchantment of the electrified Viennese was so general that the orchestra could not proceed for some minutes. [7]

Audiences today generally let the moment speak for itself.

Following the appearance of light is a brief tenor recitative on the words "and God saw the light, that it was good", leading into:

No. 2. Nun schwanden vor dem heiligen Strahle (Now vanished by the holy beams)

Aria for tenor with chorus in A major, portraying the defeat of Satan's host, from Paradise Lost .

End of the first day.

No. 3. Und Gott machte das Firmament (And God made the firmament)

Long recitative for bass in C major. The bass part first gives the words of Genesis 1:6–7, then follows orchestral tone painting, describing the division of the waters from the land and the first storms.

No. 4. Mit Staunen sieht das Wunderwerk (The marv'lous work beholds amazed/The glorious hierarchy of heav'n)

Soprano solo with chorus, in C major. The heavenly hosts praise God and the work of the second day.

End of the second day.

No. 5. Und Gott sprach: Es sammle sich das Wasser (And God said let the waters)

Brief recitative for bass (Genesis 1:9–10), leading into:

No. 6. Rollend in schäumenden Wellen (Rolling in foaming billows)

Aria in D minor for bass, narrating the creation of seas, mountains, rivers, and (a coda in D major) brooks. As John Mangum points out, the stylistic inspiration here appears to be the "revenge aria" of 18th century opera buffa, as for instance in "La vendetta", from Mozart's Le nozze de Figaro .

No. 7. Und Gott sprach: Es bringe die Erde Gras hervor (And God said, Let all the earth bring forth grass)

Brief recitative for soprano (Genesis 1:11), leading into:

A view of plant life that Haydn knew well. Albert Christoph Dies created this painting of the beautiful palace gardens in Eisenstadt, the property of their shared employer Prince Esterhazy. Dies also penned a Haydn biography. Albert Christoph Dies 001.jpg
A view of plant life that Haydn knew well. Albert Christoph Dies created this painting of the beautiful palace gardens in Eisenstadt, the property of their shared employer Prince Esterházy. Dies also penned a Haydn biography.

No. 8. Nun beut die Flur das frische Grün (Now robed in cool refreshing green)

Solo aria in B flat major for soprano, in siciliana rhythm, celebrating the creation of plants.

No. 9. Und die himmlischen Heerscharen verkündigten (And the Heavenly host proclaimed the third day)

Brief recitative for tenor, leading into:

No. 10. Stimmt an die Saiten (Awake the harp)

Chorus celebrating the third day, with four-part fugue on the words "For the heavens and earth/He has clothed in stately dress".

End of the third day.

No. 11. Und Gott sprach: Es sei'n Lichter an der Feste des Himmels (And God said : Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven)

Recitative for tenor, with portions of Genesis 1:14–16.

God creates the sun and moon: detail from Michelangelo's Sistine chapel ceiling Sun and Moon creation.jpg
God creates the sun and moon: detail from Michelangelo's Sistine chapel ceiling

No. 12. In vollem Glanze steiget jetzt die Sonne (In splendour bright is rising now/the sun)

With tenor narration, the orchestra portrays a brilliant sunrise, then a languid moonrise. The tune of the sunrise is simply ten notes of the D major scale, variously harmonized; the moon rises in the subdominant key of G, also with a rising scale passage. The end of recitative briefly alludes to the new-created stars, then introduces:

No. 13. Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes (The heavens are telling the glory of God)

The text is based on Psalm 19:1–3, which had been set by Bach as the opening chorus of his cantata Die Himmel erzählen die Ehre Gottes, BWV 76 .

Haydn's century, following on the discoveries of Newton, had the view that an orderly universe—particularly the mathematically governed motion of the heavenly bodies—attests to divine wisdom. Haydn, a naturally curious man, may have had an amateur interest in astronomy, as while in England he took the trouble to visit William Herschel, ex-composer and discoverer of Uranus, in his observatory in Slough.

"Die Himmel erzählen" is in the tonic major key of Part I; Part I then starts in C minor and ends in C major, showing the triumph of light over dark. It begins with alternation between celebratory choral passages and more meditative sequences from the three vocal soloists, followed by a choral fugue on the words "Und seiner Hände Werk zeigt an das Firmament", then a final homophonic section. ("The wonder of his works displays the firmament" is the English text here, with word-order calqued from the German, but somewhat awkward compared to the Authorized Version's "And the firmament sheweth the handywork of God".) The unusual intensity of the ending may be the result of Haydn's piling of coda upon coda, each occurring at a point where the music seems about to end.

