Theseus

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Silver kylix with Theseus and the Marathon bull, 445-440 BC, part of the Vassil Bojkov collection, Sofia, Bulgaria Kylix 57.1.jpg
Silver kylix with Theseus and the Marathon bull, 445–440 BC, part of the Vassil Bojkov collection, Sofia, Bulgaria

Theseus ( UK: /ˈθsjs/ , US: /ˈθsiəs/ ; Greek : Θησεύς [tʰɛːsěu̯s] ) was the mythical king and founder-hero of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles, Theseus battled and overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and social order. His role in history has been called "a major cultural transition, like the making of the new Olympia by Hercules". [1] [2]

British English is the standard dialect of the English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".

American English Set of dialects of the English language spoken in the United States

American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is globally considered to be one of the most influential dialects in the world; more so than any other dialect of English.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

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Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians. The Athenians regarded Theseus as a great reformer; his name comes from the same root as θεσμός (thesmos), Greek for "The Gathering". The myths surrounding Theseus—his journeys, exploits, and friends—have provided material for fiction throughout the ages.

Heracles divine hero in Greek mythology, son of Zeus and Alcmene

Heracles, born Alcaeus or Alcides was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon. He was a great-grandson and half-brother of Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the later Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well.

Dorians ethnic group

The Dorians were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes of Classical Greece considered themselves divided. They are almost always referred to as just "the Dorians", as they are called in the earliest literary mention of them in the Odyssey, where they already can be found inhabiting the island of Crete.

Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos ('dwelling together')—the political unification of Attica under Athens—represented emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous beasts. Because he was the unifying king, Theseus built and occupied a palace on the fortress of the Acropolis that may have been similar to the palace that was excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after the synoikismos, Theseus established a cult of Aphrodite Pandemos ('Aphrodite of all the People') and Peitho on the southern slope of the Acropolis.

Attica Region of Ancient Greece

Attica, or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. It is a peninsula projecting into the Aegean Sea, bordering on Boeotia to the north and Megaris to the west. The southern tip of the peninsula, known as Laurion, was an important mining region.

Acropolis Defensive settlement built on high ground

An acropolis was in ancient Greece a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. Acropolis also had a function of a religious sanctuary with sacred springs highlighting its religious significance. Acropolis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity, such as ancient Athens, and for this reason they are sometimes prominent landmarks in modern cities with ancient pasts, such as modern Athens. Perhaps the most famous acropolis is the Acropolis of Athens, located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and containing the Parthenon.

Mycenae Archaeological site in Greece

Mycenae is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece. It is located about 120 kilometres south-west of Athens; 11 kilometres north of Argos; and 48 kilometres south of Corinth. The site is 19 kilometres inland from the Saronic Gulf and built upon a hill rising 900 feet above sea level.

Plutarch's Life of Theseus (a literalistic biography) makes use of varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, and the love of Ariadne for Theseus. [3] Plutarch's sources, not all of whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes (mid-fifth century BC), Demon (c. 400 BC), Philochorus, and Cleidemus (both fourth century BC). [4] As the subject of myth, the existence of Theseus as a real person has not been proven, but scholars believe that he may have been alive during the Late Bronze Age [5] possibly as a king in the 8th or 9th century BC. [6]

Plutarch Ancient Greek historian and philosopher

Plutarch, later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia. He is classified as a Middle Platonist. Plutarch's surviving works were written in Greek, but intended for both Greek and Roman readers.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is a translation of a text done by translating each word separately, without looking at how the words are used together in a phrase or sentence.

Minotaur creature of Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, the Minotaur is a mythical creature portrayed in Classical times with the head and tail of a bull and the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, a being "part man and part bull". He dwelt at the center of the Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos of Crete. The Minotaur was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus.

