Thomas Becket

Last updated

...the impious knight... suddenly set upon him and [shaved] off the summit of his crown which the sacred chrism consecrated to God... Then, with another blow received on the head, he remained firm. But with the third the stricken martyr bent his knees and elbows, offering himself as a living sacrifice, saying in a low voice, "For the name of Jesus and the protection of the church I am ready to embrace death." But the third knight inflicted a grave wound on the fallen one; with this blow... his crown, which was large, separated from his head so that the blood turned white from the brain yet no less did the brain turn red from the blood; it purpled the appearance of the church... The fifth – not a knight but a cleric who had entered with the knights... placed his foot on the neck of the holy priest and precious martyr and (it is horrible to say) scattered the brains with the blood across the floor, exclaiming to the rest, "We can leave this place, knights, he will not get up again." [17]

Another account appears in Expugnatio Hibernica ("Conquest of Ireland", 1189) by Gerald of Wales. [18]

An ivory piece portraying the knights involved in Becket's assassination. One knight holds an axe with which to break down the door of the Cathedral. Ivory carving St. Thomas a Becket.jpg
An ivory piece portraying the knights involved in Becket's assassination. One knight holds an axe with which to break down the door of the Cathedral.

After Becket's death

After his death, the monks prepared Becket's body for burial. [1] According to some accounts, it was found that Becket had worn a hairshirt under his archbishop's garments — a sign of penance. [19] Soon after, the faithful throughout Europe began venerating Becket as a martyr, and on 21 February 1173 – little more than two years after his death – he was canonised by Pope Alexander III in St Peter's Church, Segni. [1] In 1173, Becket's sister Mary was appointed Abbess of Barking as reparation for the murder of her brother. [20] On 12 July 1174, amidst the Revolt of 1173–74, Henry humbled himself in public penance at Becket's tomb and at the church of St. Dunstan's, which became a most popular pilgrimage site.

Becket's assassins fled north to de Morville's Knaresborough Castle for about a year. De Morville also held property in Cumbria and this too may have provided a hiding place, as the men prepared for a longer stay in the separate kingdom of Scotland. They were not arrested and Henry did not confiscate their lands, but he did not help them when they sought his advice in August 1171. Pope Alexander excommunicated all four. Seeking forgiveness, the assassins travelled to Rome, where the Pope ordered them to serve as knights in the Holy Lands for a period of 14 years. [21]

This sentence also inspired the Knights of Saint Thomas, incorporated in 1191 at Acre, and which was to be modelled on the Teutonic Knights. This was the only military order native to England (with chapters in not only Acre, but London, Kilkenny, and Nicosia), just as the Gilbertine Order was the only monastic order native to England. Henry VIII dissolved both of these during the Reformation, rather than merging them with foreign orders or nationalising them as elements of the Protestant Church of England.

The monks were afraid Becket's body might be stolen, and so his remains were placed beneath the floor of the eastern crypt of the cathedral. [21] A stone cover over it had two holes where pilgrims could insert their heads and kiss the tomb, [1] as illustrated in the "Miracle Windows" of the Trinity Chapel. A guard chamber (now the Wax Chamber) had a clear view of the grave. In 1220, Becket's bones were moved to a new gold-plated, bejewelled shrine behind the high altar in the Trinity Chapel. [22] The shrine was supported by three pairs of pillars on a raised platform with three steps. This is shown in one of the miracle windows. Canterbury's religious history had always brought many pilgrims, and after Becket's death the numbers rapidly rose further.

