Thomas Bowdler

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Thomas Bowdler
Bowdler-title-page.png
Title page of Bowdler's best-known work
Born11 July 1754
Died24 February 1825(1825-02-24) (aged 70)
NationalityBritish
OccupationPhysician, editor
Notable work
The Family Shakspeare (1807)

Thomas Bowdler, LRCP, FRS ( /ˈbdlər/ ; 11 July 1754 – 24 February 1825 [1] ) was an English doctor best known for publishing The Family Shakspeare, an expurgated edition of William Shakespeare's plays. The work, edited by his sister Henrietta Maria Bowdler, was intended to provide a version of Shakespeare that was more appropriate than the original for 19th-century women and children. Bowdler also published several other works, some reflecting his interest in and knowledge of continental Europe. Bowdler's last work was an expurgated version of Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , published posthumously in 1826 under the supervision of his nephew and biographer, Thomas Bowdler the Younger.

Royal College of Physicians professional body of doctors of general medicine and its subspecialties in the UK

The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination. Founded in 1518, it set the first international standard in the classification of diseases, and its library contains medical texts of great historical interest.

Royal Society English learned society for science

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.

Physician professional who practices medicine

A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the science of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or craft of medicine.

Contents

The verb bowdlerise (or bowdlerize) [2] has linked his name with the censorship or omission of elements deemed inappropriate for children, not only in literature but also in motion pictures [3] and television programmes.

Censorship The practice of suppressing information

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by a government private institutions, and corporations.

Biography

Thomas Bowdler was born in Box, near Bath, Somerset, the youngest son of the six children of Thomas Bowdler (c. 1719–1785), a banker of substantial fortune, [4] and his wife, Elizabeth, née Cotton (d. 1797), the daughter of Sir John Cotton, 6th Baronet of Conington, Huntingdonshire. [5] [6] Bowdler studied medicine at the universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, where he received his degree in 1776, graduating with a thesis on intermittent fevers. [7] He spent the next four years travelling through continental Europe, visiting Germany, Hungary, Italy, Sicily, and Portugal. In 1781 he caught a fever in Lisbon from a young friend whom he was attending to through a fatal illness. [8] He returned to England in broken health and with a strong aversion to the medical profession. In 1781 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) and a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (LRCP), but did not continue to practice medicine. [7] He devoted himself instead to the cause of prison reform. [7]

Box, Wiltshire village in Wiltshire, England

Box is a large village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England, about 3 miles (5 km) west of Corsham and 5 miles (8 km) northeast of Bath. Besides the village of Box, the parish includes the villages of Ashley and Box Hill; Hazelbury manor; and the hamlets of Alcombe, Blue Vein, Chapel Plaister, Ditteridge, Henley, Kingsdown, Middlehill and Wadswick. To the east the parish includes much of Rudloe, formerly a hamlet but now a housing estate, and the defence establishments and related businesses on the site of RAF Rudloe Manor.

Bath, Somerset City in Somerset, England

Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon, 97 miles (156 km) west of London and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol. The city became a World Heritage site in 1987.

Elizabeth Stuart Bowdler [née Cotton] was a religious writer.

Bowdler was also a strong chess player and once played eight recorded games against the best chess player of the time, François-André Danican Philidor, who was so confident of his superiority that he played with several handicaps. Bowdler won twice, lost three times, and drew three times. [9] The Bowdler Attack is named after him.

Chess Strategy board game

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi, janggi, and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.

François-André Danican Philidor French composer and chess player

François-André Danican Philidor, often referred to as André Danican Philidor during his lifetime, was a French composer and chess player. He contributed to the early development of the opéra comique. He is also regarded as the best chess player of his age; his book Analyse du jeu des Échecs was considered a standard chess manual for at least a century. A well-known chess opening and a checkmate method are both named after him.

Draw (chess) result of a chess game ending in a tie

In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie. Usually, in tournaments a draw is worth a half point to each player, while a win is worth one point to the victor and none to the loser.

