Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Last updated
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, the best known print in the series Great Wave off Kanagawa2.jpg
The Great Wave off Kanagawa , the best known print in the series

Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji (Japanese: 富嶽三十六景, Hepburn: Fugaku Sanjūrokkei) is a series of landscape prints by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai (1760–1849). The series depicts Mount Fuji from different locations and in various seasons and weather conditions. Despite its name, it actually consists of 46 prints, with 10 of them being added after the initial publication.

Contents

The series was produced from c.1830 to 1832, when Hokusai was in his seventies and at the height of his career, and published by Nishimura Yohachi. [1] [2] Among the prints are three of Hokusai's most famous: The Great Wave off Kanagawa (or The Great Wave); Fine Wind, Clear Morning ; and Rainstorm Beneath the Summit . [1] The series has been described as the artist's "indisputable colour-print masterpiece". [2]

History

Mount Fuji is a popular subject for Japanese art due to its cultural and religious significance. This belief can be traced to The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter , where a goddess deposits the elixir of life on the peak. As the historian Henry Smith [3] explains, "Thus from an early time, Mt. Fuji was seen as the source of the secret of immortality, a tradition that was at the heart of Hokusai's own obsession with the mountain." [4]

The most famous single image from the series is widely known in English as The Great Wave off Kanagawa . It depicts three boats being threatened by a large wave while Mount Fuji rises in the background. While sometimes assumed to be a tsunami, the wave is more likely to be an exceptionally large storm wave. [5]

Each of the images was made through a process whereby an image drawn on paper was used to guide the carving of a wood block. This block was then covered with ink and applied to paper to create the image (see Woodblock printing in Japan for further details). The complexity of Hokusai's images includes the wide range of colors he used, which required the use of a separate block for each color appearing in the image.

While Hokusai's Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji is the most famous ukiyo-e series to focus on Mount Fuji, there are several other works with the same subject, including Hiroshige's series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji and Hokusai's subsequent book One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji . [4] From c.1889 to 1892, the series of Thirty-six Bizarre Selections of Transformation  [ ja ], the parody of number 36, was produced by Yoshitoshi, and published by Sasaki Toyokichi  [ ja ].

The French artist Henri Rivière (1864–1951) published the set of color lithographs "Thirty-six views of the Tour Eiffel" in 1902, inspired by the seminal print set of Hokusai, one of the many influences of Japanese art on late 19th century and early 20th century French art (Japonism, known as "Japonisme" in French)

Prints

Original thirty-six

These images are of modern facsimile prints made using the same techniques.

No.ImageEnglish titleJapanese title
1 Great Wave off Kanagawa2.jpg The Great Wave off Kanagawa 神奈川沖浪裏

Kanagawa oki nami-ura

2 Red Fuji southern wind clear morning.jpg Fine Wind, Clear Morning , also known as South Wind, Clear Sky or Red Fuji凱風快晴

Gaifū kaisei

3 Lightnings below the summit.jpg Rainstorm Beneath the Summit山下白雨

Sanka hakuu

4 Fuji seen through the Mannen bridge at Fukagawa.jpg Under Mannen Bridge at Fukagawa深川万年橋下

Fukagawa Mannen-bashi shita

5 The Fuji seen from the Mishima pass.jpg Sundai, Edo 東都駿台

Tōto sundai

6 The coast of seven leages in Kamakura.jpg Cushion Pine at Aoyama青山円座松

Aoyama enza-no-matsu

7 Senju in the Musachi provimce.jpg Senju, Musashi But 武州千住

Bushū Senju

8 Inume pass in the Kai province.jpg Inume Pass, Kōshū 甲州犬目峠

Kōshū inume-tōge

9 Fujimi Fuji view field in the Owari province.jpg Fuji View Field in Owari Province 尾州不二見原

Bishū Fujimigahara

10 Ejiri in the Suruga province.jpg Ejiri in Suruga Province 駿州江尻

Sunshū Ejiri

11 A sketch of the Mitsui shop in Suruga street in Edo.jpg A sketch of the Mitsui shop in Suruga in Edo (present-day Muromachi, Tokyo)江都駿河町三井見世略図