Cult in the Middle Ages

Saint

Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket Murder.JPG
One of the earliest known depictions of Becket's assassination, c.1175–1225
Church Latin Church
ArchdioceseCanterbury
See Canterbury
Appointed24 May 1162
Term ended29 December 1170
Predecessor Theobald of Bec
Successor Roger de Bailleul (Archbishop-elect)
Orders
Ordination2 June 1162
Consecration3 June 1162
by  Henry of Blois
Personal details
Born21 December c.1119
Died29 December 1170 (aged 50 or 51)
Canterbury Cathedral, Kent, Kingdom of England
BuriedCanterbury Cathedral
Denomination Catholicism
Parents
  • Gilbert Beket
  • Matilda
Previous post(s)
Coat of arms BecketArms.svg
Sainthood
Feast day29 December
Venerated in
Beatifiedby  Pope Alexander III
Canonized21 February 1173
by Pope Alexander III
Attributes
Patronage
ShrinesCanterbury Cathedral
Cult suppressed1538 (by Henry VIII)
Lord Chancellor
In office
1155–1162
St Thomas Becket's consecration, death and burial, at wall paintings in Santa Maria de Terrassa (Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain), romanesque frescoes, c. 1180 158 Santa Maria de Terrassa, cicle de Tomas Becket.jpg
St Thomas Becket's consecration, death and burial, at wall paintings in Santa Maria de Terrassa (Terrassa, Catalonia, Spain), romanesque frescoes, c. 1180
Candle marking the former spot of the shrine of Thomas Becket, at Canterbury Cathedral Canterbury - Ehemaliger Standort des Schreins von Thomas Becket.jpg
Candle marking the former spot of the shrine of Thomas Becket, at Canterbury Cathedral

In Scotland, King William the Lion ordered the building of Arbroath Abbey in 1178. On completion in 1197 the new foundation was dedicated to Becket, whom the king had known personally while at the English court as a young man.

On 7 July 1220, the 50th jubilee year of his death, Becket's remains were moved from his first tomb to a shrine in the recently built Trinity Chapel. [1] This translation was "one of the great symbolic events in the life of the medieval English Church", attended by King Henry III, the papal legate, the Archbishop of Canterbury Stephen Langton and many dignitaries and magnates secular and ecclesiastical.

Fresco depicting the murder of Thomas Becket, on the left is the figure of Saint Lanfranco in act of blessing. Church of San Lanfranco, Pavia Martirio di Thomas Becket - chiesa di San Lanfranco.jpg
Fresco depicting the murder of Thomas Becket, on the left is the figure of Saint Lanfranco in act of blessing. Church of San Lanfranco, Pavia

So a "major new feast day was instituted, commemorating the translation... celebrated each July almost everywhere in England and in many French churches." [24] It was suppressed in 1536 with the Reformation. [25]

The shrine was destroyed in 1538 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries on orders from King Henry VIII. [1] [26] He also destroyed Becket's bones and ordered all mention of his name obliterated. [26] [27]

As the scion of a mercantile dynasty of later centuries, Mercers, Becket was much regarded as a Londoner by citizens and adopted as London's co-patron saint with St Paul: both appear on the seals of the city and of the Lord Mayor. The Bridge House Estates seal has only a Becket image, while his martyrdom shown on the reverse.

The cult included the drinking of "water of Saint Thomas", a mix of water and the remains of the martyr's blood miraculously multiplied. The procedure was frowned upon by the more orthodox, due to the similarities with the eucharist of the blood of Jesus. [28]

Local legends regarding Becket arose after his canonisation. Though they tend towards typical hagiography, they also display Becket's well-known gruffness. "Becket's Well", in Otford, Kent, is said to have been created after Becket had been displeased by the taste of the local water. Two springs of clear water are said to have bubbled up after he struck the ground with his crozier. The absence of nightingales in Otford is also ascribed to Becket, who is said to have been so disturbed in his devotions by the song of a nightingale and commanded that none sing in the town ever again. In the town of Strood, Kent, Becket is said to have caused the inhabitants and their descendants to be born with tails. The men of Strood had sided with the king in his struggles against the archbishop, and to demonstrate their support had cut off the tail of Becket's horse as he passed through the town.

The saint's fame quickly spread through the Norman world. The first holy image of Becket is thought to be a mosaic icon still visible in Monreale Cathedral in Sicily, created shortly after his death. Becket's cousins obtained refuge at the Sicilian court during their exile, and King William II of Sicily wed a daughter of Henry II. Marsala Cathedral in western Sicily is dedicated to Becket. Over 45 medieval chasse reliquaries decorated in champlevé enamel showing similar scenes from Becket's life survive, including the Becket Casket, constructed to hold relics of him at Peterborough Abbey and now housed in London's Victoria and Albert Museum.