Advertisement for 1819 edition of The Family Shakspeare Times-Bowdler.png
Advertisement for 1819 edition of The Family Shakspeare

Bowdler's first published work was Letters Written in Holland in the Months of September and October 1787 (1788), which gave his eye-witness account of the Patriots' uprising. [6] In 1800 Bowdler took a lease on a country estate at St. Boniface, on the Isle of Wight, where he lived for ten years. [6] In September 1806, when he was 52, he married Elizabeth Frevenen or Trevennen, the widow of a naval officer. [6] The marriage was unhappy, and after a few years Bowdler and his wife separated. They had no children. After the separation, the marriage was never mentioned by the Bowdler family; in the biography of Bowdler written by his nephew, Thomas Bowdler, there is no mention of Bowdler ever marrying. [6]

<i>Patriottentijd</i>

The Patriottentijd was a period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787. It takes its name from the radical political faction known as the Patriotten who opposed the rule of the stadtholder, William V, Prince of Orange, and his supporters who were known as Orangists.

Isle of Wight County and island of England

The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is in the English Channel, between 2 and 5 miles off the coast of Hampshire, separated by the Solent. The island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields, downland and chines.

Thomas Bowdler the Younger (1782–1856) was an Anglican priest, who wrote a memoir of his father, John Bowdler, and his uncle, Thomas Bowdler the elder. He was also editor of an expurgated version of Edward Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, as prepared by his uncle.

In 1807, the first edition of the Bowdlers' The Family Shakspeare, covering 20 plays, was published in four small volumes. [10] From 1811 until his death in 1825, Bowdler lived at Rhyddings House, overlooking Swansea Bay, from where he travelled extensively in Britain and continental Europe. In 1815, he published Observations on Emigration to France, With an Account of Health, Economy, and the Education of Children, a cautionary work propounding his view that English invalids should avoid French spas and go instead to Malta. [7] In 1818, Bowdler published an expanded edition of The Family Shakspeare, covering all 36 available plays, which had considerable success. [11] By 1827 the work had gone into its fifth edition. [12] In his last years, Bowdler prepared an expurgated version of the works of the historian Edward Gibbon, which was published posthumously in 1826. [6] His sister Jane Bowdler (1743–1784) was a poet and essayist, and another sister, Henrietta Maria Bowdler (Harriet) (1750–1830), collaborated with Bowdler on his expurgated Shakespeare. [6]

Swansea City & County in Wales

Swansea, is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan and the ancient Welsh commote of Gŵyr on the southwest coast. The county area includes Swansea Bay and the Gower Peninsula. Swansea is the second largest city in Wales and the twenty-fifth largest city in the United Kingdom. According to its local council, the City and County of Swansea had a population of 241,300 in 2014. The last official census stated that the city, metropolitan and urban areas combined concluded to be a total of 462,000 in 2011; the second most populous local authority area in Wales after Cardiff.

A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as balneotherapy. The belief in the curative powers of mineral waters goes back to prehistoric times. Such practices have been popular worldwide, but are especially widespread in Europe and Japan. Day spas are also quite popular, and offer various personal care treatments.

Malta island republic in Europe

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.

Bowdler died in Swansea at the age of 70 and was buried there, at Oystermouth. [6] He bequeathed donations to the poor of Swansea and Box. [13] His large library, consisting of unexpurgated volumes collected by his ancestors Thomas Bowdler (1638–1700) and Thomas Bowdler (1661–1738), was donated to the University of Wales, Lampeter. In 1825 Bowdler's nephew, also called Thomas Bowdler, published his Memoir of the Late John Bowdler, Esq., to Which Is Added, Some Account of the Late Thomas Bowdler, Esq. Editor of the Family Shakspeare.

The Family Shakespeare

In Bowdler's childhood, his father had entertained his family with readings from Shakespeare. Later in life, Bowdler realized that his father had been omitting or altering passages he felt unsuitable for the ears of his wife and children. Bowdler felt it would be worthwhile to publish an edition which might be used in a family whose father was not a sufficiently "circumspect and judicious reader" to accomplish this expurgation himself. [14]

In 1807 the first edition of the Bowdlers' The Family Shakspeare was published in four duodecimo volumes, containing 24 plays. In 1818 the second edition, covering all 36 available plays, was published. [11] Each play is preceded by an introduction wherein Bowdler summarizes and justifies his changes to the text. According to his nephew's Memoir, the first edition was prepared by Bowdler's sister, Harriet, but both were published under Thomas Bowdler's name. This was likely because a woman could not then publicly admit that she was capable of such editing and compilation, nor that she understood Shakespeare's racy verses. [15] By 1850 eleven editions had been printed.

