Thomas Cochrane M.B. C.M (1866–1953) was a Scottish medical missionary. He is notable for founding the first school to teach Western Medicine to Chinese trainee doctors and for his influential London-based campaigns to promote missionary work.
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin: Medicinae Baccalaureus Baccalaureus Chirurgiae, are the two first professional degrees in medicine and surgery awarded upon graduation from medical school by universities in countries that follow the tradition of the United Kingdom (UK). The historical degree nomenclature suggests that they are two separate undergraduate degrees; however, in practice, they are usually treated as one and conferred together, and may also be awarded at graduate-level medical schools. In countries that follow the system in the United States, the equivalent medical degree is awarded as Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO).
The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation.
Medical missions in China by Protestant Christian physicians and surgeons of the 19th and early 20th centuries laid many foundations for modern medicine in China. Western medical missionaries established the first modern clinics and hospitals, provided the first training for nurses, and opened the first medical schools in China. Work was also done in opposition to the abuse of opium. Medical treatment and care came to many Chinese who were addicted, and eventually public and official opinion was influenced in favor of bringing an end to the destructive trade.
Cochrane was brought up in Greenock, Scotland.In 1882 he was inspired to become a missionary after listening to the evangelical preacher Dwight L. Moody. He trained to become a doctor at Glasgow University and in 1897 traveled to China with the London Missionary Society.
Greenock is a town and administrative centre in the Inverclyde council area in Scotland and a former burgh within the historic county of Renfrewshire, located in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. It forms part of a contiguous urban area with Gourock to the west and Port Glasgow to the east.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Dwight Lyman Moody, also known as D. L. Moody, was an American evangelist and publisher connected with the Holiness Movement, who founded the Moody Church, Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts, Moody Bible Institute and Moody Publishers.
Cochrane arrived in Chaoyang hospital, Mongolia when the country was in the throes of the Boxer rebellion.Braving threats from bandits, he traveled from village to village in an ox cart dispensing medical aid. Mr and Mrs Liddell, the parents of Eric Liddell the famous runner, were also there at the time. In 1900, he moved to Beijing to restore the hospital there which had been almost totally demolished. Cochrane succeeded in obtaining royal support for his work after he healed the Empress Dowager Cixi's chief eunuch and her chief lady in waiting. He decided to establish the hospital as a training hospital to train Chinese as western style doctors, and with the support of the empress and other missionary bodies founded the Peking Union Medical College. To support the students, Cochrane translated western medical books like Heath’s Anatomy (1909) and Heath’s Osteology (1910) into Mandarin. In 1916 the hospital was handed over to the Rockefeller Institute.
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is roughly equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, and that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, although only 37 kilometres (23 mi) separates them.
Eric Henry Liddell was a Scottish Olympic Gold Medalist runner, rugby union international player, and Christian missionary.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast; together the three divisions form the Jingjinji metropolitan region and the national capital region of China.
Cochrane believed that missionary work should be co-ordinated, organised and well supplied. In 1913, the Christian Literature Society of China published his Survey of the Missionary Occupation of China with an accompanying atlas showing missionary occupation in the provinces of China. The work called for trained personnel, medical equipment, and supplies. After he returned to England in 1915, he continued to encourage the gathering and promotion of knowledge on the state of missionary work and needs across the world. He founded the Mildmay Movement for World Evangelisation, based in the Mildmay Centre, next to the Mildmay Mission Hospital (a separate and older organisation) in Islington, London.In 1924, together with like minded trustees businessman Sidney J. W. Clark and Roland Allen he set up the Survey Application Trust, an organisation to promote missionary work through publications. He himself served as the editor of the publication World Dominion. In 1949, he founded the publication The World Christian Handbook. His campaigning though his publications and the missionary conferences held at the Mildmay Centre were an inspiration to many at the time to fund and participate in missionary activities.
Islington is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's High Street to Highbury Fields, encompassing the area around the busy High Street, Upper Street, Essex Road, and Southgate Road to the east.
Roland Allen was an English missionary to China sent by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG).
Cochrane was married twice. He had three sons by his first wife and after she died in 1930, he married again and gained six stepdaughters. He died in Pinner, Middlesex in 1953.
Pinner is a town in the London Borough of Harrow in northwest London, England, 12 miles (19 km) from Charing Cross. It is also in the historic county of Middlesex.
Middlesex is an ancient county in southeast England. It is now entirely within the wider urbanised area of London. Its area is now also mostly within the ceremonial county of Greater London, with small sections in other neighbouring ceremonial counties. It was established in the Anglo-Saxon system from the territory of the Middle Saxons, and existed as an official unit until 1965. The historic county includes land stretching north of the River Thames from 17 miles (27 km) west to 3 miles (5 km) east of the City of London with the rivers Colne and Lea and a ridge of hills as the other boundaries. The largely low-lying county, dominated by clay in its north and alluvium on gravel in its south, was the second smallest county by area in 1831.
William Cheselden was an English surgeon and teacher of anatomy and surgery, who was influential in establishing surgery as a scientific medical profession. Via the medical missionary Benjamin Hobson, his work also helped revolutionize medical practices in China and Japan in the 19th century.
Peter Parker was an American physician and a missionary who introduced Western medical techniques into Qing Dynasty China. It was said that Parker "opened China to the gospel at the point of a lancet."
Alfred James Broomhall, also A. J. Broomhall, was a British Protestant Christian medical missionary to China, and author and historian of the China Inland Mission.
