Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater (English: Carinthian Gate Theatre) was a prestigious theatre in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Its official title was Kaiserliches und Königliches Hoftheater zu Wien, the "Imperial and Royal Court Theater of Vienna".
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι.
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
The theater was built in 1709 to designs by Antonio Beduzzi on a site near the former Kärntnertor,on the grounds of the present Hotel Sacher. The expenses of building the theater were borne by the City of Vienna, and was intended (as Eva Badura-Skoda notes) to be "frequented by the Viennese population of all classes." However, at the command of the Emperor, the first performances were of Italian opera, an elite form of entertainment. In 1711 the theater was redirected to its original purpose when it was placed under the direction of Josef Stranitzky, who put on a variety of entertainments, often embodying a German version of the Italian commedia dell'arte. The theater was managed by Stranitzky's widow after his death.
Antonio Maria Nicolao Beduzzi (1675–1735) was an Austrian-Italian theater engineer, painter, and architect who flourished in Vienna at the turn of the 17th century.
The Hotel Sacher is a five-star hotel located in the Innere Stadt first district of Vienna, Austria, vis-à-vis to the Vienna State Opera. It is famous for the specialty of the house, the Sachertorte, a chocolate cake with apricot filling. There is also an art gallery in the hotel with works from the 19th century. The hotel is built near the former residence of Antonio Vivaldi.
Eva Badura-Skoda is a German/Austrian musicologist.
In 1728 the court artists Borosini and Selliers, who had performed intermezzi in both German and Italian, became the Kärntnertortheater's directors. From 1742 to 1750 the theatre was leased to Selliers alone. In 1752, however, Maria Theresa withdrew the imperial privilege, placing the theater under the direct scrutiny of the magistrates of Vienna.
In music, an intermezzo, in the most general sense, is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities, such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work. In music history, the term has had several different usages, which fit into two general categories: the opera intermezzo and the instrumental intermezzo.
The first theatre burned in 1761 and was rebuilt by the court architect Nicolò Pacassi; two years later it reopened, again under protective privilege, as the Kaiserliches und Königliches Hoftheater zu Wien, "Imperial and Royal Court Theater of Vienna". From the early nineteenth century ballets were added to the repertory, as well as Italian and German operas. From 1811 to 1814 Ignaz Franz Castelli served as Hoftheaterdichter, "poet of the court theater". From 1821 the Italian impresario Domenico Barbaia added the theatre to the string of theatres under his management, and presented Italian operas. Beginning in 1861 the Vienna Court Opera House (now the Vienna State Opera) was built on the adjoining grounds; it was completed in 1869 and in 1870 the former theatre was razed, making way for the apartment building that became the Hotel Sacher. Gerhard Bronner's cabaret showcase stadtTheater walfischgasse used the name Neues Theater am Kärntnertor (New Theatre at the Kärntnertor) from 1959 to 1973 before adopting its present name; it is located on the next block at 4 Walfischgasse.
Nicolò Pacassi, also known as Nikolaus Pacassi, was an Italian-Austrian architect. He was born in Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria in a family of merchants from Gorizia. In 1753, he was appointed court architect to Maria Theresa of Austria. He was commissioned many works throughout the Austrian Empire, mainly in Vienna, Prague, Innsbruck, Buda and his native Gorizia and Gradisca. He died in Vienna.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread, highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology. It has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have historically incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet.
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.
During its heyday several composers conducted the theatre orchestra, including the young Franz Lachner and Ferdinando Paer.
Franz Paul Lachner was a German composer and conductor.
Ferdinando Paer was an Italian composer known for his operas and oratorios. He was of Austrian descent and used the German spelling Pär in application for printing in Venice, and later in France the spelling Paër.
Der krumme Teufel, Hob. 29/1a, was Joseph Haydn's first opera. This German-language comic opera in the genre of Singspiel was commissioned by its librettist, leading comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurtz. It was forbidden after two acclaimed performances in Vienna due to "offensive remarks in the text", but later revived and probably revised as Der neue krumme Teufel, Hob. 29/1b. The music is lost, though a libretto survives for each version.
(Franz) Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".
Florian Leopold Gassmann was a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. He was one of the principal composers of dramma giocoso immediately before Mozart.
Antonio Salieri was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher. He was born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, and spent his adult life and career as a subject of the Habsburg Monarchy.
This is a list of music-related events in 1800.
The Theater an der Wien is an historic theatre in Vienna located on the Left Wienzeile in the Mariahilf district. Completed in 1801, the theatre has hosted the premieres of many celebrated works of theatre, opera, and symphonic music. Since 2006, it has served primarily as an opera house, hosting its own company.