End of the fourth day.

Part II

No.TitleFormVoiceKeyTempoTimeSourceTranslation
Day 5
14 Und Gott sprach: Es bringe das Wasser in der Fülle hervorRecitativeSopranoAllegro Commontime.svg Gen 1:20 And God said : Let the waters bring forth in plenty
15 Auf starkem Fittiche schwinget sich der Adler stolzAriaSoprano F major Moderato Commontime.svg On mighty wings the eagle proudly soars aloft
16 Und Gott schuf große WalfischeRecitative seccoBass Commontime.svg Gen 1:21–22 And God created great whales
Seid fruchtbar alleRecitativePoco AdagioBe fruitful all
17 Und die Engel rührten ihr' unsterblichen HarfenRecitative seccoBass Commontime.svg And the angels struck their immortal harps
18 In holder Anmut stehnTrioS T BA majorModerato2/4In fairest raiment
19 Der Herr ist groß in seiner MachtTrio and chorusS T BVivace Commontime.svg The Lord is great in his might
Day 6
20 Es bringe die Erde hervor lebende Geschöpfe [n 2] Recitative seccoBass Commontime.svg Gen 1:24 And God said : Let earth bring forth the living creature
21 Gleich öffnet sich der Erde SchoßRecitativeBassPresto Commontime.svg At once Earth opens her womb
Das zackig Haupt6/8The nimble stag
Auf grünen MattenAndanteThe cattle in herds
Wie Staub verbreitet sich Commontime.svg Unnumbered as the sands
In langen ZügenAdagioIn long dimensions
22 Nun scheint in vollem Glanze der HimmelAriaBassD majorAllegro maestoso3/4Now shines heaven in the brightest glory
23 Und Gott schuf den MenschenRecitative seccoTenor Commontime.svg Gen 1:27, Gen 2:7 And God created Man
24 Mit Würd' und Hoheit angetanAriaTenorC majorAndante Commontime.svg In native worth and honor clad
25 Und Gott sah jedes DingRecitative seccoBass Commontime.svg Gen 1:31 And God saw every thing
26 Vollendet ist das große WerkChorusB-flat majorVivace Commontime.svg Fulfilled at last the great work
27 Zu dir, o Herr, blickt alles aufTrioS T B E-flat major Poco Adagio3/4 Ps 145:15–16 All look up to thee, O Lord
28 Vollendet ist das große WerkChorusB-flat majorVivace Commontime.svg Fulfilled at last the great work
Alles lobe seinen NamenChorus, fugue Ps 148:13 Glory to his name forever

Part II celebrates the creation of sea creatures, birds, animals, and lastly, man.

No. 14. Und Gott sprach: Es bringe das Wasser in der Fülle hervor (And God said : Let the waters bring forth in plenty)

Recitative for soprano (Genesis 1:20), leading into:

No. 15. Auf starkem Fittiche schwinget sich der Adler stolz (On mighty wings the eagle proudly soars aloft)

The nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) has served as a powerful literary symbol for millennia; for discussion see Nightingale Nachtigall1.jpg
The nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) has served as a powerful literary symbol for millennia; for discussion see Nightingale

Aria for soprano in F major, celebrating the creation of birds. The species mentioned are the eagle, the lark, the dove and the nightingale. The lyrics include the conceit that, at the time just after the Creation, the nightingale's song was not yet melancholy.

No. 16. Und Gott schuf große Walfische (And God created great whales.)

For bass solo, in D minor. While labeled a recitative in the score, it is more appropriately described as a recitative (from Genesis 1:21–22) followed by a very brief aria, the latter a verse paraphrase on the biblical words (Gen. 1:22) "Be fruitful and multiply." The bass sings in the voice of the Almighty, as quoted by the Archangel Raphael. The somber accompaniment uses no violins, but only the lower strings, with divided violas and cellos. For discussion of how this section was composed, see Gottfried van Swieten.

No. 17. Und die Engel rührten ihr' unsterblichen Harfen (And the angels struck their immortal harps.)