Kōto Suruga-cho Mitsui Miseryakuzu

12 Sunset across the Ryogoku bridge from the bank of the Sumida river at Onmagayashi.jpg Sunset across the Ryōgoku bridge from the bank of the Sumida River at Onmayagashi御厩川岸より両国橋夕陽見

Ommayagashi yori ryōgoku-bashi yūhi mi

13 Sazai hall - 500 Rakan temples.jpg Sazai hall - Temple of Five Hundred Rakan 五百らかん寺さざゐどう

Gohyaku-rakanji Sazaidō

14 Tea house at Koishikawa. The morning after a snowfall.jpg Tea house at Koishikawa. The morning after a snowfall礫川雪の旦

Koishikawa yuki no ashita

15 Shimomeguro.jpg Shimomeguro 下目黒

Shimomeguro

16 Watermill at Onden.jpg Watermill at Onden隠田の水車

Onden no suisha

17 Enoshima in the Sagami province.jpg Enoshima in Sagami Province 相州江の島

Soshū Enoshima

18 Shore of Tago Bay, Ejiri at Tokaido.jpg Shore of Tago Bay, Ejiri at Tōkaidō 東海道江尻田子の浦略図

Tōkaidō Ejiri tago-no-uraryakuzu

19 Yoshida at Tokaido.jpg Yoshida at Tōkaidō 東海道吉田

Tōkaidō Yoshida

20 The Kazusa sea route.jpg The Kazusa Province sea route上総の海路

Kazusa no kairo

21 Nihonbashi bridge in Edo.jpg Nihonbashi bridge in Edo 江戸日本橋

Edo Nihon-bashi

22 Village of Sekiya at Sumida river.jpg Barrier Town on the Sumida River 隅田川関屋の里

Sumidagawa Sekiya no sato

23 Bay of Noboto.jpg Bay of Noboto登戸浦

Noboto-ura

24 The lake of Hakone in the Segami province.jpg The lake of Hakone in Sagami Province 相州箱根湖水

Sōshū Hakone kosui

25 The Fuji reflects in Lake Kawaguchi, seen from the Misaka pass in the Kai province.jpg Mount Fuji reflects in Lake Kawaguchi, seen from the Misaka Pass in Kai Province 甲州三坂水面

Kōshū Misaka suimen

26 Hodogaya on the Tokaido.jpg Hodogaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道程ケ谷

Tōkaidō Hodogaya

27 Tama river in the Musashi province.jpg Tama River in Musashi Province武州玉川

Bushū Tamagawa

28 Asakusa Honganji temple in th Eastern capital.jpg Asakusa Hongan-ji temple in the Eastern capital [Edo]東都浅草本願寺

Tōto Asakusa honganji

29 Tsukada Island in the Musashi province.jpg Tsukuda Island in Musashi Province 武陽佃島

Buyō Tsukuda-jima

30 Shichiri beach in Sagami province.jpg Shichiri beach in Sagami Province 相州七里浜

Soshū Shichiri-ga-hama

31 Umegawa in Sagami province.jpg Umezawa in Sagami Province 相州梅沢庄

Soshū umezawanoshō

32 Kajikazawa in Kai province.jpg Kajikazawa in Kai Province 甲州石班沢

Kōshū Kajikazawa

33 Mishima pass in Kai province.jpg Mishima Pass in Kai Province 甲州三嶌越

Kōshū Mishima-goe

34 The Fuji from the mountains of Totomi.jpg Mount Fuji from the mountains of Tōtōmi 遠江山中

Tōtōumi sanchū

35 Lake Suwa in the Shinano province.jpg A View of Mount Fuji Across Lake Suwa (Lake Suwa in Shinano Province)信州諏訪湖

Shinshū Suwa-ko

36 Ushibori in the Hitachi province.jpg Ushibori in Hitachi Province 常州牛掘

Jōshū Ushibori

Additional 10

ImageEnglish titleJapanese title
1 Katsushika Hokusai, Goten-yama hill, Shinagawa on the Tokaido, ca. 1832.jpg Goten-yama-hill, Shinagawa on the Tōkaidō東海道品川御殿山の不二

