Thomas Bennett Jr.
|48th Governor of South Carolina|
December 1, 1820 –December 1, 1822
|Preceded by||John Geddes|
|Succeeded by||John Lyde Wilson|
|Member of the South Carolina Senate from St. Philip's and St. Michael's Parish|
November 28,1837 – November 23,1840
Alongside Daniel Elliott Huger
|Preceded by||Joel Poinsett|
|Succeeded by||Ker Boyce|
November 27,1820 – December 7,1820
Alongside Philip Moser
|Preceded by||James Reid Pringle|
|Succeeded by||William Crafts Jr.|
|17th Speaker of the South Carolina House of Representatives|
November 28,1814 – November 23,1818
|Governor|| David Rogerson Williams |
|Preceded by||John Geddes|
|Succeeded by||Robert Y. Hayne|
|Member of the South Carolina House of Representatives from St. Philip's and St. Michael's Parish|
September 15,1813 – November 23,1818
November 23,1812 – December 19,1812
November 28,1808 – November 26,1810
November 26,1804 – November 24,1806
|20th Intendant of Charleston,South Carolina|
|Preceded by||Thomas McCalla|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Rhett Smith|
|Died||January 30,1865 83) (aged|
|Spouse(s)||Mary Lightbourn Stone|
Jane (Burgess) Gordon
Thomas Bennett Jr. (August 14,1781 –January 30,1865) was an American businessman,banker and politician,the 48th Governor of South Carolina from 1820 to 1822. A respected politician,he had served several terms in the state legislature since 1804,including four years as Speaker of the House,and a term in the state Senate.
Born in Charleston to an upper-class family,Bennett was educated at the College of Charleston. In a partnership with his father,Bennett ran a lumber and rice milling operation near the city. He also worked as an architect and as a banker,managing the Planters and Merchant Bank of South Carolina and the Bank of the State of South Carolina. Bennett's brother-in-law was Justice William Johnson,an associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1804 to 1834.
Bennett was elected to a number of local positions for the city of Charleston,including Intendant (mayor). The prosperous city was a center of trade,including that for slaves. Beginning in 1804,Bennett was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives for three non-consecutive terms. In 1818,he was elected to the South Carolina Senate.
In 1820,the General Assembly elected him as the Governor of South Carolina for the customary two-year term (the state wanted to limit executive power). As governor,Bennett denounced the interstate domestic slave trade. In 1818 the legislature repealed a law that prohibited it. (In 1808 the US prohibition of the African slave trade had been implemented. More than one million African-American slaves would be forcibly relocated to the Deep South in the domestic trade before the Civil War.)
In mid-June 1822,Charleston white residents were alarmed by reports that a conspiracy had been discovered for a slave rebellion led by free black man Denmark Vesey. The city organized a militia and rapidly arrested a growing circle of suspected conspirators. A Court of Magistrates and Freeholders operated in secret to hear testimony and judge who was guilty. Four household slaves of Bennett were charged as conspirators;three were found guilty and were among five slaves hanged with Vesey on July 2.
Bennett was concerned about the way the court was conducting its work and consulted with the state attorney general,Robert Y. Hayne,who advised him that the right of habeas corpus was available only to freemen. In August after the proceedings had ended,Bennett published an article suggesting the insurrection had been exaggerated. He lost the public argument to Intendant James Hamilton,who stressed that white residents had been saved by the city government's quick action. Bennett also submitted a report to the legislature critical of the secret proceedings of the court.
After leaving the governorship in 1822,Bennett returned to Charleston. In about 1825,he constructed a house and lived there;today it is known as the Gov. Thomas Bennett House and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Later,he was elected to the legislature a final time as a state senator,serving from 1837 to 1840,when he became well known as a Unionist. He died on January 30,1865 in the last year of the Civil War and was buried at Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston.
Bennett is the namesake to the city of Bennettsville,South Carolina.
John Eager Howard was an American soldier and politician from Maryland. He was elected as governor of the state in 1788,and served three one-year terms. He also was elected to the Continental Congress,the Congress of the United States and the U.S. Senate. In the 1816 presidential election,Howard received 22 electoral votes for vice president on the Federalist Party ticket with Rufus King. The ticket lost in a landslide.
Charleston is the largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina,the county seat of Charleston County,and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston metropolitan area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline on Charleston Harbor,an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley,Cooper,and Wando rivers. Charleston had a population of 150,277 as of the 2020 U.S. Census. The 2020 population of the Charleston metropolitan area,comprising Berkeley,Charleston,and Dorchester counties,was 799,636 residents,the third-largest in the state and the 74th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States.
William Johnson Jr. was an American attorney,state legislator,and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1804 until his death in 1834. When he was 32 years old,Johnson was appointed to the Supreme Court by President Thomas Jefferson. He was the first Jeffersonian Republican member of the Court as well as the second Justice from the state of South Carolina. During his tenure,Johnson restored the act of delivering seriatim opinions. He wrote about half of the dissents during the Marshall Court,leading historians to nickname him the "first dissenter".
Thomas Pinckney was an early American statesman,diplomat,and soldier in both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812,achieving the rank of major general. He served as Governor of South Carolina and as the U.S. minister to Great Britain. He was also the Federalist candidate for vice president in the 1796 election.