Brief recitative for bass, with notable harp imitations in the accompaniment, leading into:

No. 18. In holder Anmut stehn (In fairest raiment)

Haydn breaks the regularity of the pattern "Recitative–Elaboration for solo–Celebratory chorus" with a meditative work in A major for the trio of vocalists, contemplating the beauty and immensity of the newly created world. This leads without a break to:

No. 19. Der Herr ist groß in seiner Macht (The Lord is great in his might)

Chorus with all three soloists, in A major, celebrating the fifth day. The line "...und ewig bleibt sein Ruhm" is, appropriately, repeated, seemingly without end.

End of the fifth day

No. 20. Und Gott sprach: Es bringe die Erde hervor lebende Geschöpfe (And God said : Let earth bring forth the living creature)

Recitative for bass (Genesis 1:24), leading into:

No. 21. Gleich öffnet sich der Erde Schoß (At once Earth opens her womb)

A movement of tone painting with bass narration. Haydn's gentle sense of humor is indulged here as the newly created creatures appear, each with musical illustration: lion, tiger, stag, horse, cattle, sheep, insects, and worms. As always in Haydn's oratorio tone painting, the sung verbal explanation comes after the orchestral portrayal.

The transition from glamorous animals (the first four) to prosaic ones (the last four) is marked with an unprepared modulation from D flat to A major. The farm animals are portrayed (as in No. 8) with siciliana rhythm, which plainly had bucolic associations for Haydn. Basses who can sing a low D are often tempted to use it on the final note "Wurm", substituting for the D an octave lower than written by Haydn.

Sound clip: bass Kyle Ketelson, Creation excerpt #3, from http://www.kylek.net.

"By heavy beasts the ground is trod": God contemplates his created Behemoth and Leviathan, in an image by William Blake. Behemoth3.jpg
"By heavy beasts the ground is trod": God contemplates his created Behemoth and Leviathan, in an image by William Blake.

No. 22. Nun scheint in vollem Glanze der Himmel (Now shines heaven in the brightest glory)

Aria for bass in D major, in 3/4 time. The theme is

Doch war noch alles nicht vollbracht
Dem Ganzen fehlte das Geschöpf
Das Gottes Werke dankbar seh'n
Des Herren Güte preisen soll.
"Yet not all was complete,
The whole lacked a being
Who would behold God's work with thanks
And praise the Lord's goodness."

Thus the movement is preparatory to the creation of man.

The first part of the movement contains another brief but notable bit of tone painting: a fortissimo bottom B-flat (sounding in octaves) for bassoons and contrabassoon accompanying the last word of the line, "By heavy beasts the ground is trod."

No. 23. Und Gott schuf den Menschen (And God created Man)

Detail from The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, c.1512 Hands of God and Adam.jpg
Detail from The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, c.1512

Tenor recitative (Genesis 1:27, 2:7), leading to:

No. 24. Mit Würd' und Hoheit angetan (In native worth and honor clad)

A prized aria for tenor, in C major, celebrating the creation of man, then woman. Often sung outside the context of The Creation. Although the aria relates a Biblical story, the virtues attributed to Adam (and not Eve) clearly reflect the values of the Enlightenment.

This was almost certainly the last music from The Creation that Haydn ever heard: it was sung for him several days before his death in 1809 as a gesture of respect by a French military officer, a member of Napoleon's invading army.

No. 25. Und Gott sah jedes Ding (And God saw every thing)

Brief recitative for bass (text amplifying Genesis 1:31), leading to:

No. 26. Vollendet ist das große Werk (The great work is complete)

A celebration for chorus alone, in B flat, of the sixth day. In the Biblical story (Genesis 2:1-3) this day was the end of Creation, since God rested on the seventh day, the first Sabbath.

No. 27. Zu dir, o Herr, blickt alles auf (All look up to thee, O Lord)

Another meditation for the three angels (compare No. 18), in E flat major, on God's omnipotence and mercy, quoting Psalm 145:15–16. The bass solo line "Du wendest ab dein Angesicht" requires the singer to terrify the audience with barely-audible pianissimo. The end of the trio is followed without pause by...

No. 28. Vollendet ist das große Werk (Fulfilled at last the great work)

This chorus begins with the same music and words as No. 26, and is in the same key of B flat. It quickly moves into large double fugue on the words "Alles lobe seinen Namen, denn er allein ist hoch erhaben" ("Let all praise his name, for he alone is sublime"). As appropriate to the finale of Part II, this repeat chorus is longer and ends more intensely than the first.