Tōkaidō Shinagawa Goten'yama no Fuji

2 Honjo Tatekawa, the timberyard at Honjo.jpg Honjo Tatekawa, the timberyard at Honjo, Sumida 本所立川

Honjo Tatekawa

3 Nakahara in the Sagami province.jpg Pleasure District at Senju従千住花街眺望の不二

Senju Hana-machi Yori Chōbō no Fuji

4 Soshu Nakahara.jpg Nakahara in Sagami Province 相州仲原

Sōshū Nakahara

5 Ono Shindon in the Suraga province.jpg Ōno Shinden in Suruga Province 駿州大野新田

Sunshū Ōno-shinden

6 Climbing on Mt. Fuji.jpg Climbing on Fuji諸人登山

Shojin tozan

7 The Tea plantation of Katakura in the Suruga province.jpg The Tea plantation of Katakura in Suruga Province 駿州片倉茶園の不二

Sunshū Katakura chaen no Fuji

8 The Fuji from Kanaya on the Tokaido.jpg The Fuji from Kanaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道金谷の不二

Tōkaidō Kanaya no Fuji

9 Dawn at Isawa in the Kai province.jpg Dawn at Isawa in Kai Province 甲州伊沢暁

Kōshū Isawa no Akatsuki

10 The back of the Fuji from the Minobu river.jpg The back of Fuji from the Minobu river身延川裏不二

Minobu-gawa ura Fuji

Exhibitions

A collection of Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints contained in the wellness spa of the Costa Concordia was lost during the collision of the ship on January 13, 2012. [6]

All forty-six prints (the original thirty-six plus the ten additions) were featured in the exhibition "Hokusai: 36 Views of Mount Fuji" at the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, the Smithsonian's museums of Asian art, in the spring of 2012.

The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints were displayed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston as part of a Hokusai exhibit April 5 through August 9, 2015. [7]

The Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji prints were displayed at the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia as part of a Hokusai exhibit 21 July through 22 October 2017, featuring two copies of The Great Wave off Kanagawa, one from the NGV and one from Japan Ukiyo-e Museum. [8]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 Calza, p. 30
  2. 1 2 Calza, p. 470
  3. Smith, Henry (1988). One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji. Thames and Hudson. ISBN   9780500235188.
  4. 1 2 Smith
  5. Cartwright Julyan H.E.; Nakamura Hisami (2009-06-20). "What kind of a wave is Hokusai's Great wave off Kanagawa?". Notes and Records of the Royal Society. 63 (2): 119–135. doi: 10.1098/rsnr.2007.0039 .
  6. "Costa Concordia: Threat of treasure hunters". To Be A Travel Agent.
  7. "Hokusai Features Legendary Artist, Best Known for Iconic Great Wave".
  8. "Hokusai".

Related Research Articles

Ukiyo-e A genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries

Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries. Its artists produced woodblock prints and paintings of such subjects as female beauties; kabuki actors and sumo wrestlers; scenes from history and folk tales; travel scenes and landscapes; flora and fauna; and erotica. The term ukiyo-e (浮世絵) translates as "picture[s] of the floating world".

Hokusai Japanese artist

Katsushika Hokusai was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period. Born in Edo, Hokusai is best known as author of the woodblock print series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji which includes the internationally iconic print, The Great Wave off Kanagawa.

Hiroshige Japanese ukiyo-e woodblock print artist

Utagawa Hiroshige, born Andō Hiroshige, was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.

<i>Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji</i> (Hiroshige) series of woodblock printing by Hiroshige

Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji is the title of two series of woodblock prints by Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hiroshige, depicting Mount Fuji in differing seasons and weather conditions from a variety of different places and distances. The 1852 series, published by Sanoya Kihei, are in landscape orientation using the chūban format, while the 1858 series are in the portrait ōban format and were published by Tsutaya Kichizō. The same subject had previously been dealt with by Hokusai in two of his own series, Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji, produced from c. 1830 to 1832, and One Hundred Views of Mount Fuji, published in three volumes from 1834 to 1849.

The Fifty-Three Stations of the Tōkaidō, in the Hōeidō edition (1833–1834), is a series of ukiyo-e woodcut prints created by Utagawa Hiroshige after his first travel along the Tōkaidō in 1832.

<i>The Great Wave off Kanagawa</i> Woodblock print by Hokusai

The Great Wave off Kanagawa, also known as The Great Wave or simply The Wave, is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was published sometime between 1829 and 1833 in the late Edo period as the first print in Hokusai's series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji. It is Hokusai's most famous work and one of the most recognizable works of Japanese art in the world.

