The Haçienda

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The Haçienda
Hacienda logo.jpg
Hacienda06.jpg
The Haçienda interior prior to opening
AddressWhitworth Street West
Manchester
England
Owner Factory Records
New Order
Construction
Opened21 May 1982
Closed28 June 1997
Demolished2002
Architect Ben Kelly (interior)

The Haçienda was a nightclub and music venue in Manchester, England, which became famous in the Madchester years of the 1980s and early 1990s. [1] [2] [3] [4] The Haçienda opened in 1982, and despite considerable and persistent financial troubles survived until 1997—the club was mainly supported by record sales from New Order. The Haçienda is associated with the rise of acid house and rave music.

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. With a population of 545,500 (2017) it is the sixth largest city in the United Kingdom. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

Madchester music genre

Madchester was a music and cultural scene that developed in the Manchester area of North West England in the late 1980s, in which artists merged alternative rock with acid house and dance culture as well as other sources, including psychedelia and 1960s pop. The label was popularised by the British music press in the early 1990s, and its most famous groups include the Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, the Charlatans and 808 State.

New Order (band) British rock band

New Order are an English rock band formed in 1980 by vocalist and guitarist Bernard Sumner, bassist Peter Hook, and drummer Stephen Morris. The band formed after the demise of Joy Division, following the suicide of lead singer Ian Curtis; they were joined by Gillian Gilbert on keyboards later that year. New Order's integration of post-punk with electronic and dance music made them one of the most acclaimed and influential bands of the 1980s. They were the flagship band for Manchester-based independent record label Factory Records and its nightclub The Haçienda, and worked in long-term collaboration with graphic designer Peter Saville.

Contents

Creation

The Hacienda's exterior on the corner of Whitworth St. West and Albion St. Hacienda-300.jpg
The Haçienda's exterior on the corner of Whitworth St. West and Albion St.

The former warehouse occupied by the club was at 11-13, Whitworth Street West on the south side of the Rochdale Canal: the frontage was curved and built of red Accrington brick. Before it was turned into a club, The Haçienda was a yacht builder's shop and warehouse.

Whitworth Street street in Manchester, United Kingdom

Whitworth Street is a street in Manchester, England. It runs between London Road (A6) and Oxford Street (A34). West of Oxford Street it becomes Whitworth Street West which then goes as far as Deansgate (A56). It was opened in 1899 and is lined with many large and grand warehouses. It is named after the engineer Joseph Whitworth whose works once stood along the route. Whitworth Street West runs alongside the viaduct connecting Oxford Road and Deansgate railway stations: beyond Albion Street the Rochdale Canal is on the northern side. On the Albion Street corner is the building once occupied by the Haçienda nightclub at nos. 11-13 while further east on the same side is the Ritz.

Rochdale Canal

The Rochdale Canal is a navigable broad canal in Northern England, between Manchester and Sowerby Bridge, part of the connected system of the canals of Great Britain. Its name refers to the town of Rochdale, in Greater Manchester, through which it passes.

Accrington brick

Accrington bricks, or Noris are a type of iron-hard engineering brick, produced in Altham near Accrington, Lancashire, England from 1887 to 2008 and again from 2015. They were famed for their strength, and were used for the foundations of the Blackpool Tower and the Empire State Building.

Originally conceived by Rob Gretton, it was largely financed by the record label Factory Records and the band New Order along with label boss Tony Wilson. It was on the corner of Whitworth Street West and Albion Street, close to Castlefield, in the centre of the city. FAC 51 was its official designation in the Factory catalogue. New Order and Tony Wilson were directors of the club.

Robert Gretton, was the manager of Joy Division and New Order. He was partner in and co-director of Factory Records and a founding partner of The Haçienda.

Factory Records British record label

Factory Records was a Manchester-based British independent record label, started in 1978 by Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus, which featured several prominent musical acts on its roster such as Joy Division, New Order, A Certain Ratio, the Durutti Column, Happy Mondays, Northside, and (briefly) Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and James. Like the 4AD label, Factory Records used a creative team which gave the label and the artists recording for it a particular sound and image. The label employed a unique cataloguing system that gave a number not just to its musical releases, but to artwork and other objects.

Tony Wilson British record producer

Anthony Howard Wilson was a British record label owner, radio and television presenter, nightclub manager, impresario and journalist for Granada Television and the BBC.

Designed by Ben Kelly, upon recommendation by Factory graphic designer Peter Saville, upstairs consisted of a stage, dance area, bar, cloakroom, cafeteria area and balcony with a DJ booth. Downstairs was a cocktail bar called The Gay Traitor, which referred to Anthony Blunt, a British art historian who spied for the Soviet Union. The two other bars, The Kim Philby and Hicks, were named after Blunt's fellow spies. From 1995 onwards, the lower cellar areas of the venue were converted to create the 5th Man, a smaller music venue.

Ben Kelly is a British interior designer, who owns interior design firm Ben Kelly Design. He has also won awards for graphic design.

