Theater am Kärntnertor

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Karntnertor-Theater as Deutsche Schau-Buhne zu Wienn in the 18th century Die Deutsche Schau-Buhne zu Wienn.png
Kärntnertor-Theater as Deutsche Schau-Bühne zu Wienn in the 18th century
Theater am Karntnertor Karl Wenzel Zajicek Kartnertortheater.jpg
Theater am Kärntnertor
Franz Xaver Stober: The orchestra in the Karntnertor-Theater, Wiener Zeitschrift fur Kunst, Literatur, Theater und Mode (1821) Franz Xaver Stoeber Kaertnertortheater.jpg
Franz Xaver Stöber: The orchestra in the Kärntnertor-Theater, Wiener Zeitschrift für Kunst, Literatur, Theater und Mode (1821)
Karntnertortheater in Vienna (right) Stadtmodell Wien 04.jpg
Kärntnertortheater in Vienna (right)

Theater am Kärntnertor or Kärntnertortheater (English: Carinthian Gate Theatre) was a prestigious theatre in Vienna during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Its official title was Kaiserliches und Königliches Hoftheater zu Wien, the "Imperial and Royal Court Theater of Vienna".

Duchy of Carinthia

The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies.

Theatre collaborative form of performing and fine art

Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music, and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre" as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι.

Vienna Capital city and state in Austria

Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Contents

History

The theater was built in 1709 to designs by Antonio Beduzzi on a site near the former Kärntnertor, [1] on the grounds of the present Hotel Sacher. The expenses of building the theater were borne by the City of Vienna, and was intended (as Eva Badura-Skoda notes) [2] to be "frequented by the Viennese population of all classes." However, at the command of the Emperor, the first performances were of Italian opera, an elite form of entertainment. In 1711 the theater was redirected to its original purpose when it was placed under the direction of Josef Stranitzky, who put on a variety of entertainments, often embodying a German version of the Italian commedia dell'arte. [2] The theater was managed by Stranitzky's widow after his death.

Antonio Maria Nicolao Beduzzi (1675–1735) was an Austrian-Italian theater engineer, painter, and architect who flourished in Vienna at the turn of the 17th century.

Hotel Sacher

The Hotel Sacher is a five-star hotel located in the Innere Stadt first district of Vienna, Austria, vis-à-vis to the Vienna State Opera. It is famous for the specialty of the house, the Sachertorte, a chocolate cake with apricot filling. There is also an art gallery in the hotel with works from the 19th century. The hotel is built near the former residence of Antonio Vivaldi.

Eva Badura-Skoda is a German/Austrian musicologist.

In 1728 the court artists Borosini and Selliers, who had performed intermezzi in both German and Italian, became the Kärntnertortheater's directors. From 1742 to 1750 the theatre was leased to Selliers alone. In 1752, however, Maria Theresa withdrew the imperial privilege, placing the theater under the direct scrutiny of the magistrates of Vienna.

In music, an intermezzo, in the most general sense, is a composition which fits between other musical or dramatic entities, such as acts of a play or movements of a larger musical work. In music history, the term has had several different usages, which fit into two general categories: the opera intermezzo and the instrumental intermezzo.

The first theatre burned in 1761 and was rebuilt by the court architect Nicolò Pacassi; two years later it reopened, again under protective privilege, as the Kaiserliches und Königliches Hoftheater zu Wien, "Imperial and Royal Court Theater of Vienna". From the early nineteenth century ballets were added to the repertory, as well as Italian and German operas. From 1811 to 1814 Ignaz Franz Castelli served as Hoftheaterdichter, "poet of the court theater". From 1821 the Italian impresario Domenico Barbaia added the theatre to the string of theatres under his management, and presented Italian operas. Beginning in 1861 the Vienna Court Opera House (now the Vienna State Opera) was built on the adjoining grounds; it was completed in 1869 and in 1870 the former theatre was razed, making way for the apartment building that became the Hotel Sacher. Gerhard Bronner's cabaret showcase stadtTheater walfischgasse used the name Neues Theater am Kärntnertor (New Theatre at the Kärntnertor) from 1959 to 1973 before adopting its present name; it is located on the next block at 4 Walfischgasse. [3]

Nicolò Pacassi Austrian architect

Nicolò Pacassi, also known as Nikolaus Pacassi, was an Italian-Austrian architect. He was born in Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria in a family of merchants from Gorizia. In 1753, he was appointed court architect to Maria Theresa of Austria. He was commissioned many works throughout the Austrian Empire, mainly in Vienna, Prague, Innsbruck, Buda and his native Gorizia and Gradisca. He died in Vienna.

Ballet form of performance dance

Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the fifteenth century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread, highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary based on French terminology. It has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres and cultures. Ballet has been taught in various schools around the world, which have historically incorporated their own cultures and as a result, the art has evolved in a number of distinct ways. See glossary of ballet.

Opera artform combining sung text and musical score in a theatrical setting

Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

First performances of operas and other works

During its heyday several composers conducted the theatre orchestra, including the young Franz Lachner and Ferdinando Paer.

Franz Lachner German composer and conductor

Franz Paul Lachner was a German composer and conductor.

Ferdinando Paer Italian composer

Ferdinando Paer was an Italian composer known for his operas and oratorios. He was of Austrian descent and used the German spelling Pär in application for printing in Venice, and later in France the spelling Paër.

<i>Der krumme Teufel</i> opera

Der krumme Teufel, Hob. 29/1a, was Joseph Haydn's first opera. This German-language comic opera in the genre of Singspiel was commissioned by its librettist, leading comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurtz. It was forbidden after two acclaimed performances in Vienna due to "offensive remarks in the text", but later revived and probably revised as Der neue krumme Teufel, Hob. 29/1b. The music is lost, though a libretto survives for each version.

Joseph Haydn Austrian composer

(Franz) Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio. His contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet".

Florian Leopold Gassmann austrian composer

Florian Leopold Gassmann was a German-speaking Bohemian opera composer of the transitional period between the baroque and classical eras. He was one of the principal composers of dramma giocoso immediately before Mozart.

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References

Notes

  1. "Kärntnertor" means "Carinthian gate"; from "Kärnten" (German for Carinthia), "Kärntner" ("Carinthian")
  2. 1 2 Badura-Skoda 1973
  3. "The History of Austrian Cabaret". kabarettarchiv.at. Retrieved 16 February 2009.
  4. Melton, James Van Horn, "School, Stage, Salon: Musical Cultures in Haydn’s Vienna", in The Journal of Modern History , June 2004, Vol. 76, No. 2, pp. 251–279 (subscription required)
  5. Dayton Philharmonic programme notes for Mozart's 25th Pano Concerto
  6. Björling (2002, 8)

Sources

Coordinates: 48°12′12″N16°22′15″E / 48.20333°N 16.37083°E / 48.20333; 16.37083