The pattern of the last three numbers of Part II, with two celebratory movements on the same theme flanking a slower meditative movement, echoes countless settings of the Latin Mass, where similar or identical choruses on Hosanna in excelsis flank a meditative section on Benedictus .

Part III

No.TitleFormVoiceKeyTempoTimeTranslation
Day 7
29 Aus Rosenwolken brichtRecitativeTenor E major Largo3/4In rosy mantle appears
30 Von deiner Güt, o Herr und Gott / Gesegnet sei des Herren MachtDuet with chorusS BC majorAdagio Commontime.svg By thy goodness, O bounteous Lord / Forever blessed be his Pow'r
Der Sterne hellster / Macht kund auf eurer weiten BahnF majorAllegretto2/4Of stars the fairest / Proclaim in your extended course
Heil dir, o Gott!ChorusHail, bounteous Lord!
31 Nun ist die erste Pflicht erfülltRecitativeS BAllegro Commontime.svg Our first duty we have now performed
32 Holde Gattin, dir zur SeiteDuetS BE-flat majorAdagio3/4Sweet companion, at thy side
Der tauende MorgenAllegro2/4The dew dropping morn
33 O glücklich Paar, und glücklich immerfortRecitative seccoTenor Commontime.svg O happy pair, and ever happy henceforth
34 Singt dem Herren alle Stimmen!ChorusB-flat majorAndante Commontime.svg Sing the Lord, ye voices all
Des Herren Ruhm, er bleibt in EwigkeitChorus (fugue) with soliS A T BAllegroThe praise of the Lord will endure forever

Part III takes place in the Garden of Eden, and narrates the happy first hours of Adam and Eve.

No. 29. Aus Rosenwolken bricht (In rosy mantle appears)

The Garden of Earthly Delights (detail 3) by Hieronymus Bosch (circa 1450-1516) J. Bosch The Garden of Earthly Delights (detail 3).jpg
The Garden of Earthly Delights (detail 3) by Hieronymus Bosch (circa 1450–1516)

Orchestral prelude in slow tempo depicting dawn in the Garden of Eden, followed by recitative for tenor representing Uriel. Adam and Eve are seen walking hand in hand.

The key is E major, very remote from the flat-side keys that have dominated the work so far. Various commentators suggest that this was meant by Haydn to convey the remoteness of Earth from Heaven, or to contrast the sinfulness of people with the perfection of angels.

No. 30. Von deiner Güt', o Herr und Gott (By thy goodness, O bounteous Lord)

Adam and Eve offer a prayer of thanks in C major, accompanied by a chorus of angels.

This movement, the longest in The Creation, has three parts. In the first, marked adagio, Adam and Eve sing their prayer, with the chorus singing underneath them accompanied by soft timpani rolls. In the second section, the tempo picks up, and Adam, Eve, and the angels praise the newly created world. The final section is for chorus and orchestra alone, a celebration on the words "Wir preisen dich in Ewigkeit" ("We praise thee eternally").

No. 31. Nun ist die erste Pflicht erfüllt (Our first duty we have now performed)

Recitative for Adam and Eve, leading to:

'Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve', watercolor by William Blake (1808) Blake, William (English, 1757-1827), 'Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve' (Illustration to 'Paradise Lost'), 1808, pen; watercolor on paper, 50.5 x 38 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, US.jpg
'Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve', watercolor by William Blake (1808)

No. 32. Holde Gattin, dir zur Seite (Sweet companion, at thy side)

Love duet for Adam and Eve in E flat major. There is a slow initial section, followed by an Allegro. The style is clearly influenced by comic opera, a genre in which Haydn had extensive experience. For some commentators the music evokes the blissful comic duet sung by Papageno and Papagena near the end of Mozart's The Magic Flute . [8]

No. 33. O glücklich Paar, und glücklich immerfort (O happy pair, and ever happy henceforth)

Uriel briefly explains to the pair that they will be happy always if they will refrain from wanting to have, or wishing to know, more than they should. This is the only reference to the fall of humanity.

No. 34. Singt dem Herren alle Stimmen! (Sing the Lord, ye voices all)

Final chorus in B flat major. There is a slow introduction, followed by a double fugue on the words "Des Herren Ruhm, er bleibt in Ewigkeit" ("The praise of the Lord will endure forever"), with passages for the vocal soloists and a final homophonic section.