Mythology

Birth and early years

Theseus and Aethra, by Laurent de La Hyre Laurent de la La Hyre 002.jpg
Theseus and Aethra, by Laurent de La Hyre

Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring an heir, he asked the Oracle of Delphi for advice. Her cryptic words were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief." Aegeus did not understand the prophecy and was disappointed. He asked the advice of his host Pittheus, king of Troezen. Pittheus understood the prophecy, got Aegeus drunk, and gave Aegeus his daughter Aethra. [7]

Aegeus mythological king of Athens

In Greek mythology, Aegeus was an archaic figure in the founding myth of Athens. The "goat-man" who gave his name to the Aegean Sea was, next to Poseidon, the father of Theseus, the founder of Athenian institutions and one of the kings of Athens.

In Greek mythology, Pittheus was the king of Troezen, city in Argolis, which he had named after his brother Troezen.

In Greek mythology, Troezen was the eponymous king of the city Troezen.

But following the instructions of Athena in a dream, Aethra left the sleeping Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay close to Troezen's shore. There she poured a libation to Sphairos (Pelops' charioteer) and Poseidon, and was possessed by the sea god in the night. The mix gave Theseus a combination of divine as well as mortal characteristics in his nature; such double paternity, with one immortal and one mortal, was a familiar feature of other Greek heroes. [8] After Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock [9] and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, and take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne, and had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens.

Athena ancient Greek goddess of wisdom and war

Athena or Athene, often given the epithet Pallas, is an ancient Greek goddess associated with wisdom, handicraft, and warfare who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva. Athena was regarded as the patron and protectress of various cities across Greece, particularly the city of Athens, from which she most likely received her name. She is usually shown in art wearing a helmet and holding a spear. Her major symbols include owls, olive trees, snakes, and the Gorgoneion.

Poseidon Ancient Greek god of the sea, earthquakes and horses

Poseidon was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth, god of the sea, storms, earthquakes and horses. In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes. His Roman equivalent is Neptune.

Medea daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis in Greek mythology

In Greek mythology, Medea is the daughter of King Aeëtes of Colchis, a niece of Circe and the granddaughter of the sun god Helios. Medea figures in the myth of Jason and the Argonauts, appearing in Hesiod's Theogony around 700 BC, but best known from Euripides' tragedy Medea and Apollonius of Rhodes' epic Argonautica. Medea is known in most stories as a sorceress and is often depicted as a priestess of the goddess Hecate.

Thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens. His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, [10] each guarded by a chthonic enemy. Young, brave, and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way.

The Six Labours

Map of Theseus's labours Theseus Map.jpg
Map of Theseus's labours
Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow, with Phaea (detail of a kylix) Theseus Minotaur BM Vase E84 n4.jpg
Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow, with Phaea (detail of a kylix)

Medea and the Marathonian Bull, Androgeus and the Pallantides

When Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity immediately. Aegeus gave him hospitality but was suspicious of the young, powerful stranger's intentions. Aegeus's consort Medea recognised Theseus immediately as Aegeus' son and worried that Theseus would be chosen as heir to Aegeus' kingdom instead of her son Medus. She tried to arrange to have Theseus killed by asking him to capture the Marathonian Bull, an emblem of Cretan power.

Theseus captures the Marathonian Bull (kylix painted by Aison, 5th century BC) Kylix Aison Teseo (M.A.N. Madrid) 04.jpg
Theseus captures the Marathonian Bull (kylix painted by Aison, 5th century BC)

On the way to Marathon, Theseus took shelter from a storm in the hut of an ancient woman named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to Zeus if Theseus were successful in capturing the bull. Theseus did capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecale's hut, she was dead. In her honour Theseus gave her name to one of the demes of Attica, making its inhabitants in a sense her adopted children.

