Thomas Ewing Jr.

Last updated
Thomas Ewing Jr.
General Thomas Ewing Jr.
Born(1829-08-07)August 7, 1829
Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.
DiedJanuary 21, 1896(1896-01-21) (aged 66)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Place of burial
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service1862 1865
Rank Union Army major general rank insignia.svg Brevet Major General
Battles/wars American Civil War
Other work Secretary
Democratic Congressman
College Vice-President
Founder of the Ohio Society of New York

Thomas Ewing Jr. (August 7, 1829 January 21, 1896) was an attorney, the first chief justice of Kansas and leading free state advocate, Union Army general during the American Civil War, and two-term United States Congressman from Ohio, 1877–1881. [1] He narrowly lost the 1879 campaign for Ohio Governor.


Early life and career

Ewing was born in Lancaster, Ohio. His father, Thomas Ewing Sr., was a very successful lawyer and Whig politician at the national level. Although Ewing Sr. was an Irish Protestant, his wife, Maria Wills Boyle, converted the family to Catholicism. The younger Ewing was a foster brother of William Tecumseh Sherman and became his brother-in-law when Sherman married Ewing's sister, Eleanor "Ellen" Ewing Sherman. Two other brothers were also Civil War generals Charles Ewing and Hugh Boyle Ewing. Thomas Ewing Jr.'s relationship with Sherman was close throughout their lives.

Thomas Ewing Jr. began his education at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. He left Brown University to become private secretary to President Zachary Taylor from 1849 to 1850 (concurrent with his father's term in Taylor's Cabinet). He then studied and practiced law from 1852 to 1856 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He graduated from Cincinnati Law School in 1855. [2]

Ewing married Ellen Cox of Piqua, Ohio, on January 18, 1856. He moved to Leavenworth, Kansas in 1856, where he became a member of the Leavenworth Constitutional Convention of 1858. He was a stockholder and leading advocate of a transcontinental railroad through his early ownership of the Leavenworth, Pawnee and Western Railroad, which later was sold to other investors and became part of the Union Pacific Railroad. A moderate on the issue of slavery, his efforts to defeat the Lecompton Constitution helped Kansas enter the Union as a free state but without the bloody fight against the federal government advocated by other free state men like James H. Lane and John Brown. He was a delegate from Kansas to the Peace Conference of 1861 and was elected the first chief justice of the new state of Kansas in 1861.

Civil War

George Caleb Bingham painting of General Order No. 11. In this famous propaganda work General Thomas Ewing is seated on a horse watching the Red Legs. George Caleb Bingham - Order No. 11 - Google Art Project.jpg
George Caleb Bingham painting of General Order No. 11. In this famous propaganda work General Thomas Ewing is seated on a horse watching the Red Legs.

Ewing resigned his judgeship in 1862 to enter the military. He recruited the 11th Kansas Infantry and was elected as its first colonel. His regiment fought in James G. Blunt's division in the battles of Old Fort Wayne, Cane Hill, and Prairie Grove.

Although he possessed no military experience before the civil war, Ewing was promoted to brigadier general on March 13, 1863, for his leadership at the Battle of Prairie Grove. He was given command of the District of the Border, which comprised Kansas and western Missouri. Ewing was responsible for General Order № 11, issued in retaliation for William Quantrill's raid on Lawrence, Kansas, where 450 raiders shot and killed 150 men and boys. [3] The order commanded that civilians with southern sympathies living in four Missouri counties be expelled, and if they did not leave voluntarily, they would be forced out by Union cavalry. While this was part of an effort to suppress bushwhackers in the region it left a black mark on his legacy.

Thomas Ewing Jr. Thomas Ewing, Jr.jpg
Thomas Ewing Jr.

In September and October 1864, as deputy commander of the St. Louis district under William Rosecrans, Ewing played a major part in thwarting Sterling Price's invasion of Missouri by commanding a successful defense at Fort Davidson at Pilot Knob, Missouri. His command of 1500 heavily outnumbered soldiers (900 effectives) [4] and a few black civilians fought off repeated attacks from a force of about 15,000 Confederates, buying additional time for the Union army to strengthen the defenses around St. Louis. Instead of surrendering, Ewing and his men successfully eluded Price's force during the night and fought a fighting withdrawal to Rolla, Missouri. [5] On February 23, 1865, Ewing resigned to return to civilian life, [6] tendering his resignation directly to his good friend, the President, a month before Lincoln's assassination. On February 24, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Ewing for appointment to the brevet rank of major general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865 and the U.S. Senate confirmed the nomination on May 4, 1866. [7]

Postbellum career

Although a staunch friend and ally of Abraham Lincoln, when Edwin Stanton engaged in a post-assassination flap with Ewing's brother-in-law William T. Sherman over final surrender terms to the Southern armies, Ewing agreed to represent two of John Ford's (of Ford's theater) employees in the Lincoln conspiracy trials. Through Orville Browning, Ewing's Washington law partner, Dr. Samuel Mudd's family also sought Ewing's legal help. Ewing also represented Samuel Arnold and Edmund Spangler during the trial. Ewing's efforts kept all three men from the gallows, but other conspirators were hanged. For their roles in the assassination, Mudd, Arnold and Spangler were sentenced to federal prison at Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas off Key West, Florida.