In the early 19th century, Western colonial expansion occurred at the same time as an evangelical revival – the Second Great Awakening – throughout the English-speaking world, leading to more overseas missionary activity. The nineteenth century became known as the Great Century of modern religious missions.
Benjamin Hobson (1816–1873) (Chinese：合信) was a Protestant medical missionary who served with the London Missionary Society in imperial China during its Qing dynasty. His Treatise on Physiology, reproducing and elaborating on work by William Cheselden, helped revolutionize Chinese and later Japanese medical understanding and treatment.
Dr. Thomas Alexander Lambie was a missionary medical doctor noteworthy for becoming an Ethiopian citizen, being responsible for several early medical efforts in Ethiopia. He also worked as a medical doctor in Sudan, Nigeria and Palestine, where he died.
The Medical Missionary Society in China was a Protestant medical missionary society established in Canton, China, in 1838.
Samuel Fisk Green (1822–1884) was an American medical missionary. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York city. He served with the American Ceylon Mission (ACM) in Jaffna, Sri Lanka during the period (1847–1873) when it was the British colony of Ceylon. During his tenure he founded the Sri Lanka's first medical hospital and school in what later became the Green Memorial Hospital in Manipay in the Jaffna peninsula. He translated and published over 4000 pages of medical literature from English to Tamil as part of his efforts to train doctors in their native language. He was personally responsible for training over 60 native doctors of whom majority had their instructions in Tamil.
Robert Clark (1825–1900), and his colleague Thomas Henry Fitzpatrick, were the first English Church Mission Society (CMS) missionaries in the Punjab. Clark was the first missionary to the Afghans, and was the first agent of the Church to enter the city of Leh.
John Kenneth MacKenzie was an English medical missionary to China. He initially started his work through the London Missionary Society in Hankow in 1875. In Hankow, he treated patients in the London Missionary Society hospital, learned Chinese, and engaged in evangelism. The majority of the cases he treated were eye disease, opium addiction, and cases involving surgery. In 1878, MacKenzie transferred to Tientsin due to the failing health of his wife. In Tientsin, MacKenzie constructed and ran a hospital with the help of the Viceroy's patronage and also established the Tientsin Medical School. MacKenzie also helped in the organisation of the Medical Missionary Association in China and the editing of the Medical Missionary Journal. He employed evangelism in many parts of his work but died an early death in 1888 due to smallpox.
Mary Hannah Fulton was a medical missionary sent to South China by the Presbyterian Church. She began her work by setting up a dispensary in Kwai Ping, then continued by working with the Canton Hospital. Dr. Fulton set up a college to train women in medicine, the Hackett Medical College for Women, and served as the dean there. In addition, she preached the Presbyterian faith and ultimately began a multi-denominational Christian congregation in Shanghai. There she also translated English medical volumes into Chinese. She died in Pasadena, California at the age of 72.
Pacradooni Kaloost Vartan was the son of a poor Armenian tailor, he was born in Istanbul in 1835 and founded the Nazareth Hospital, the first hospital in Ottoman Galilee.
Boudinot Currie Atterbury (1852–1930), from a wealthy New York family, trained to be a medical doctor and worked with the Presbyterian missions in China and later with Chinese communities in the USA.
Dr. Fanny Jane Butler was a medical missionary from England who was among the first female doctors to travel to India and the first fully trained doctor from England to do so. Prior to her work in Kashmir and other parts of India, Butler was a part of the first class of the London School of Medicine for Women, becoming a member of the forefront of female doctors. Butler spent seven years in India until her death in 1889 and opened medical dispensaries in Srinagar and Bhagalpur, where no medical facilities had previously existed. Butler also initiated the building of the first hospital in Srinagar in 1888 called the John Bishop Memorial Hospital and provided necessary medical care for Indian women, for whom little care had been available.
Ernest Cromwell Peake was an English Missionary of the London Missionary Society who worked in China, from 1899 to 1922. He was the first medical missionary to work in Hengchow, in Hunan Province, China where he set up a clinic and dispensary. He was also appointed head of the Mackenzie Memorial Hospital in Tianjin, China in 1912. Peake was known for teaching Chinese locals about medicine, and for being one of the first missionaries to bring modern medical techniques to China. He was the father of Mervyn Peake, the writer and poet.
William Pennefather (1816-1873) was an Irish Anglican cleric who spent most of his adult life in England. He was celebrated for his hymns and sermons, and also for his missionary work.
John Glasgow Kerr (1824–1901) was an American medical missionary and philanthropist who helped establish the Canton Hospital, also known as the Ophthalmic Hospital, in Canton, China.
William Burns Thomson (1821–1893) was a Scottish medical missionary born in Kirriemuir, Scotland to Christian parents. Thomson dedicated his life to the spread of the gospel and to medical missionary work. His work as part of the Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society(EMMS) transformed the organization from its focus on the slums of Scotland to an international missionary aid organization. During his time with EMMS, Dr. Thomson advocated for missionaries across the globe, including Dr. Kaloost Vartan of the Nazareth Hospital and Dr. William Jackson Elmslie in Kashmir. Dr. Thomson also served as a pioneer for medical missionary training by creating the original EMMS training school at the Cowgate dispensary. This led to more training schools being created in other parts of the world, like Bombay(now known as Mumbai) and Calcutta(now known as Kolkata), India.
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. The Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1967.