When Theseus returned victorious to Athens, where he sacrificed the Bull, Medea tried to poison him. At the last second, Aegeus recognised the sandals and the sword, and knocked the poisoned wine cup from Theseus's hand. Thus father and son were reunited, and Medea fled to Asia. [11]

When Theseus appeared in the town, his reputation had preceded him, as a result of his having travelled along the notorious coastal road from Troezen and slain some of the most feared bandits there. It was not long before the Pallantides' hopes of succeeding the apparently childless Aegeus would be lost if they did not get rid of Theseus (the Pallantides were the sons of Pallas and nephews of King Aegeus, who were then living at the royal court in the sanctuary of Delphic Apollo [12] ). So they set a trap for him. One band of them would march on the town from one side while another lay in wait near a place called Gargettus in ambush. The plan was that after Theseus, Aegeus, and the palace guards had been forced out the front, the other half would surprise them from behind. However, Theseus was not fooled. Informed of the plan by a herald named Leos, he crept out of the city at midnight and surprised the Pallantides. "Theseus then fell suddenly upon the party lying in ambush, and slew them all. Thereupon the party with Pallas dispersed," Plutarch reported. [13] )

Theseus and the Minotaur

Pasiphaë, wife of King Minos of Crete, had several children. The eldest of these, Androgeos, set sail for Athens to take part in the Panathenaic Games, which were held there every four years. Being strong and skilful, he did very well, winning some events outright. He soon became a crowd favourite, much to the resentment of the Pallantides who assassinated him, incurring the wrath of Minos.

Theseus and the Minotaur Theseus and the Minotaur.gif
Theseus and the Minotaur

When King Minos heard what had befallen his son, he ordered the Cretan fleet to set sail for Athens. Minos asked Aegeus for his son's assassins, and if they were to be handed to him, the town would be spared. However, not knowing who the assassins were, King Aegeus surrendered the whole town to Minos' mercy. His retribution was that, at the end of every Great Year, which occurred after every seven cycles on the solar calendar, the seven most courageous youths and the seven most beautiful maidens were to board a boat and be sent as tribute to Crete, never to be seen again.

Theseus and the Minotaur on 6th-century black-figure pottery Minotaur.jpg
Theseus and the Minotaur on 6th-century black-figure pottery

In another version, King Minos had waged war with the Athenians and was successful. He then demanded that, at nine-year intervals, seven Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus.

On the third occasion, Theseus volunteered to talk to the monster to stop this horror. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he would return with a white sail. [14] Like the others, Theseus was stripped of his weapons when they sailed. On his arrival in Crete, Ariadne, King Minos' daughter, fell in love with Theseus and, on the advice of Daedalus, gave him a ball of thread (a clew), so he could find his way out of the Labyrinth. [15] That night, Ariadne escorted Theseus to the Labyrinth, and Theseus promised that if he returned from the Labyrinth he would take Ariadne with him. As soon as Theseus entered the Labyrinth, he tied one end of the ball of string to the door post and brandished his sword which he had kept hidden from the guards inside his tunic. Theseus followed Daedalus' instructions given to Ariadne: go forwards, always down and never left or right. Theseus came to the heart of the Labyrinth and also upon the sleeping Minotaur. The beast awoke and a tremendous fight then occurred. Theseus overpowered the Minotaur with his strength and stabbed the beast in the throat with his sword (according to one scholium on Pindar's Fifth Nemean Ode, Theseus strangled it). [16]

After decapitating the beast, Theseus used the string to escape the Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and Ariadne as well as her younger sister Phaedra. Then he and the rest of the crew fell asleep on the beach of the island of Naxos, where they stopped on their way back, looking for water. Athena woke Theseus and told him to leave early that morning and to leave Ariadne there for Dionysus, for Naxos was his island. Stricken with distress, Theseus forgot to put up the white sails instead of the black ones, so his father, the king, believing he was dead, committed suicide, throwing himself off a cliff of Sounion and into the sea, thus causing this body of water to be named Aegean Sea.

Ship of Theseus

According to Plutarch's Life of Theseus, the ship Theseus used on his return from Crete to Athens was kept in the Athenian harbour as a memorial for several centuries.

The ship wherein Theseus and the youth of Athens returned had thirty oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of Demetrius Phalereus, [17] for they took away the old planks as they decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their place... [18]

The ship had to be maintained in a seaworthy state, for, in return for Theseus's successful mission, the Athenians had pledged to honour Apollo every year henceforth. Thus, the Athenians sent a religious mission to the island of Delos (one of Apollo's most sacred sanctuaries) on the Athenian state galley—the ship itself—to pay their fealty to the god. To preserve the purity of the occasion, no executions were permitted between the time when the religious ceremony began to when the ship returned from Delos, which took several weeks. [19]

To preserve the ship, any wood that wore out or rotted was replaced; it was thus unclear to philosophers how much of the original ship actually remained, giving rise to the philosophical question whether it should be considered "the same" ship or not. Such philosophical questions about the nature of identity are sometimes referred to as the Ship of Theseus Paradox.