From 1865 to 1870, Ewing practiced law in Washington, D.C., helping southern interests with his influence in the Johnson Administration. The Ewing family was heavily involved in defending Andrew Johnson against radical impeachment efforts. He declined President Johnson's offers for him to become the Secretary of War during the Tenure in Office crisis. Ewing successfully lobbied the key vote against the impeachment of Andrew Johnson when he convinced his old comrade in arms, Edmund G. Ross of Kansas, to vote against impeachment. Ewing also was successful in obtaining a pardon for Mudd at the end of Johnson's term.

In 1870, he returned to his native Lancaster, Ohio, where he practiced for the next decade and attempted several business investments in railroads and telegraph companies. Ewing was a member of the Ohio state Constitutional Convention of 1873 74.


In 1876, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives and was re-elected in 1878, serving in the 45th and 46th Congresses from 1877 until 1881. He prepared the bill establishing a Bureau of Labor Statistics, opposed the presence of U.S. soldiers at election polling places, and favored the re-monetization of silver and the continuation of the use of Greenback currency, becoming one of the leading national spokesmen for the Greenback Party.

Campaign for governor

In 1879, Ewing was defeated for election for Governor of Ohio as the Democratic candidate in a close election. There is scholarly controversy whether the use of George Caleb Bingham's painting General Order № 11 in the anti-Ewing campaign made the difference in the election. [8]

On March 3, 1881, Ewing closed his second term as representative in Congress and moved to New York to resume his law career. He never ran for office again.

Later career

Ewing was founder and first president of the Ohio Society of New York, a trustee of Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home (187478), and a trustee of Ohio University (187883). He served as Vice President of the Cincinnati Law School in 1881. Ewing made a notable address before the Marietta Centennial Convention of 1887, and one before the Kansas state bar association in 1890. He also contributed an article entitled "The Struggle for Freedom in Kansas" to The Cosmopolitan in May 1894. Brown University, by special vote in 1894, gave him the bachelor's degree dating back to the class of 1856. Georgetown College gave him the degree of LL.D. in 1870. Ewing was killed when struck by a New York City omnibus in 1896. [9] He is buried in the Oakland Cemetery in Yonkers, New York.

See also


  1. "Gen. Thomas Ewing the victim of a cable car". The Standard Union. 21 January 1896. p. 1. Retrieved 2 April 2021. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  2. Reid 1895 , p. 834
  3. Pringle, Heather (April 2010). "Digging the Scorched Earth". Archaeology. 63 (2): 21. JSTOR   41781497.
  4. Prushankin, Jeffrey S. (2015). The Civil War in the Trans-Mississippi (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 52.
  5. Ewing's efforts caught the special private praise of Abraham Lincoln. See Smith, "Thomas Ewing Jr.," infra, p. 248.
  6. Eicher & Eicher 2001 , p. 230
  7. Eicher & Eicher 2001 , p. 712
  8. For this analysis, see the discussion regarding the General order, linked in this paragraph.
  9. "General Ewing's Untimely Death". The New York Herald. New York City, New York, USA. 22 January 1896. p. 14.

Related Research Articles

William Tecumseh Sherman United States Army general (1820–1891)

William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861–1865), achieving recognition for his command of military strategy as well as criticism for the harshness of the scorched-earth policies that he implemented against the Confederate States. British military theorist and historian B. H. Liddell Hart declared that Sherman was "the first modern general".

Thomas Ewing American politician

Thomas Ewing Sr. was a National Republican and Whig politician from Ohio. He served in the U.S. Senate as well as serving as the Secretary of the Treasury and the first secretary of the interior. He is also known as the foster father of famous American Civil War general William Tecumseh Sherman.