Selected recordings

Recordings of The Creation / Die Schöpfung
Conductor / Choir / OrchestraSoloistsLabelYear
Clemens Krauss Phonographie PH 5029/301942 (1942) in Vienna
Eugen Jochum
BR Choir
Melodram GM 4.0055 28 April 1951 (1951-04-28) in Munich (live)
Karl Forster
Chor der St. Hedwigs-Kathedrale Berlin
EMI CZS 7 62595 21960 (1960)
Joseph Keilberth Andromeda ANDRCD 90371962 (1962)
Herbert von Karajan Arkadia CDKAR 203.2 8 August 1965 (1965-08-08) in Salzburg (live)
Herbert von Karajan Deutsche Grammophon 289449 761–21966 (1966) and later, released 1969
Leonard Bernstein
Camerata Singers
Sony SM2K 475601966 (1966). For details, see Haydn: The Creation (Leonard Bernstein 1966 recording)
Antal Doráti Decca 443 027-21977 (1977)
Neville Marriner Philips 416 4491980 (1980)
Sigiswald Kuijken Accent / Harmonia Mundi ACC82281982 (1982) (on period instruments in concert at the Conservatoire Royal de Musique de Liege)
Leonard Bernstein
BR Choir
Deutsche Grammophon (CD and DVD)1986 (1986) (concert in the Benedictine Abbey of Ottobeuren)
Christopher Hogwood Decca 430 397–21990 (1990) (sung in English, period instruments)
James Levine
  • Rundfunkchor Stockholm
  • Stockholmer Kammerchor
Deutsche Grammophon B000024Z741991 (1991)
Simon Rattle EMI Records CDS 7 54159 21991 (1991)
John Eliot Gardiner Deutsche Grammophon Archiv 449 217–21995 (1995) (period instruments)
William Christie Virgin Classics 0946 3 95235 2 82007 (2007) (period instruments)
Colin Davis LSO Live LSO06282007 (2007)
Paul McCreesh
Chetham's Chamber Choir
Gabrieli Consort and Players
Deutsche Grammophon Archiv 477 73612008 (2008) (issued)
René Jacobs Harmonia Mundi Archiv 992039.42009 (2009) (issued)

The 2009 recording won a Grammy Award in 2011 and was the top pick by pianist Iain Burnside on the 2013 broadcast of BBC 3'S CD Review – Building a Library. [9]

Sources

Haydn's original autograph score has been lost since 1803. A Viennese published score dated 1800 forms the basis of most performances today. The score used for performances by the Tonkünstler-Societät in 1799, with notes in the composer's hand, is kept in the Vienna State Library. There are various other copyist scores such as the Estate, as well as hybrid editions prepared by scholars during the last two centuries.

Notes

  1. suddenly forte in C major on "light"
  2. various keys and tempo markings to illustrate different animals

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wigmore, Richard (10 January 2009). "Franz Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) / The Creation (Die Schöpfung), HobXXI/2 (1796–8)" (PDF). Barbican Centre. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  2. Temperley (1991). Of this work, Smith and Carlson write, "O (and practically sees) the hopping of frogs, the arrival of all manner of flies and lice, and locusts without number that devoured the fruits of the ground. The beginning of the hailstorm is unforgettable, as is the quietness when the chorus sings, "He sent a thick darkness over the land." It is musical tone painting at its greatest." Jane Stuart Smith and Betty Carlson (1995) The Gift of Music: Great Composers and Their Influence. Crossway. p. 44. On line at
  3. Temperley, Nicholas (1991). Haydn: The Creation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 26.
  4. See Bryan Proksch (2015) Reviving Haydn: New Appreciations in the Twentieth Century. Boydell and Brewer.
  5. Haydn, Joseph (2001). The Creation in Full Score. Dover. ISBN   0-486-41907-X.
  6. See Rosen (1997:372), who offers detailed commentary on this movement.
  7. This was Frederik Samuel Silverstolpe, a Swedish diplomat. The event was a public rehearsal, not the premiere itself. See Temperley (1991: 24, 35)
  8. See, for instance, Richard Wigmore's remarks in program notes: "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-06-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).
  9. Burnside, Iain. "Building a Library: Haydn: The Creation". CD Review – Building a Library. BBC Radio 3. Retrieved 29 December 2013.

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References