Thomas Algeo Rowley

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General Thomas Algeo Rowley
Thomas Algeo Rowley- headshot.jpg
Thomas Algeo Rowley in his Civil War uniform - head shot - circa 1865
Born(1808-10-05)October 5, 1808
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
DiedMay 14, 1892(1892-05-14) (aged 83)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Place of burial
Allegheny Cemetery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service1847–1848, 1861–1864
Rank Union Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brigadier general
Battles/wars Mexican–American War
American Civil War

Thomas Algeo Rowley (October 5, 1808 – May 14, 1892) was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. Following charges about the conduct of his officers at Gettysburg, Rowley was tried by a court martial that was later declared biased, and he was reinstated.

Union Army Land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Also known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States as a working, viable republic.

American Civil War Internal war in the U.S. over slavery

The American Civil War, one of the most studied and written about episodes in U.S. history, was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North, which also included some geographically western and southern states, proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Battle of Gettysburg Battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, halting Lee's invasion of the North.

Contents

Early life

Rowley was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He served as a captain of volunteers in the Mexican–American War, mustered in on October 8, 1847, and mustered out on July 18, 1848. Otherwise, he worked as a cabinetmaker.

Pittsburgh City in western Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County. A population of about 301,048 residents live within the city limits, making it the 66th-largest city in the U.S. The metropolitan population of 2,324,743 is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 27th-largest in the U.S.

Pennsylvania U.S. state in the United States

Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the Northeastern, Great Lakes and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Captain (United States O-3) company-grade rank in U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force

In the United States Army (USA), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and U.S. Air Force (USAF), captain is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3. It ranks above first lieutenant and below major. It is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the Navy/Coast Guard officer rank system. The insignia for the rank consists of two silver bars, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Marine Corps version.

Civil War service

Rowley served as colonel of the 13th Pennsylvania Infantry from April 25, 1861, to August 6 of the same year. He then became colonel of the 102nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment. He was wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines, while leading his regiment in the Army of the Potomac. He (briefly) led a brigade in VI Corps at the Battle of Fredericksburg. Promoted to the rank of brigadier general to rank from November 29, 1862, Rowley next commanded a brigade of I Corps at the Battle of Chancellorsville. He was acting commander of 3rd Division, I Corps at the beginning of the Battle of Gettysburg, while Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday was acting corps commander. (Chapman Biddle led Rowley's brigade.) On July 1, 1863, the brigade suffered heavy casualties confronting Confederates from Maj. Gen. Harry Heth's division. He was thrown from his horse during the retreat when it stopped short at the creek. Sick with infection from boils the size of hens eggs on his inner thighs, he was feverish, and temperamental. Following a confrontation between Rowley and Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler over the conduct of some of the 7th Wisconsin officers, Cutler filed charges of drunkenness in April 1864. Given less than 24 hours to prepare a defense for trial, Rowley was convicted by a court martial that author John F. Krumwiede states was, "lacking impartiality and marching to its own drum". Although reinstated by order of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and President Abraham Lincoln, Rowley was assigned only a district command in western Pennsylvania, due to the ongoing feud between the army commander General George G. Meade and the now corps commander General G. K. Warren. Blocked by the actions of General Darius Couch in the attempt to stop the 1864 invasion of Pennsylvania by Confederate General Jubal Early, he resigned his commission on December 29, 1864. [1]

Colonel (United States) Military rank of the United States

In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. By law, a colonel must have at least 22 years of cumulative service and a minimum of three years as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted. The pay grade for colonel is O-6.

Battle of Seven Pines battle of the American Civil War

The Battle of Seven Pines, also known as the Battle of Fair Oaks or Fair Oaks Station, took place on May 31 and June 1, 1862, in Henrico County, Virginia, as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. It was the culmination of an offensive up the Virginia Peninsula by Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, in which the Army of the Potomac reached the outskirts of Richmond.

Army of the Potomac unit of the Union Army during the American Civil War

The Army of the Potomac was the principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. It was created in July 1861 shortly after the First Battle of Bull Run and was disbanded in May 1865 following the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in April.

Postbellum career

Rowley later served as a U.S. marshal and practiced law. He died in Pittsburgh and is buried there in Allegheny Cemetery. [2]

See also

Notes

  1. Krumwiede, p. 167.
  2. Eicher, p. 463.

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References

David J. Eicher American editor

David John Eicher is an American editor, writer, and popularizer of astronomy and space. He has been editor-in-chief of Astronomy magazine since 2002. He is author, coauthor, or editor of 23 books on science and American history and is known for having founded a magazine on astronomical observing, Deep Sky Monthly, when he was a 15-year-old high school student.

International Standard Book Number Unique numeric book identifier

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.