Sir Thomas Acquin Martin (6 March 1850 – 29 April 1906), was an English industrial pioneer in India, and agent-general for Afghanistan.
Martin was born in Four Oaks, Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, on 6 March 1850, son of Patrick William Martin, a leather manufacturer, and wife Mary Anne Bridges. He was educated at the Oratory, Edgbaston, and then entered the engineering firm of Walsh, Lovett and Co in Birmingham. He married Sarah Ann Harrby on 2 April 1869 in Birmingham.
In 1874 Martin went to Calcutta (present-day Kolkata) to start a branch for Walsh, Lovett and Co. Soon afterwards he founded the firm Martin & Co in Calcutta. The firm took over in 1889 the Bengal Iron and Steel Company, which inaugurated production on a capitalised basis, permitting competition with imported steel and iron.
The firm pioneered the construction in India of light railways (which it also managed), to serve as feeders of the main lines.
Many jute mills in Bengal were constructed by the firm, and up to Martin's death it had the management of the Arathoon jute mills, Calcutta. Three large collieries in Bengal, and the Hooghly Docking and Engineering Company were under its control.
The Tansa duct works, providing Bombay (present-day Mumbai) with a constant water supply from a lake forty miles distant, were engineered by the firm. The firm also engineered the water supplies of the suburbs of Calcutta, and of a large number of Indian towns, including Allahabad, Benares, Cawnpore, Lucknow, Agra, and Srinagar (Kashmir).
With Edward Thornton FRIBA as principal architect, the firm erected chiefs' palaces and important public buildings in various parts of India, particularly in Calcutta where they were contractors for the Victoria Memorial Hall.
Early in 1887 Martin was appointed agent by Abdur Rahman Khan, Emir of Afghanistan; he sent to Kabul Thomas Salter Pyne. Pyne, on behalf of Martin's firm, built for the Emir an arsenal, a mint, and various factories and workshops, subsequently introducing, as state monopolies, a number of modern industries.
Martin was often consulted by the Emir on questions of policy, and he and his agents were able to render frequent political service to Great Britain. Abdur Rahman selected him to be chief of the staff of Prince Nasrullah Khan, his second son, on his mission to England in 1895. The stay here lasted from 24 May to 3 September, and in August Martin was knighted. Though the Emir's main object in arranging the visit — the opening of direct diplomatic relations with Great Britain — was not achieved, Abdur Rahman still retained full confidence in him. On his return to Kabul, Nasrullah Khan was accompanied by Martin's younger brother Frank, who succeeded Pyne as engineer-in-chief.
In 1889 Rajendra Nath Mookerjee KCIE, of Bengal, became a partner, and shared with Martin's sons, Ernest and Harold, and Mr. C. W. Walsh the proprietorship of the firm. Martin's health was badly affected by the local climate, and he spent much of his later life in Europe. He died at Binstead House, Isle of Wight, on 29 April 1906, and was buried in Ryde Cemetery.
Afghan Turkestan is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. In the 19th century there was a province in Afghanistan named Turkestan Province until abolished by Emir Abdur Rahman, and was centred on Mazari Sharif and included territory in the modern provinces of Balkh, Kunduz, Jowzjan, Sar-e Pol, and Faryab. In 1890, Qataghan-Badakhshan Province was separated from Turkestan Province.
Abdur Rahman Khan was Emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. He is known for uniting the country after years of internal fighting and signing of the Durand Line Agreement with British Raj.
The European influence in Afghanistan refers to political, social, and mostly imperialistic influence several European nations and colonial powers have had on the historical development of Afghanistan.
The Second Anglo-Afghan War was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan. The war was part of the Great Game between the British and Russian empires.
Habibullah Khan was the Emir of Afghanistan from 1901 until 1919. He was the eldest son of the Emir Abdur Rahman Khan, whom he succeeded by right of primogeniture in October 1901. His grandfather was Mohammad Afzal Khan.
Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, was a British diplomat and civil servant of colonial British India.
The Treaty of Gandamak was signed on 26 May 1879 to officially end the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Under the treaty, the Afghan Emir, Mohammad Yaqub Khan, ceded various frontier areas to the British Raj, including Quetta, Pishin, Harnai, Sibi, Kurram, and Khyber, while retaining sovereignty over the rest of Afghanistan.