Ogata Gekkō was a Japanese artist best known as a painter and a designer of ukiyo-e woodblock prints. He was self-taught in art, and won numerous national and international prizes and was one of the earliest Japanese artists to win an international audience.

24 Views of Mt. Fuji, by Hokusai science fiction novella by American writer Roger Zelazny

"24 Views of Mt. Fuji, by Hokusai " is a science fiction novella by American writer Roger Zelazny, originally published in the July 1985 issue of the Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine. It won the Hugo Award for Best Novella in 1986 and was also nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novella in 1985.

Henri Rivière (painter) French artist and designer

Henri Rivière was a French artist and designer best known for his creation of a form of shadow play at the Chat Noir cabaret, and for his post-Impressionist illustrations of Breton landscapes and the Eiffel Tower.

The term aizuri-e usually refers to Japanese woodblock prints that are printed entirely or predominantly in blue. When a second color is used, it is usually red. Even if only a single type of blue ink was used, variations in lightness and darkness (value) could be achieved by superimposing multiple printings of parts of the design or by the application of a gradation of ink to the wooden printing block (bokashi).

<i>Bokashi</i> (printing) technique in Japanese woodblock printing

Bokashi is a technique used in Japanese woodblock printmaking. It achieves a variation in lightness and darkness (value) of a single color or multiple colors by hand applying a gradation of ink to a moistened wooden printing block, rather than inking the block uniformly. This hand-application had to be repeated for each sheet of paper that was printed.

<i>Oceans of Wisdom</i> series of woodblock prints by Katsushika Hokusai

Chie no umi (千絵の海) is a chūban yoko-e sized woodblock print series by the Japanese artist Hokusai. The ten fishing-themed prints comprise one of Hokusai's rarest sets. Published by Moriya Jihei, it seems to have been issued around 1832–1834 and publication of the prints ceased abruptly. Some preparatory drawings are extant for prints that were never made.This picture è stata pitturata con inchiostro

<i>Fine Wind, Clear Morning</i> wood block print by Japanese artist Katsushika Hokusai

Fine Wind, Clear Morning, also known as South Wind, Clear Sky or Red Fuji, is a wood block print by Japanese artist Hokusai (1760–1849), part of his Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji series, dating from c. 1830 to 1832. The work has been described as "one of the simplest and at the same time one of the most outstanding of all Japanese prints".

<i>View of Tenpōzan Park in Naniwa</i>

The two ukiyo-e woodblock prints making up View of Tempōzan Park in Naniwa are half of a tetraptych by Osaka artist Gochōtei Sadamasu. They depict a scene of crowds visiting Mount Tempō in springtime to admire its natural beauty. The sheets belong to the permanent collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, Canada.

<i>Eijudō Hibino at Seventy-one</i> (Toyokuni I)

Eijūdō Hibino at Seventy-one is an ukiyo-e woodblock print dating to around 1799 by Edo period artist Utagawa Toyokuni I. According to its inscription, the print was produced in commemoration of the featured subject, print publisher Nishimuraya Yohachi I's, seventy-first year. The print is part of the permanent collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada.

Hokkei Japanese artist

Totoya Hokkei was a Japanese artist best known for his prints in the ukiyo-e style. Hokkei was one of Hokusai's first and best-known students and worked in a variety of styles and genres and produced a large body of work in prints, book illustrations, and paintings. His work also appeared under the art names Aoigazono (葵園), Aoigaoka (葵岡) and Kyōsai (拱斎).

Nishimura Yohachi

Nishimuraya Yohachi was one of the leading publishers of woodblock prints in late 18th Japan. He founded the Nishimuraya Yohachi publishing house, also known as Nishiyo (西与), which operated in Nihonbashi's Bakurochō Nichōme under the shop name Eijudō. The firm's exact dates are unclear, but many art historians date its activity to between c. 1751 and 1860.

<i>Sundai, Edo</i> woodblock printing by Katsushika Hokusai

Sundai, Edo is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. It was produced as the fifth print in the series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji from c. 1830 to 1832 in the late Edo period.

<i>A View of Mount Fuji Across Lake Suwa</i> woodblock printing by Katsushika Hokusai

A View of Mount Fuji Across Lake Suwa is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.

References