Regardless of these issues, the Athenians preserved the ship. Their belief was that Theseus had been an actual, historical figure and the ship gave them a tangible connection to their divine provenance.

Theseus and Pirithous

Theseus Defeats the Centaur by Antonio Canova (1804-1819), Kunsthistorisches Museum Theseus and Centaur.jpg
Theseus Defeats the Centaur by Antonio Canova (1804–1819), Kunsthistorisches Museum

Theseus's best friend was Pirithous, prince of the Lapiths. Pirithous had heard stories of Theseus's courage and strength in battle but wanted proof so he rustled Theseus's herd of cattle and drove it from Marathon and Theseus set out in pursuit. Pirithous took up his arms and the pair met to do battle but were so impressed with each other they took an oath of friendship and joined the hunt for the Calydonian Boar.

In Iliad I, Nestor numbers Pirithous and Theseus "of heroic fame" among an earlier generation of heroes of his youth, "the strongest men that Earth has bred, the strongest men against the strongest enemies, a savage mountain-dwelling tribe whom they utterly destroyed." No trace of such an oral tradition, which Homer's listeners would have recognised in Nestor's allusion, survived in literary epic. Later, Pirithous was preparing to marry Hippodamia. The centaurs were guests at the wedding feast, but got drunk and tried to abduct the women, including Hippodamia. The Lapiths won the ensuing battle.

In Ovid's Metamorphoses Theseus fights against and kills Eurytus, the "fiercest of all the fierce centaurs" [20] at the wedding of Pirithous and Hippodamia.

The abduction of Persephone and encounter with Hades

Theseus carries off the willing Helen, on an Attic red-figure amphora, c. 510 BC Theseus Helene Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2309 n2.jpg
Theseus carries off the willing Helen, on an Attic red-figure amphora, c. 510 BC

Theseus, a great abductor of women, and his bosom companion, Pirithous, since they were sons of Zeus and Poseidon, pledged themselves to marry daughters of Zeus. [21] Theseus, in an old tradition, [22] chose Helen, and together they kidnapped her, intending to keep her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus's mother, Aethra at Aphidna, whence she was rescued by the Dioscuri.

On Pirithous' behalf they travelled to the underworld, domain of Persephone and her husband Hades. As they wandered through the outskirts of Tartarus, Theseus sat down to rest on a rock. As he did so he felt his limbs change and grow stiff. He tried to rise but could not. He was fixed to the rock. As he turned to cry out to his friend, he saw that Pirithous too was crying out. Around him gathered the terrible band of Furies with snakes in their hair, torches and long whips in their hands. Before these monsters the hero's courage failed and he was led away to eternal punishment.

For many months in half darkness, Theseus sat immovably fixed to the rock, mourning for both his friend and for himself. In the end he was rescued by Heracles who had come to the underworld for his 12th task. There he persuaded Persephone to forgive him for the part he had taken in the rash venture of Pirithous. So Theseus was restored to the upper air but Pirithous never left the kingdom of the dead, for when he tried to free Pirithous, the underworld shook. When Theseus returned to Athens, he found that the Dioscuri had taken Helen and Aethra to Sparta.

Phaedra and Hippolytus

Theseus saves Hippodameia, work by Johannes Pfuhl in Athens Theseus saves Hippodameia, Athens - Pl. Victoria, 2005.JPG
Theseus saves Hippodameia, work by Johannes Pfuhl in Athens

Phaedra, Theseus' second wife and the daughter of King Minos, bore Theseus two sons, Demophon and Acamas. While these two were still in their infancy, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus, Theseus' son by the Amazon queen Hippolyta. According to some versions of the story, Hippolytus had scorned Aphrodite to become a follower of Artemis, so Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as punishment. He rejected her out of chastity.