Legacy

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. The name "Thomas à Becket" is not contemporary. It appears to be a post-Reformation creation, possibly modelled on Thomas à Kempis. [2]
  2. There is a legend that claims Thomas's mother was a Saracen princess who met and fell in love with his English father while he was on Crusade or pilgrimage in the Holy Land, followed him home, was baptised and married him. This story has no truth to it, being a fabrication from three centuries after the saint's martyrdom, inserted as a forgery into Edward Grim's 12th-century Life of St Thomas. [5] [6] Matilda is occasionally known as Rohise. [1]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Richard le Breton</span> 12th-century Anglo-Norman nobleman

Sir Richard le Breton or Richard de Brito was one of the four knights who in 1170 murdered Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury.

<i>Murder in the Cathedral</i> Play by T. S. Eliot

Murder in the Cathedral is a verse drama by T. S. Eliot, first performed in 1935, that portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral during the reign of Henry II in 1170. Eliot drew heavily on the writing of Edward Grim, a clerk who was an eyewitness to the event.

Theobald of Bec was a Norman archbishop of Canterbury from 1139 to 1161. His exact birth date is unknown. Some time in the late 11th or early 12th century Theobald became a monk at the Abbey of Bec, rising to the position of abbot in 1137. King Stephen of England chose him to be Archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. Canterbury's claim to primacy over the Welsh ecclesiastics was resolved during Theobald's term of office when Pope Eugene III decided in 1148 in Canterbury's favour. Theobald faced challenges to his authority from a subordinate bishop, Henry of Blois, Bishop of Winchester and King Stephen's younger brother, and his relationship with King Stephen was turbulent. On one occasion Stephen forbade him from attending a papal council, but Theobald defied the king, which resulted in the confiscation of his property and temporary exile. Theobald's relations with his cathedral clergy and the monastic houses in his archdiocese were also difficult.

Richard was a medieval Benedictine monk and Archbishop of Canterbury. Employed by Thomas Becket immediately before Becket's death, Richard arranged for Becket to be buried in Canterbury Cathedral and eventually succeeded Becket at Canterbury in a contentious election. Much of Richard's time as archbishop was spent in a dispute with Roger de Pont L'Evêque, the Archbishop of York over the primacy of England, and with St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury over the archbishop's jurisdiction over the abbey. Richard had better relations with King Henry II of England than Becket had, and was employed by the king on diplomatic affairs. Richard also had the trust of the papacy, and served as a judge for the papacy. Several of his questions to Pope Alexander III were collected into the Decretals, a collection of ecclesiastical laws, and his patronage of canon lawyers did much to advance the study of canon law in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">William Fitzstephen</span>

William Fitzstephen, was a cleric and administrator in the service of Thomas Becket. In the 1170s he wrote a long biography of Thomas Becket – the Vita Sancti Thomae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Roger de Pont L'Évêque</span> 12th-century Norman Archbishop of York

Roger de Pont L'Évêque was Archbishop of York from 1154 to 1181. Born in Normandy, he preceded Thomas Becket as Archdeacon of Canterbury, and together with Becket served Theobald of Bec while Theobald was Archbishop of Canterbury. While in Theobald's service, Roger was alleged to have committed a crime which Becket helped to cover up. Roger succeeded William FitzHerbert as archbishop in 1154, and while at York rebuilt York Minster, which had been damaged by fire.

Who did Kill Thomas Becket in 1170? is a 2000 Channel 4 documentary concerning the murder of Thomas Becket, who was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Roman Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gilbert Foliot</span> 12th-century English monk and bishop

Gilbert Foliot was a medieval English monk and prelate, successively Abbot of Gloucester, Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of London. Born to an ecclesiastical family, he became a monk at Cluny Abbey in France at about the age of twenty. After holding two posts as prior in the Cluniac order he was appointed Abbot of Gloucester Abbey in 1139, a promotion influenced by his kinsman Miles of Gloucester. During his tenure as abbot he acquired additional land for the abbey, and may have helped to fabricate some charters—legal deeds attesting property ownership—to gain advantage in a dispute with the Archbishops of York. Although Foliot recognised Stephen as the King of England, he may have also sympathised with the Empress Matilda's claim to the throne. He joined Matilda's supporters after her forces captured Stephen, and continued to write letters in support of Matilda even after Stephen's release.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Saltwood Castle</span>