Caterina Cornaro ossia La Regina di Cipro is a tragedia lirica, or opera, in a prologue and two acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Giacomo Sacchèro wrote the Italian libretto after Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges' libretto for Halévy's La reine de Chypre (1841). It is based on the life of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus from 1474 to 1489. It premiered at the Teatro San Carlo, Naples on 12 January 1844.
Nicola Tacchinardi, was an Italian cellist and tenor, and later voice teacher.
Giuseppina Ronzi de Begnis was an Italian soprano opera singer famous for the roles written for her by the prominent composers of the 1820s and 1830s. Her father, Gaspare, was a prominent ballet dancer and choreographer, and her mother, Antonia, a ballerina. Her brothers Stanislao and Pollione were opera singers. As a singer, she made her debut in Naples at the Teatro dei Fiorentini in 1814 in Giovanni Cordella's L'Avaro, followed by important engagements in Bologna in 1816, also appearing in Genoa, Florence; in 1817 as Giulia La Vestale, and in Bergamo. She married Italian bass Giuseppe de Begnis (1793–1849) when she was only 16. The marriage lasted only a few years and the two separated in 1825.
The Teatro Donizetti is an opera house in Bergamo, Italy. Built in the 1780s using a design by architect Giovanni Francesco Lucchini, the theatre was originally referred to as either the Teatro Nuovo or Teatro di Fiera. The first opera to be mounted at the theatre, Giuseppe Sarti's Medonte, re di Epiro, was in 1784 while the opera house was still under construction. The official opening of the house, under the name the Teatro Riccardi, did not occur until 24 August 1791 with a production of Pietro Metastasio's Didone abbandonata set to music by multiple composers, including Ferdinando Bertoni, Giacomo Rampini, Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Giuseppe Gazzaniga, and Giovanni Paisiello.
L'amore innocente composed by Antonio Salieri (1750–1825), is an Italian-language opera in two acts. Stylistically, it is a pastoral opera and is very similar to the mid-18th-century Roman Intermezzo. The libretto was written by Giovanni Gastone Boccherini, dancer, poet and stage manager, brother of the composer Luigi Boccherini.
Raffaele Scalese (1800–1884) was an Italian operatic bass who specialized in the opera buffa repertoire. He was active in Italy's major opera houses from the mid-1820s up into the 1860s. He also appeared internationally in opera houses in Austria, Portugal, and France. The last years of his career were spent performing in Paris in the late 1860s where he remained after his retirement from the stage.
Agostino Rovere was an Italian operatic bass. After studying singing in Milan, he made his professional opera debut in 1826 at the opera house in Pavia. In 1828 he portrayed Clemente in the world premiere of Vincenzo Bellini's Bianca e Fernando at the Teatro Carlo Felice in Genoa. In 1839 he sang the role of Pedrigo in the world premiere of Gaetano Donizetti's Gianni di Parigi at La Scala. He returned to that opera house the following year to create the role of La Rocca in the world premiere of Giuseppe Verdi's Un giorno di regno. In 1842 he portrayed the role of Marquis de Boisfleury in the world premiere of Donizetti's Linda di Chamounix at the Kärntnertortheater in Vienna. In 1847–1848 he was committed to the Royal Opera House in London where he sang Bartolo in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro, Don Magnifico in Rossini's La Cenerentola, Dulcamara in Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore, Leporello in Don Giovanni, and Mustafà in Gioachino Rossini's L'italiana in Algeri
Erminia Frezzolini was an Italian operatic soprano. She excelled in the coloratura soprano repertoire, drawing particular acclaim in the bel canto operas of Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini. She was married to tenor Antonio Poggi from 1841-1846.
Peter John Branscombe was an English academic in German studies, a musicologist, and a writer on Austrian cultural history.
Marc Vignal is a noted French musicologist, writer and radio producer for France Musique and program manager at Radio France (1975–99), a journalist for Harmony (1964–84), The World of Music (1985–2009) and Classica (2009–). He collaborated in the writing Fayard Guides: symphonic, sacred, chamber and piano under the direction of François-René Tranchefort, including French and translated The Classical Style by Charles Rosen, and Bach Interpretation by Paul Badura-Skoda. Vignal is the author of numerous lectures, articles and books on music and musicians.
The Sonatensatz in B-flat major D. 28, also known as Piano Trio in B-flat major, is a single-movement work for piano trio by Franz Schubert.
Amalie Schütz known under the stage name Amalia Schütz Oldosi, was an early 19th-century Austrian soprano who performed in Austria, France, England and Italy.
Katharina Buchwieser was a German operatic soprano and actress. She was known as Cathinka, and her married surname was Lacsny von Folkusfálva. She appeared at theatres of Vienna, the Theater an der Wien and the Theater am Kärntnertor, then the court theatre. Franz Schubert dedicated compositions to her.