Anthony Blunt British art historian and soviet spy

Anthony Frederick Blunt, styled as Sir Anthony Blunt, KCVO, from 1956 to 1979, was a leading British art historian who in 1964, after being offered immunity from prosecution, confessed to having been a Soviet spy.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Name

The name comes from a slogan of the radical group Situationist International: "The Hacienda Must Be Built", from Formulary for a New Urbanism by Ivan Chtcheglov. [5] A hacienda is a large homestead in a ranch or estate usually in places where Colonial Spanish culture has had architectural influence. Even though the cedilla is not used in Spanish, the spelling "Haçienda" was decided on for the club because the cedilla makes the "çi" resemble "51", the club's catalogue number. [6]

The Situationist International (SI) was an international organization of social revolutionaries made up of avant-garde artists, intellectuals, and political theorists, prominent in Europe from its formation in 1957 to its dissolution in 1972.

Ivan Vladimirovitch Chtcheglov was a French political theorist, activist and poet, born in Paris to a Ukrainian father and a French mother.

A hacienda, in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar to a Roman latifundium. Some haciendas were plantations, mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these activities. The word is derived from the Spanish word "hacer" or "haciendo", which means: to make or be making, respectively; and were largely business enterprises consisting of various money making ventures including raising farm animals and maintaining orchards.

History

The Hacienda's exterior on Whitworth St. West Hacienda-301.jpg
The Haçienda's exterior on Whitworth St. West

The Haçienda was opened on 21 May 1982, when the comedian Bernard Manning remarked to the audience, "I've played some shit-holes during my time, but this is really something." [7] His jokes did not go down well with the crowd and he returned his fee. [8]

Bernard Manning English comedian

Bernard John Manning was an English comedian and nightclub owner.

A wide range of musical acts appeared at the club. One of the earliest was the German EBM band Liaisons Dangereuses, which played there on 7 July 1982. The Smiths performed there three times in 1983. It served as a venue for Madonna on her first performance in the United Kingdom, on 27 January 1984. She was invited to appear as part of a one-off, live television broadcast by Channel 4 music programme The Tube . [9] Madonna performed "Holiday" whilst at The Haçienda and the performance was described by Norman Cook (better known as Fatboy Slim) as one that "mesmerised the crowd". [10]

At one time, the venue also included a hairdressing salon. As well as club nights there were regular concerts, including one in which Einstürzende Neubauten drilled into the walls that surrounded the stage. [5]

In 1986, it became one of the first British clubs to start playing house music, with DJs Mike Pickering (of Quando Quango and M People) and Little Martin (later with Graeme Park) hosting the visionary "Nude" night on Fridays. This night quickly became legendary, and helped to turn around the reputation and fortunes of The Haçienda, which went from making a consistent loss to being full every night of the week by early 1987.

Acid house and rave

The growth of the 'Madchester' scene had little to do with the healthy house music scene in Manchester at the time but it was boosted by the success of The Haçienda's pioneering Ibiza night, "Hot", an acid house night hosted by Pickering and Jon DaSilva in July 1988.

However, drug use became a problem. [11] On 14 July 1989, the UK's first ecstasy-related death occurred at the club; 16-year-old Clare Leighton collapsed and died after her boyfriend gave her an ecstasy tablet. [12] The police clampdown that followed was opposed by Manchester City Council, which argued that the club contributed to an "active use of the city centre core" in line with the government's policy of regenerating urban areas. [7] The resulting problems caused the club to close for a short period in early 1991, before reopening with increased security later the same year. [13]

Haçienda DJs made regular and guest appearances on radio and TV shows like Granada TV's Juice, Sunset 102 and BBC Radio 1. Between 1994 and 1997 Hacienda FM was a weekly show on Manchester dance station Kiss 102.

Security was frequently a problem, particularly in the club's latter years. There were several shootings inside and outside the club, and relations with the police and licensing authorities became troubled. When local magistrates and police visited the club in 1997, they witnessed a near-fatal assault on a man in the streets outside when 18-year-old Andrew Delahunty was hit over the head from behind with what looked like a metal bar before being pushed into the path of an on-coming car. [14]

Although security failures at the club were one of the contributing factors to the club eventually closing, the most likely cause was its finances. The club simply did not make enough money from the sale of alcohol, and this was mainly because many patrons instead turned to drug use. As a result, the club rarely broke even as alcohol sales are the main source of income for nightclubs. [15] Ultimately, the club's long-term future was crippled and, with spiralling debts, The Haçienda eventually closed definitively in the summer of 1997. Peter Hook stated in 2009 that The Haçienda lost up to £18 million in its latter years. [16]

Legacy

The rebuilt Hacienda flats logo in 2007 Haciendaapartments.jpg
The rebuilt Haçienda flats logo in 2007
The Hacienda flats in 2007 Hacienda flats.jpg
The Haçienda flats in 2007

The Haçienda lost its entertainments licence in June 1997. The last night of the club was 28 June 1997, a club night called "Freak" featuring DJs Elliot Eastwick and Dave Haslam (the final live performance was by Spiritualized on 15 June 1997). The club remained open for a short period as an art gallery before finally going bankrupt and closing for good. After The Haçienda officially closed, it was used as a venue for two free parties organised by the Manchester free party scene. One of the parties ended in a police siege of the building while the party continued inside. These parties resulted in considerable damage and the application of graffiti to the Ben Kelly-designed interior.