Saltwood Castle is a castle in Saltwood village, one mile (2 km) north of Hythe, Kent, England. Of 11th century origin, the castle was expanded in the 13th and 14th centuries. After the Norman Conquest, the castle was appropriated by the Archbishop of Canterbury Lanfranc and remained the property of the archbishops, with some interruptions, until 1540, when Thomas Cranmer was compelled to cede it to Henry VIII. The castle is reputed to have been the meeting place of the four knights who carried out the assassination of Thomas Becket in 1170. By the 19th century, it was "largely ruinous" and restorations to make portions of the castle habitable were carried out in the 1880s and 1930s. In the late 19th century, the castle was bought by an ancestor of Bill Deedes, the journalist and politician, who grew up there. In the 20th century, it was sold to Sir Martin Conway who commissioned Philip Tilden to undertake a restoration. In 1953, the castle was bought by the art historian Kenneth Clark (1903–1983), and then became the home of his son, the politician and diarist, Alan Clark (1928–1999). It remains the private home of his widow, Jane Clark. The castle is a Grade I listed building.

Trinity Chapel at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral forms part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was built under the supervision of the master-masons William of Sens and William the Englishman as a shrine for the relics of St. Thomas Becket. The shrine became one of the most popular pilgrimage sites in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hilary of Chichester</span> 12th century Bishop of Chichester

Hilary was a medieval bishop of Chichester in England. English by birth, he studied canon law and worked in Rome as a papal clerk. During his time there, he became acquainted with a number of ecclesiastics, including the future Pope Adrian IV, and the writer John of Salisbury. In England, he served as a clerk for Henry of Blois, who was the bishop of Winchester and brother of King Stephen of England. After Hilary's unsuccessful nomination to become Archbishop of York, Pope Eugene III compensated him by promoting him to the bishopric of Chichester in 1147.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bartholomew of Exeter</span> 12th-century Bishop of Exeter

Bartholomew of Exeter was a medieval Bishop of Exeter. He came from Normandy and after being a clerk of the Archbishop of Canterbury, was made Archdeacon of Exeter in 1155. He became Bishop of Exeter in 1161. Known for his knowledge of canon law, he was involved in the Becket controversy after the appointment of Thomas Becket as Archbishop of Canterbury. After Becket's death, although he was frequently at the royal court, he mainly attended to his diocese. A number of works by him survive, including sermons and treatises on law and theology.

Events from the 1170s in England.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Becket Casket</span>

The Becket Casket is a reliquary in Limoges enamel now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. It is made of gilt-copper round a wooden core, decorated with champlevé enamel, and of a shape called a "chasse". It was made in about 1180–90 in Limoges, France, and depicts one of the most infamous events in English history. On the night of 29 December 1170, Archbishop Thomas Becket was murdered in Canterbury cathedral by four knights obeying the wishes of King Henry II. It provoked outrage throughout Europe, and pilgrims flocked to Canterbury to pray at the site of the murder. In 1173 Becket was canonized and his shrine was one of the most famous in the Christian world, until its total destruction in 1538 during the reign of Henry VIII. It is thought that this particular casket was made to hold the relics of Thomas Becket that were taken to Peterborough Abbey by Abbot Benedict in 1177. Benedict had been Prior at Canterbury Cathedral and therefore saw Becket's assassination.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Becket controversy</span> 12th-century dispute between Thomas Becket and King Henry II of England

The Becket controversy or Becket dispute was the quarrel between Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket and King Henry II of England from 1163 to 1170. The controversy culminated with Becket's murder in 1170, and was followed by Becket's canonization in 1173 and Henry's public penance at Canterbury in July 1174.

