|Governor of Sagaing|
|Reign||1402 – 1407|
|Predecessor||Yazathingyan Saw Hnit|
|Heir Presumptive of Ava|
|Reign||25 November 1400 – c. December 1406|
|Predecessor||Tarabya (as heir-apparent)|
|Successor||Minye Kyawswa (as heir-apparent)|
Pyinzi, Ava Kingdom
|Died||c. July 1408|
Pegu, Hanthawaddy Kingdom
|Spouse||Daughter of Yazathu of Talok|
|Father||Swa Saw Ke|
Theiddat (Burmese : သိဒ္ဓတ်, pronounced [θeiʔdaʔ] ; 1375/76–1408) was the heir-presumptive of Ava from 1400 to 1406 during the reign of King Minkhaung I of Ava. Theiddat was the key figure in securing his elder brother Minkhaung I's claim on the throne of Ava. In the early days of Minkhaung's reign, Theiddat personally led an army to put down a major rebellion. After Minkhaung named his eldest son Minye Kyawswa heir apparent in 1406, Theiddat felt betrayed, and fled south in 1407 and joined the service of King Razadarit of Hanthawaddy Pegu, which was amidst fighting the Forty Years' War (1385–1424) with Ava.
It turned out that Theiddat could not betray his brother. In 1408, Theiddat, who was with a special group of Hanthawaddy forces who were waiting to ambush Minkhaung, gave a warning to his brother at a critical moment, allowing him to escape. Theiddat was duly executed by Razadarit for his warning.
Minkhaung and Theiddat were sons of King Swa Saw Ke by Saw Beza whom he had met during one of his military campaigns.As their mother was a commoner, they were not in line for the throne. Swa had designated Prince Tarabya as crown prince.
In April 1400, their father died and Tarabya ascended the throne. In November 1400, Tarabya was assassinated by Nga Nauk Hsan, the governor of Tagaung who tried to seize the throne. The ministers put the usurper to death, and gave the throne to Minkhaung. His ascension was greeted by a major rebellion led by Gov. Maha Pyauk of Yamethin. Pyauk marched to Ava with a force of 10,000 men, 60 attack elephants and 800 horses.Theiddat led Ava's defenses, and defeated the stronger rebel force, killing Maha Pyauk. In gratitude, Minkhaung gave Theiddat Sagaing to rule but stopped short of declaring him heir-apparent. The younger brother was never satisfied with the reward he received for his help, and held a lingering resentment that would rear its ugly head later.
In 1406, Minkhaung named his eldest son Minye Kyawswa as heir apparent. His brother Theiddat, who had loyally supported Minkhaung in time of his need, felt betrayed, and challenged Minkhaung to an elephant-to-elephant single combat. Minkhaung defeated his younger brother but allowed him to leave. Theiddat took refuge in Razadarit's service. Razadarit welcomed Theiddat and gave him his sister in marriage.
In May 1408, Minkhaung invaded the south and reached the outskirts of Pegu. Razadarit tried to break the siege by sending special forces to assassinate Minkhaung. Minkhaung escaped death on the warning by his brother Theiddat who was with Pegu troops to ambush him. Theiddat was later executed by Razadarit for his warning.
Razadarit, was king of Hanthawaddy Pegu from 1384 to 1421. He successfully unified his Mon-speaking kingdom, and fended off major assaults by the Burmese-speaking Ava Kingdom (Inwa) in the Forty Years' War. The king also instituted an administrative system that left his successors with a far more integrated kingdom. He is one of the most famous kings in Burmese history.
Binnya Dhammaraza was king of Hanthawaddy Pegu from 1421 to 1424. His short reign was marked by rebellions by his half-brothers Binnya Ran and Binnya Kyan; renewed invasions by the Ava Kingdom; and various court intrigues. He never had any real control beyond the capital Pegu (Bago), and was poisoned by one of his queens in 1424. He was succeeded by Binnya Ran.
Mingyi Swa Saw Ke was king of Ava from 1367 to 1400. He reestablished central authority in Upper Myanmar (Burma) for the first time since the fall of the Pagan Empire in the 1280s. He essentially founded the Ava Kingdom that would dominate Upper Burma for the next two centuries.
Tarabya was king of Ava for about seven months in 1400. He was the heir apparent from 1385 to 1400 during his father King Swa Saw Ke's reign. He was a senior commander in Ava's first three campaigns (1385−91) against Hanthawaddy Pegu in the Forty Years' War. He was assassinated seven months into his rule by his one-time tutor, Gov. Thihapate of Tagaung. The court executed the usurper, and gave the throne to Tarabya's half-brother Min Swe.
Minkhaung I of Ava was king of Ava from 1400 to 1421. He is best remembered in Burmese history for his epic struggles against King Razadarit of Hanthawaddy Pegu in the Forty Years' War (1385–1424). As king, Minkhaung continued his father Swa Saw Ke's policy to restore the Pagan Empire. Under the military leadership of his eldest son Minye Kyawswa, Ava nearly succeeded. While he ultimately failed to conquer Hanthawaddy and Launggyet Arakan, he was able to bring in most of cis-Salween Shan states to the Ava orbit.
Thihathu of Ava was king of Ava from 1421 to 1425. Though he opportunistically renewed the Forty Years' War with Hanthawaddy Pegu in 1422, Thihathu agreed to a peace treaty with Prince Binnya Ran in 1423. His subsequent marriage to Ran's sister Princess Shin Saw Pu helped keep the peace between the two kingdoms when Ran became king of Pegu in 1424.