Denmark Vesey was an early 19th century free Black pastor and community leader in Charleston,South Carolina,who was accused and convicted of planning a major slave revolt in 1822. Although the alleged plot was discovered before it could be realized,its potential scale stoked the fears of the antebellum planter class that led to increased restrictions on both slaves and free blacks.
Rawlins Lowndes was an American lawyer,planter and politician who became involved in the patriot cause after election to South Carolina's legislature,although he opposed independence from Great Britain. Lowndes served as president/governor of South Carolina during the American Revolutionary War,and after the war opposed his state's ratification of the U.S. Constitution because it would restrict the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Lowndes also served as a state legislator and mayor of Charleston before his death. Two of his sons,Thomas and William Lowndes,would serve in the U.S. Congress.
James Hamilton Jr. was an American lawyer and politician. He represented South Carolina in the U.S. Congress (1822–1829) and served as its 53rd Governor (1830–1832). Prior to that he achieved widespread recognition and public approval for his actions as Intendant (mayor) of the city of Charleston,South Carolina in 1822,during the period when plans for a slave rising were revealed. As governor,he led the state during the Nullification Crisis of 1832,at the peak of his power.
Robert Young Hayne was an American lawyer,planter and politician. He served in the United States Senate from 1823 to 1832,as Governor of South Carolina 1832–1834,and as Mayor of Charleston 1836–1837. As Senator and Governor,he was a leading figure in the Nullification Crisis and,along with John C. Calhoun and James Hamilton Jr.,a vocal proponent of the doctrines of states' rights,compact theory,and nullification;his 1830 debate in the Senate with Daniel Webster is considered a defining episode in the constitutional crisis which precipitated the American Civil War.
South Carolina was one of the thirteen colonies that first formed the United States. European exploration of the area began in April 1540 with the Hernando de Soto expedition,which unwittingly introduced diseases that decimated the local Native American population. In 1663,the English Crown granted land to eight proprietors of what became the colony. The first settlers came to the Province of Carolina at the port of Charleston in 1670. They were mostly wealthy planters and their slaves coming from the English Caribbean colony of Barbados. They started to develop their commodity crops of sugar and cotton. The Province of Carolina was split into North and South Carolina in 1712. Pushing back the Native Americans in the Yamasee War (1715–17),colonists next overthrew the proprietors' rule in the Revolution of 1719,seeking more direct representation. In 1719,South Carolina became a crown colony.
Antebellum South Carolina is typically defined by historians as South Carolina during the period between the War of 1812,which ended in 1815,and the American Civil War,which began in 1861.
Gullah Jack,also known as Couter Jack and sometimes referred to as "Gullah" Jack Pritchard,was a Methodist,an African conjurer,and a slave to Paul Pritchard in Charleston,South Carolina.
The South Carolina Military Academy was a predecessor,two-campus institution to The Citadel. It was established in 1842 by the South Carolina Legislature.
John Drayton II was Governor of South Carolina and a United States district judge of the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina.
Robert James Turnbull was an American lawyer,planter,writer and politician from South Carolina who also published under the name Brutus. His essays in the Charleston Mercury advocating nullification were published as a pamphlet under the title The Crisis:Or,Essays on the Usurpations of the Federal Government,which has been described as "the handbook for nullification and resistance."
Black South Carolinians are residents of the state of South Carolina who are of African American ancestry. This article examines South Carolina's history with an emphasis on the lives,status,and contributions of African Americans. Enslaved Africans first arrived in the region in 1526,and the institution of slavery remained until the end of the Civil War in 1865. Until slavery's abolition,the free black population of South Carolina never exceeded 2%. Beginning during the Reconstruction Era,African Americans were elected to political offices in large numbers,leading to South Carolina's first majority-black government. Toward the end of the 1870s however,the Democratic Party regained power and passed laws aimed at disenfranchising African Americans,including the denial of the right to vote. Between the 1870s and 1960s,African Americans and whites lived segregated lives;people of color and whites were not allowed to attend the same schools or share public facilities. African Americans were treated as second-class citizens leading to the civil rights movement in the 1960s. In modern America,African Americans constitute 22% of the state's legislature,and in 2014,the state's first African American U.S. Senator since Reconstruction,Tim Scott,was elected. In 2015,the Confederate flag was removed from the South Carolina Statehouse after the Charleston church shooting.
Elias Horry was a lawyer,politician,businessman and plantation owner who twice served in the South Carolina General Assembly as well as the intendant (mayor) of Charleston,South Carolina,serving two terms from 1815 to 1817 and 1820 to 1821.
The Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church,often referred to as Mother Emanuel,is a church in Charleston,South Carolina. Founded in 1817,Emanuel AME is the oldest African Methodist Episcopal church in the Southern United States. This,the first independent black denomination in the United States,was founded in 1816 in Philadelphia,Pennsylvania.
James Henry Ladson was an American politician,wealthy plantation owner from Charles Town and officer of the American Revolution. He served as the Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina from 1792 to 1794,and was a member of the South Carolina state Senate from 1800 to 1804.