William of Canterbury (floruit 1170–1177) was a medieval English monk and biographer of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury murdered in December 1170. He was present at the murder of the archbishop and admitted in his writings that he ran from the murder scene. Later he collected miracle stories about Becket. He also wrote a hagiography, or saint's life, of Becket, one of five written at Canterbury soon after Becket's death. William's hagiography was later used by other medieval writers who wrote about Becket.

Ranulf de Broc was an Anglo-Norman nobleman and royal official during the reign of King Henry II of England. He held two offices in the royal household as well as performing other administrative duties for the king. During the Becket controversy between King Henry and Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, de Broc supported the king and was granted the administration of the exiled archbishop's lands during the later half of the 1160s. This earned de Broc three sentences of excommunication from the archbishop because of de Broc's financial exactions from the estates. De Broc was with the four men who murdered Becket in December 1170, although he did not take part in the actual murder. At de Broc's death around 1179, he left behind a widow and five daughters, who were his co-heiresses.

<i>Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?</i> Utterance attributed to Henry II of England, which led to the murder of Thomas Becket in 1170

"Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?" is a quote attributed to Henry II of England preceding the death of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1170. While the quote was not expressed as an order, it prompted four knights to travel from Normandy to Canterbury, where they killed Becket. The phrase is commonly used in modern-day contexts to express that a ruler's wish may be interpreted as a command by his or her subordinates.

The Fermo chasuble of St. Thomas Becket is a garment belonging to Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170.

Saint Thomas Becket window in Chartres Cathedral is a 1215–1225 stained-glass window in Chartres Cathedral, located behind a grille in the Confessors' Chapel, second chapel of the south ambulatory. 8.9 m high by 2.18 m wide, it was funded by the tanners' guild. The furthest left of five lancet windows in the chapel, it is difficult to view and is heavily corroded by glass oxidisation, which has made its left side especially hard to read.