Following a number of years standing empty, the Whitworth Street West site was purchased from the receivers by Crosby Homes. They chose to demolish the nightclub, and reuse the site for the construction of domestic flats. The iconic name was kept for the new development, with The Haçienda name licensed from Peter Hook, who owns the name and trademark. The nightclub was demolished in 2002—Crosby Homes had acquired the property some time before that and, on Saturday 25 November 2000, held a charity auction of the various fixtures and fittings from the nightclub. Clubgoers and enthusiasts from across the country attended to buy memorabilia ranging from the DJ booth box and radiators to emergency exit lights. The DJ booth was bought by Bobby Langley, ex-Haçienda DJ and Head of Merchandise for Sony Music London for an undisclosed fee.

Crosby Homes were widely criticised for using The Haçienda brand name—and featuring the strapline "Now the party's over...you can come home" in the promotional material. Another controversial feature of the branding campaign was the appropriation of many of the themes which ran through the original building. One of these was the iconic yellow and black hazard stripe motif which was a powerful element in the club's original design, featuring as it did on the club's dominant supporting pillars and later in much of the club's literature and flyers. [17]

Michael Winterbottom's 2002 film 24 Hour Party People starring Steve Coogan as Tony Wilson, tells the story of The Haçienda. The film was shot in 2001, and required reconstructing The Haçienda as a temporary set in a Manchester factory, which was then opened to ticket holders for a night, acting as a full-scale nightclub (except with free bar) as the film shooting took place.

The Manchester exhibition centre Urbis hosted an exhibition celebrating the 25th anniversary of the club's opening, which ran from mid-July 2007 until mid-February 2008. Peter Hook and many other of those originally involved contributed or loaned material.

The Manchester Museum of Science and Industry now holds a variety of Haçienda and Factory records artefacts, including the main loading bay doors from the club, and a wide array of posters, fliers and props. Rob Gretton bequeathed his collection of Haçienda memorabilia to the museum.

In October 2009, Peter Hook published his book on his time as co-owner of The Haçienda, How Not to Run a Club. In 2010, Peter Hook had six bass guitars made using wood from The Haçienda's dancefloor. [18] [19] The fret boards have been made from dancefloor planks, so they have "stiletto marks and cigarette burns". [20]

See also

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References

  1. "Legendary Hacienda Club comes to a close" Archived 22 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine , CNN, 8 January 2001
  2. "Obituary: Tony Wilson", BBC News,10 August 2007
  3. Urban Planet rundown of nightclubs in the 20th Century
  4. "Hacienda exhibit at D-mop", hongkonghustle.com. 7 October 2007.
  5. 1 2 25 Year Party Palace. BBC. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
  6. 24 Hour Party People
  7. 1 2 Glinert, Ed (2008). The Manchester Compendium: A Street-by-Street History of England's Greatest Industrial City. Penguin UK. ISBN   978-0-14-102930-6.
  8. Brewster, Bill; Broughton, Frank (2000). Last night a dj saved my life: the history of the disc jockey. Grove Press. p. 345. ISBN   978-0-8021-3688-6.
  9. Donohue, Simon. Madonna Forgets Haçienda Visit". Manchester Evening News . Retrieved 2008-02-03.
  10. Tim de Lisle (23 November 2005). "'She mesmerised the crowd – you could just tell there was a personality there'". The Guardian . Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  11. Connors, Rachael (27 July 2015). "Paul Massey death: Who was Salford's Mr Big?". BBC News Online . Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  12. Collin, Matthew; Godfrey, John (1998). Altered state: the story of ecstasy culture and Acid House (2nd ed.). Serpent's Tail. p. 160. ISBN   978-1-85242-604-0.
  13. Harking back to the Haçienda. BBC News. 6 November 2000.
  14. "Gangchester", Mixmag , February 1998
  15. The Hacienda: How Not to Run a Club, P. 158
  16. "Peter Hook: 'Hacienda lost £18m'". BBC News. 2 October 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  17. Stuart Aitken (March 2004). "Making a hash of the Haç". mad.co.uk.
  18. "FAC 51 The Hacienda Limited Edition Peter Hook Bass Guitar". Archived from the original on 25 December 2016.
  19. Ben Turner (12 January 2013). "Peter Hook's gig with bass guitar made from Hacienda floor". manchestereveningnews.
  20. Rick Bowen (13 June 2013). "Altrincham shop lands rare guitar". messengernewspapers.co.uk.

Bibliography

Coordinates: 53°28′27.55″N02°14′51.66″W / 53.4743194°N 2.2476833°W / 53.4743194; -2.2476833