Alternatively, in Euripides' version, Hippolytus , Phaedra's nurse told Hippolytus of her mistress's love and he swore he would not reveal the nurse as his source of information. To ensure that she would die with dignity, Phaedra wrote to Theseus on a tablet claiming that Hippolytus had raped her before hanging herself. Theseus believed her and used one of the three wishes he had received from Poseidon against his son. The curse caused Hippolytus' horses to be frightened by a sea monster, usually a bull, and drag their rider to his death. Artemis would later tell Theseus the truth, promising to avenge her loyal follower on another follower of Aphrodite.

In a version recounted by the Roman playwright Seneca, entitled Phaedra , after Phaedra told Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her, Theseus called upon Neptune (as he did Poseidon in Euripides' interpretation) to kill his son. [23] Upon hearing the news of Hippolytus' death at the hands of Neptune's sea monster, Phaedra committed suicide out of guilt, for she had not intended for Hippolytus to die. [24]

In yet another version, Phaedra simply told Theseus Hippolytus had raped her and did not kill herself. Dionysus sent a wild bull which terrified Hippolytus's horses.

A cult grew up around Hippolytus, associated with the cult of Aphrodite. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their hair to him. The cult believed that Asclepius had resurrected Hippolytus and that he lived in a sacred forest near Aricia in Latium.

A fresco depicting Theseus, from Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy, 45-79 AD Affreschi romani - Ercolano - Teseo liberatore1.JPG
A fresco depicting Theseus, from Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy, 45–79 AD

According to some sources[ citation needed ], Theseus also was one of the Argonauts, although Apollonius of Rhodes states in the Argonautica [ citation needed ] that Theseus was still in the underworld at this time. Both statements are inconsistent with Medea being Aegeus' wife by the time Theseus first came to Athens. With Phaedra, Theseus fathered Acamas, who was one of those who hid in the Trojan Horse during the Trojan War. Theseus welcomed the wandering Oedipus and helped Adrastus to bury the Seven Against Thebes.

Lycomedes of the island of Skyros threw Theseus off a cliff after he had lost popularity in Athens. In 475 BC, in response to an oracle, Cimon of Athens, having conquered Skyros for the Athenians, identified as the remains of Theseus "a coffin of a great corpse with a bronze spear-head by its side and a sword." (Plutarch, Life of Cimon , apud Burkert [25] ). The remains found by Cimon were reburied in Athens. The early modern name Theseion (Temple of Theseus) was mistakenly applied to the Temple of Hephaestus which was thought to be the actual site of the hero's tomb.

Adaptations of the myth

Literature

Theseus with the head of Minotaur Theseus-SW.jpg
Theseus with the head of Minotaur
"Theseus.The story of ancient gods, goddesses, kings and warriors" (A.Ryabinin) Tesei Aleksei Riabinin oblozhka knigi.jpg
"Theseus.The story of ancient gods, goddesses, kings and warriors" (A.Ryabinin)
Theseus Slaying Minotaur (1843), bronze sculpture by Antoine-Louis Barye Theseus Slaying Minotaur by Barye.jpg
Theseus Slaying Minotaur (1843), bronze sculpture by Antoine-Louis Barye
The deeds of Theseus, on an Attic red-figured kylix, c. 440-430 BC (British Museum) Theseus deeds BM E 84.JPG
The deeds of Theseus, on an Attic red-figured kylix , c. 440–430 BC (British Museum)

Opera, film and television

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Aethra (mother of Theseus) mother of Theseus

In Greek mythology, Aethra or Aithra was a daughter of King Pittheus of Troezen and the mother of Theseus and of Clymene. Aethra was also called Pittheis after her father Pittheus.

Ariadne (1932) is a short epic or long narrative poem of 3,300 lines, by the British poet F. L. Lucas. It tells the story of Theseus and Ariadne, with details drawn from various sources and original touches based on modern psychology. It was Lucas's longest poem. His other epic reworking of myth was Gilgamesh, King of Erech (1948).