Id Gah Mosque or Eid Gah Mosque is the second largest mosque in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. It is considered the cardinal religious mosque in the country, where a million people offer Eid prayers twice a year. It is located near the Mahmud Khan bridge and National Stadium in the eastern part of the city, in the Shar-e-barq of Kabul, which is one of the wealthier areas of the city. The "Id Gah" or "Eid Gah" refers to an open space where people congregate during national and religious celebrations. The open grounds of Id Gah are also used as a parking lot for trucks that transport goods to and from Peshawar.
The jute trade is centred mainly around India and the Indian State of West Bengal. The major producing country of jute is India, due to its natural fertile soil. Bengal Jute was exported to South East Asia from the 17th century by the Dutch, French and later by other Europeans.
Nasrullah Khan (1874–1920), sometimes spelt as Nasr Ullah Khan, was shahzada of Afghanistan and second son of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. He held the throne of Afghanistan as Emir for one week, from February 21 to February 28, 1919.
The Provisional Government of India was a provisional government-in-exile established in Kabul, Afghanistan on December 1, 1915 by Indian nationalists, during World War I with support from the Central Powers. Its purpose was to enrol support from the Afghan Emir as well as Tsarist Russia, China, and Japan for the Indian Movement. Established at the conclusion of the Kabul Mission composed of members of the Berlin Committee, German and Turkish delegates, the provisional government was composed of Mahendra Pratap as President, Maulana Barkatullah as Prime Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Ubaidullah Sindhi as Home Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Bashir as War Minister, and Champakraman Pillai as Foreign Affairs Minister. The provisional government found significant support from the internal administration of the Afghan government, although the Emir refused to declare open support, and ultimately, under British pressure it was forced to withdraw from Afghanistan in 1919.
The following lists events that happened during 1900 in Afghanistan.
The Emirate of Afghanistan was an emirate between Central Asia and South Asia, which is now today's Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The emirate emerged from the Durrani Empire, when Dost Mohammed Khan, the founder of the Barakzai dynasty in Kabul, prevailed. The history of the Emirate was dominated by 'the Great Game' between the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom for supremacy in Central Asia. This period was characterized by the expansion of European colonial interests in South Asia. The Emirate of Afghanistan continued the war with the Sikh Empire, which led to the invasion of Afghanistan by British-led Indian forces who did not accomplish their war objectives. However, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War, the British again fought against the Afghans and this time the British took control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs until Emir Amanullah Khan regained them after the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919 was signed following the Third Anglo-Afghan War.
Martin Burn Limited is a publicly held real estate development firm headquartered in Kolkata.
Sir Thomas Salter Pyne (1860–1921) was a British engineer based in Afghanistan.
The New Year Honours 1909 were appointments by King Edward VII to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by members of the British Empire. They were announced on 5 January 1909.
Ahmadiyya is an Islamic community in Afghanistan, under the leadership of the caliph in London. The earliest contact with the Ahmadiyya movement in Islam and the Pashtun people within modern-day boundaries of Afghanistan, occurred during the lifetime of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. The movement began by Ahmad, was largely seen as apostasy by most other Muslim groups, including by those in Afghanistan, and accordingly only twelve years after Ahmad's claim of Mahdi-hood, two of the foremost Ahmadi Muslims were stoned to death in Kabul during 1901 to 1903. The killings continued until 1925, when in 1924-1925, under Emir Amanullah Khan affiliation with Ahmadiyya beliefs became a capital offence and those who converted were forcibly reverted.
The 1888–1893 Uprisings of Hazaras occurred when the Treaty of Gandomak was signed and the Second Anglo-Afghan War ended in 1880, causing Abdur Rahman Khan to set out on a goal to bring Hazarajat and Kafiristan under his control. He launched several campaigns in Hazarajat due to resistance from the Hazaras in which his forces committed atrocities. The southern part of Hazarajat was spared as they accepted his rule, while the other parts of Hazarajat rejected Abdur Rahman and instead supported his uncle, Sher Ali Khan. In response to this Abdur Rahman waged a war against tribal leaders who rejected his policies and rule. Abdur Rahman arrested Syed Jafar, chief of the Sheikh Ali Hazara tribe, and jailed him in Mazar-e-Sharif. More than 60% of the Hazara population were massacred or displaced during Abdur Rahman's campaign against them.
Walsh, Lovett & Co. was a Birmingham firm that dealt in metals and construction material in South America and opened a branch in Calcutta in 1874. The registered offices of the company were in No. 10, Ludgate-Hill in the city of Birmingham.