The spelling "Shakspeare", used by Bowdler and also by his nephew Thomas in his memoir of Thomas Bowdler the elder, [16] was changed in later editions (from 1847 on) to "Shakespeare", reflecting changes in the standard spelling of Shakespeare's name. [17]

The Bowdlers were not the first to undertake such a project. Bowdler's commitment to not augmenting or adding to Shakespeare's text, instead only removing sensitive material, was in contrast with the practice of earlier editors. Nahum Tate as Poet Laureate had rewritten the tragedy of King Lear with a happy ending; In 1807, Charles Lamb and Mary Lamb published Tales from Shakespeare for children with synopses of 20 of the plays, but seldom quoted the original text. [7] Though The Family Shakespeare was considered a negative example of censorship by the literary establishment and its commitment to the "authentic" Shakespeare, the Bowdlers' expurgated editions made it more acceptable to teach Shakespeare to wider and younger audiences. [18] As said by the poet Algernon Charles Swinburne, "More nauseous and more foolish cant was never chattered than that which would deride the memory or depreciate the merits of Bowdler. No man ever did better service to Shakespeare than the man who made it possible to put him into the hands of intelligent and imaginative children". [6] [19]

Changes

Some examples of alterations made by Bowdler's edition:

Prominent modern literary figures such as Michiko Kakutani (in the New York Times) and William Safire (in his book, How Not to Write) have accused Bowdler of changing Lady Macbeth's famous "Out, damned spot!" line in Macbeth to "Out, crimson spot!" [20] But Bowdler did not do that. Thomas Bulfinch and Stephen Bulfinch did, in their 1865 edition of Shakespeare's works. [21]

Publication information

See also

Notes

  1. Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bowdler, Thomas"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. American/British spelling differences: "-ize" is preferred in American English whereas "-ise" is the form used elsewhere.
  3. "Filter Amazon streaming with ClearPlay". Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2015.
  4. Bowdler, p. 18
  5. "The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 202" Archived 16 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine pg. 241
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Loughlin-Chow, M. Clare, "Bowdler, Thomas (1754–1825)", Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition, January 2011. Retrieved 17 December 2011 (subscription required)
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Poynter, F. N. L. "Thomas Bowdler", Archived 19 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine The British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4879, 10 July 1954, pp. 97–98
  8. Lee, Sidney. "Bowdler, Thomas (1754–1825), editor of the 'Family Shakespeare'", Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Dictionary of National Biography, 1885, ODNB archive. Retrieved 17 December 2011 (subscription required)
  9. Philidor was usually blindfolded and playing multiple opponents simultaneously, and sometimes started without one pawn. The first recorded game to feature a double rook sacrifice was played between Bowdler (white) and H. Conway at London in 1788. See "Dr. Thomas Bowdler vs Henry Seymour Conway" Archived 20 November 2012 at WebCite , Chessgames.com. Retrieved 16 December 2011
  10. Shakespeare, William; Bowdler, Thomas (1807). The family Shakespeare ... London: J. Hatchard.
  11. 1 2 "What did Bowdler bowdlerize? | OxfordWords blog". OxfordWords blog. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  12. Classified Advertisements, The Observer , 10 June 1827, p. 1
  13. Bowdler, p. 329
  14. Brown, Arthur (1965). "The Great Variety of Readers". In Allardyce Nicoll (ed.). Shakespeare Survey (18 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN   978-0-521-52354-7.
  15. Tabak, Jessica. "Acts of Omission: Fiona Brideoake examines 19th-century censored Shakespeare" Archived 22 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine , 2 November 2009
  16. Bowdler, pp. 31–32 and passim
  17. Integrated Catalogue, The British Library. Retrieved 17 December 2011; and "The Family Shakspeare" Archived 1 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine , WorldCat. Retrieved 17 December 2011
  18. Eschner, Kat. "The Bowdlers Wanted to Clean Up Shakespeare, Not Become a Byword for Censorship". Smithsonian. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  19. Swinburne, Algernon Charles (1915) [1891]. "Social Verse". Studies in prose and poetry. London: Chatto & Windus. pp. 84–109: 88–89.
  20. Michiko Kakutani, Light Out, Huck, They Still Want to Sivilize You, N.Y. Times, Jan. 7, 2011, at C1 & 5 (only the original print version still contains Kakutani's accusation -- the online version has been corrected); William Safire, How Not to Write (1990; 2005 printing), page 100; Davies, Ross E. (2012). "Gray Lady Bowdler: The Continuing Saga of the Crimson Spot". The Green Bag Almanac and Reader: 563–574. SSRN   1758989 ..
  21. Davies, Ross E. (2009). "How Not to Bowdlerize". The Green Bag Almanac and Reader: 235–240. SSRN   1333764 ..

Bibliography

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