References

Footnotes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Barlow "Becket, Thomas (1120?–1170)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. 1 2 Barlow Thomas Becket pp. 11–12.
  3. Barlow Thomas Becket pp. 3–9.
  4. Butler and Walsh Butler's Lives of the Saints p. 430
  5. Staunton Lives of Thomas Becket p. 29.
  6. Hutton Thomas Becket – Archbishop of Canterbury p. 4.
  7. Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 84.
  8. Huscroft Ruling England pp. 192–195.
  9. "V&A plaque", with latest count; Binski, 225, with a catalogue entry on one in the Burrell Collection in Glasgow.
  10. Warren, W.L. (1973). Henry II. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press. p. 507. ISBN   9780520034945.
  11. 1 2 Huscroft Ruling England p. 194.
  12. Warren Henry II p. 508.
  13. Jonathan McGovern, 'The Origin of the Phrase "Will No One Rid Me of this Turbulent Priest?"', Notes and Queries (2021). DOI: 10.1093/notesj/gjab094; Knowles Oxford Dictionary of Quotations p. 370
  14. Schama History of Britain p. 142.
  15. Stanley Historical Memorials of Canterbury pp. 53–55.
  16. Wilkes, Aaron (2019). "Crown vs Church: Murder in the Cathedral". Invasion, Plague and Murder: Britain 1066-1558. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN   978-0-19-849464-5.
  17. Lee This Sceptred Isle p. 97.
  18. Forester, Thomas (2001). Giraldus Cambrensis – The Conquest of Ireland. Cambridge, Ontario: In Parentheses Publications.
  19. Grim, Benedict of Peterborough and William fitzStephen are quoted in Douglas, et al. English Historical Documents 1042–1182 Vol. 2, p. 821.
  20. William Page & J. Horace Round, ed. (1907). 'Houses of Benedictine nuns: Abbey of Barking', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 2. pp. 115–122.
  21. 1 2 Barlow Thomas Becket pp. 257–258.
  22. Drake, Gavin (23 May 2016). "Becket's bones return to Canterbury Cathedral". anglicannews.org. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  23. Sánchez, Carles (2021). A painted tragedy The martyrdom of Thomas Becket in Santa Maria de Terrassa and the diffusion of its cult in the Iberian Peninsula. Anem Editors. ISBN   978-84-122385-7-0.
  24. Reames, Sherry L. (January 2005). "Reconstructing and Interpreting a Thirteenth-Century Office for the Translation of Thomas Becket". Speculum. 80 (1): 118–170. doi:10.1017/S0038713400006679. JSTOR   20463165. S2CID   162716876. Quoting pp. 118–119.
  25. Scully, Robert E. (October 2000). "The Unmaking of a Saint: Thomas Becket and the English Reformation". The Catholic Historical Review. 86 (4): 579–602. doi:10.1353/cat.2000.0094. JSTOR   25025818. S2CID   201743927. Especially p. 592.
  26. 1 2 "The Origins of Canterbury Cathedral". Dean and Chapter of Canterbury Cathedral. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  27. "The Martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket (Getty Museum)". The J. Paul Getty in Los Angeles. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007.
  28. Harvey, Katherine (January 2019). "The Cult of Thomas Becket: History and Historiography through Eight Centuries | Reviews in History". Reviews in History. doi: 10.14296/RiH/2014/2303 . S2CID   193137069 . Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  29. Enciclopedia del románico en Castilla y León: Soria III. Fundación Santa María la Real – Centro de Estudios del Románico, pp. 961, 1009–1017.
  30. "St Thomas Becket landing at Sandwich (Relief)". Victoria & Albert Museum. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  31. "St Thomas Becket meeting the Pope (Panel)". Victoria & Albert Museum. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  32. "Consecration of St Thomas Becket as archbishop (Panel)". Victoria & Albert Museum. Retrieved 26 December 2018.
  33. "Canterbury (England) – Coat of arms". Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  34. Child, Harold Hannyngton (1912). "Irving, Henry"  . Dictionary of National Biography (2nd supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  35. Malvern, Jack (10 June 2006). "Hollywood shines a light on geezers who killed à Becket". The Times . London. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  36. "Troubled Bones".
  37. Hughes, Peter (26 May 2000). "Music festivals: We pick 10 of the best". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  38. Reeves, David; Bowman, James; Wilson-Johnson, David; Neary, Martin; Slane, Phillip; Novis, Constance; Brink, Harvey; Keith, Gillian; Willocks, David; English Chamber Choir; English Festival Orchestra (1999), Becket: The kiss of peace=Le baiser de la paix=Der Kuss der Friedens, English Gramophone/DRM Control Point; Australia: manufactured in Australia under license, retrieved 3 July 2018
  39. "Becket Fund". Becket Fund. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  40. 1 2 3 4 Coughlan, Sean (31 January 2006). "UK | Saint or sinner?". BBC News. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
  41. Weaver, Matthew (31 January 2006). "Asking silly questions". The Guardian . London. News Blog. Retrieved 2 May 2008.
  42. Coughlan, Sean (27 December 2005). "UK | 'Worst' historical Britons list". BBC News. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  43. "Portsmouth Cathedral, St Thomas' Cathedral, Old Portsmouth" . Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  44. "Welcome to Monmouth, St Thomas Church Monmouth" . Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  45. "South West England". Heritage at Risk. English Heritage. p. 243. Archived from the original on 9 October 2022.
  46. Historic England. "Church of St Thomas a Becket (1394116)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  47. "Church of St Thomas a Becket, Capel, Kent". Churches Conservation Trust . Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  48. "Church of St Thomas the Martyr, Bristol". Churches Conservation Trust . Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  49. "St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford". A Church Near You. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  50. "Saint-Thomas de Cantorbéry". Mondes-normands.caen.fr. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  51. "Saint-Thomas Becket (Bénodet)". Linternaute.com. 18 March 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2012.
  52. Györffy, György (1970). "Becket Tamás és Magyarország [Thomas Becket and Hungary]". Filológiai Közlöny. 16 (1–2): 153–158. ISSN   0015-1785.
  53. "The Calendar". The Church of England. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  54. Lesser Feasts and Fasts 2018. Church Publishing, Inc. 17 December 2019. ISBN   978-1-64065-235-4.

Bibliography

Further reading

Biographies

Historiography

Political offices
Preceded by Lord Chancellor
1155–1162
Succeeded by
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by Archbishop of Canterbury
1162–1170
Succeeded by