In Greek mythology, Androgeos or Androgeus was a Cretan prince.

References

  1. Ruck & Staples, p. 204.
  2. Carl A.P. Ruck & Danny Staples. (1994). The World of Classical Myth, ch. ix, "Theseus: Making the New Athens", pp. 203222. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
  3. "May I therefore succeed in purifying Fable, making her submit to reason and take on the semblance of History. But where she obstinately disdains to make herself credible, and refuses to admit any element of probability, I shall pray for kindly readers, and such as receive with indulgence the tales of antiquity." (Plutarch, Life of Theseus). Plutarch's avowed purpose is to construct a life that parallels the Life of Romulus that embodies the founding myth of Rome.
  4. Edmund P. Cueva. (Fall 1996). "Plutarch's Ariadne in Chariton's Chaereas and Callirhoe". American Journal of Philology, 117(3) pp. 473484.
  5. Greene, Andrew. "Theseus, Hero of Athens" . Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  6. Morford, Mark; Lenardon, Robert J.; Sham, Michael. "Classical Mythology Tenth Edition". Oxford University Press. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  7. Morford, Mark P. O., Robert J. Lenardon, and Michael Sham. Classical Mythology. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014.
  8. The theory, expounded as natural history by Aristotle, was accepted through the nineteenth century and only proven wrong in modern genetics: see Telegony. Sometimes in myth the result could be twins, one born divine of a divine father, the other human of a human sire: see Dioscuri. Of a supposed Parnassos, founder of Delphi, Pausanias observes, "Like the other heroes, as they are called, he had two fathers; one they say was the god Poseidon, the human father being Cleopompus." (Description of Greece x.6.1).
  9. Rock "which had a hollow in it just large enough to receive these objects," Plutarch says.
  10. Compared to Hercules and his Labours, "Theseus is occupied only with the sacred Entrances that are local to the lands of Athens" (Ruck and Staples 1994:204).
  11. Citation needed
  12. Plutarch (Life of Theseus, XII)
  13. Plutarch (Life of Theseus, XIII)
  14. Plutarch quotes Simonides to the effect that the alternate sail given by Aegeus was not white, but "a scarlet sail dyed with the tender flower of luxuriant holm oak." (Plutarch, 17.5).
  15. Ariadne is sometimes represented in vase-paintings with the thread wound on her spindle.
  16. Noted by Kerenyi 1959:232 note 532.
  17. Demetrius Phalereus was a distinguished orator and statesman, who governed Athens for a decade before being exiled, in 307 BC.
  18. Plutarch. "Theseus". The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  19. Cooper, John M., ed. (1997). Plato: Complete Works . Associate editor, D. S. Hutchinson. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett. p. 37. ISBN   0-87220-349-2.
  20. Ovid, Metamorphoses, XII:217–153
  21. Scholia on Iliad iii.144 and a fragment (#227) of Pindar, according to Kerenyi 1951:237, note 588.
  22. Reported at Athenaeus, Deipnosophistae 13.4 (557a); cf. Kerenyi 1959:234 and note.
  23. Sen. Phaed. 941–949
  24. Sen. Phaed. 1159–1198.
  25. Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek Religion. Harvard Univ. Press. p. 206. ISBN   9780674362819.
  26. F. L. Lucas (2014). Ariadne. Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-1107677524.
  27. Evangeline Walton (1983). "The Sword is Forged". Kirkus Reviews . Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  28. A.Ryabinin. Theseus.The story of ancient gods, goddesses, kings and warriors". – СПб.: Антология, 2018. ISBN   978-5-6040037-6-3.
  29. O.Zdanov. Life and adventures of Theseus. // «KP», 14.02.2018.
  30. Zeitchik, Steven (24 March 2012). "Which dystopian property does The Hunger Games most resemble?". Los Angeles Times via Boston Herald. Boston Herald and Herald Media. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  31. TV Tropes – Recap: Myth Quest E 1 "The Minotaur"
  32. The Minotaur (MythQuest #1) goodreads.com

Further reading

Primary sources

Secondary sources