Edmund G. Ross United States senator (1826–1907)

Edmund Gibson Ross was a politician who represented Kansas after the American Civil War and was later governor of the New Mexico Territory. His vote against convicting President Andrew Johnson of "high crimes and misdemeanors" allowed Johnson to stay in office by the margin of one vote. As the seventh of seven Republican U.S. Senators to break with his party, he proved to be the person whose decision would result in conviction or acquittal. When he chose the latter, the vote of 35–19 in favor of Johnson's conviction failed to reach the required two-thirds vote. Ross lost his bid for re-election two years later.

James W. Denver American politician

James William "Jim" Denver was an American politician, soldier and lawyer. He served in the California state government, as an officer in the United States Army in two wars, and as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from California. He served as secretary and Governor of the Kansas Territory during the struggle over whether or not Kansas would be open to slavery. The city of Denver, Colorado, is named after him.

John Bingham American politician

John Armor Bingham was an American politician who served as a Republican representative from Ohio and as the United States ambassador to Japan. In his time as a congressman, Bingham served as both assistant Judge Advocate General in the trial of the Abraham Lincoln assassination and a prosecutor in the impeachment trial of U.S. President Andrew Johnson. He was also the principal framer of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Durbin Ward American politician

Jesse Durbin Ward was an Ohio lawyer, politician, newspaper publisher, and American Civil War officer.

Lorenzo Thomas American politician

Lorenzo Thomas was a career United States Army officer who was Adjutant General of the Army at the beginning of the American Civil War. After the war, he was appointed temporary Secretary of War by U.S. President Andrew Johnson, precipitating Johnson's impeachment.

The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater from 1863 until the end of the war.

Andrew Hickenlooper American politician

Andrew Hickenlooper was an Ohioan civil engineer, politician, industrialist, and a Union Army lieutenant colonel of artillery and engineers. In recognition of his service, in 1866, he was nominated and confirmed for appointment as a brevet brigadier general of volunteers to rank from March 13, 1865.

Daniel McCook Jr. American lawyer

Daniel McCook Jr., one of the famed Fighting McCooks, was a brigade commander in the Union Army who was mortally wounded in the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, during the American Civil War.

Hugh Boyle Ewing American general

Hugh Boyle Ewing was a diplomat, author, attorney, and Union Army general during the American Civil War. He was a member of the prestigious Ewing family, son of Thomas Ewing, the eldest brother of Thomas Ewing, Jr. and Charles Ewing, and the foster brother and brother-in-law of William T. Sherman. General Ewing was an ambitious, literate, and erudite officer who held a strong sense of responsibility for the men under his command. He combined his West Point experience with the Civil War system of officer election.

Charles Ewing (general) American general

Charles Ewing was an attorney and Union Army general during the American Civil War. He was the son of Interior Secretary Thomas Ewing, the brother of Thomas Ewing Jr. and Hugh Boyle Ewing, and the foster brother and brother-in-law of William T. Sherman. Ewing's sister and Sherman's wife was Ellen Ewing Sherman.

Roeliff Brinkerhoff American historian

Roeliff Brinkerhoff was a lawyer, editor and owner of the Mansfield Herald, and later a bank president. He was a quartermaster and supply officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War, rising to the rank of colonel. In recognition of his service, he was nominated in 1866 and confirmed in 1867 for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers. His work, "The Volunteer Quartermaster" was considered the definitive text on military logistics and transportation from the Civil War until World War I. He also founded the Ohio Historical Society and succeeded former President Rutherford B. Hayes as president of the American National Prison Congress.

Henry B. Banning American politician

Henry Blackstone Banning was a lawyer and three-term U.S. Representative from Ohio, as well as an infantry officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

James S. Robinson American politician

James Sidney Robinson was a U.S. Representative from Ohio and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He served two terms in Congress from 1881 to 1885.

Daniel Read Anthony American politician

Daniel Read Anthony was an American publisher, women's suffragist, and abolitionist. He moved to Kansas, where he published the Leavenworth Times in Leavenworth, Kansas, as well as other newspapers in the area. He was a leader of the New England Emigrant Aid Company. He was a younger brother of activist Susan B. Anthony.

Benjamin Brice

Benjamin William Brice was a lawyer and soldier who served in the United States Army during the Black Hawk War and Mexican-American War. Later employed as the Paymaster General of the Union Army during the American Civil War and postbellum periods, Brice had on his retirement in 1872 risen to the rank of brevet major general.

George P. Buell

George Pearson Buell was an American civil engineer and soldier. He served as a Union Army general during the American Civil War, and remained in the United States Army following the conflict.

Charles C. Walcutt American politician

Charles Carroll Walcutt was an American surveyor, soldier, and politician, and a maternal cousin to Davy Crockett. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, in which he was wounded twice.

The 11th Kansas Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was a cavalry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.