Kale Kye-Taung Nyo was king of Ava from 1425 to 1426, and governor of Kale Kye-Taung (Kalay) from 1406 to 1425. A top military commander during the reigns of kings Minkhaung I and Thihathu of Ava, Prince Min Nyo came to power in 1425 by overthrowing his eight-year-old nephew King Min Hla with the help of his lover Queen Shin Bo-Me. But Nyo himself was overthrown less than seven months later in 1426 by his fellow senior commander and long-time rival Gov. Thado of Mohnyin.
Mohnyin Thado was king of Ava from 1426 to 1439. The ethnic Burman saopha (chief) of Mohnyin came to power after overthrowing King Kale Kye-Taung Nyo and his queen Shin Bo-Me in 1426. His reign marks the plateauing of Ava's power. Left exhausted by the Forty Years' War with Hanthawaddy Pegu (Bago) in the south, and long-running wars against various Shan States in the north, Ava was no longer in a position to expand. Mohnyin Thado spent his 12-year reign keeping restive regions of Ava in one piece. He never controlled Toungoo. He had to tolerate the governors of other regions who treated him as at best a senior. Hanthwaddy aided the Toungoo rebellion in 1426 and seized the region in 1436. But the two kingdoms did not resume a full-scale war.
Minye Kyawswa was crown prince of Ava from 1406 to 1415, and commander-in-chief of Ava's military from 1410 to 1415. He is best remembered in Burmese history as the courageous general who waged the fiercest battles of the Forty Years' War (1385–1424) against King Razadarit of Hanthawaddy Pegu.
Shin Mi-Nauk was a senior queen consort of King Minkhaung I of Ava from 1400 to 1407. She was the mother of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa, who is one of the most celebrated generals in Burmese history, and King Thihathu of Ava. Mi-Nauk was a daughter of Hsongamhpa, the saopha (chief) of Shan state of Mohnyin. She was married to Minkhaung, son King Swa Saw Ke of Ava when Ava and Mohnyin were in a rare period of good relations in 1389. From 1391 to 1395, she gave birth to three sons, Minye Kyawswa, Minye Thihathu and Minye Kyawhtin, and a daughter, Saw Pyei Chantha at Pyinzi, which was Minkhaung's fief.
The Forty Years' War was a military conflict fought between the Burmese-speaking Kingdom of Ava and the Mon-speaking Kingdom of Hanthawaddy Pegu. The war was fought during two separate periods: 1385 to 1391, and 1401 to 1424, interrupted by two truces of 1391–1401 and 1403–1408. It was fought primarily in today's Lower Burma and also in Upper Burma, Shan State, and Rakhine State. It ended in a stalemate, preserving the independence of Hanthawaddy, and effectively ending Ava's efforts to rebuild the erstwhile Pagan Kingdom.
Saw Min Hla was the chief queen consort of Ava from 1421 to 1425. Her son Min Hla briefly became king for three months in 1425, following the death of her second husband King Thihathu of Ava. Her first husband was Thihathu's elder brother Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa of the Forty Years' War fame. Her eldest child Minye Kyawhtin was the rebel king of Toungoo (Taungoo) from 1452 to 1459.
Min Yaza of Wun Zin was chief minister of Ava from 1379/80 to 1421. He was the main adviser to three successive kings of Ava: Swa Saw Ke, Tarabya and Minkhaung I. Under his guidance, Ava made several attempts to restore the Pagan Empire, and methodically acquired its immediate surrounding Shan states between 1371 and 1406. By his death in 1421, he had advised his kings almost for the entire duration of the Forty Years' War (1385–1424) between Ava and Pegu.
Maha Pyauk was governor of Yamethin and a key army commander from 1395/96 to 1400. He emerged as one of the pretenders to the Ava throne after King Tarabya's assassination. But Pyauk himself was assassinated by Prince Theiddat, who wanted his elder brother Minkhaung to succeed.
Saw Pyei Chantha was the chief queen consort of Arakan for a few months in 1408. After she and her first husband King Anawrahta of Launggyet were captured by the Hanthawaddy forces in 1408, she became a junior queen consort of King Razadarit of Hanthawaddy.
Anawrahta Minsaw was king of Launggyet Arakan from 1406 to 1408. He was appointed to the position by his overlord King Minkhaung I of the Ava Kingdom. He later married Minkhaung's eldest daughter Saw Pyei Chantha. He was overthrown in 1408 by the Hanthawaddy Kingdom army, and subsequently executed on the order of King Razadarit of Hanthawaddy. He is one of two historical personalities that make up the Shwe Nawrahta nat spirit in the Burmese pantheon of nats.
Minye Kyawhtin was governor of Pakhan from 1413 to 1426. The youngest son of King Minkhaung I of Ava was a top pretender to the Ava throne during the succession crisis in 1425–1426, following the assassinations of his brother King Thihathu and nephew King Min Hla.
Binnya Kyan was viceroy of Martaban from 1422 to 1442/43. A son of King Razadarit, Kyan was also governor of Dala from 1414 to 1422, with the title of Binnya Dala.
Smin Bayan was an early 15th century commander who fought on both sides of the Forty Years' War between Hanthawaddy Pegu and Ava. He is best known in Burmese history for successfully driving back a Chinese invasion in 1414–1415 on behalf of his former enemy Ava.
Minye Kyawhtin was a pretender to the Ava throne from 1426 to 1459. The eldest son of Crown Prince Minye Kyawswa, Minye Kyawhtin raised a long-running rebellion against King Mohnyin Thado and his successors, kings Minye Kyawswa I and Narapati I of Ava.
TheiddatBorn: 1375/76 Died:c. July 1408
Yazathingyan Saw Hnit
| Governor of Sagaing|
| Heir Presumptive to the Burmese Throne |