Thomas Porter McMurray (5 December 1887, Belfast – 16 November 1949, London) was a British orthopaedic surgeon remembered for describing the McMurray test.
Belfast is a port city in the United Kingdom and the capital city of Northern Ireland, on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is the largest city in Northern Ireland and second largest on the island of Ireland. It had a population of 333,871 in 2015.
London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Thomas McMurray graduated from Queen's University, Belfast in 1910, and took up a house job in Liverpool under Sir Robert Jones. He served as a Captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps in France for a short time, returning to the Alder Hey Military Hospital in Liverpool in 1914. He continued his training under Robert Jones, becoming lecturer at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Liverpool from 1924 to 1938, and succeeding Robert Jones as director of orthopaedics. He became the first professor of orthopaedic surgery in Liverpool in 1938.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region.
The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace. Together with the Royal Army Veterinary Corps, the Royal Army Dental Corps and Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps, the RAMC forms the Army Medical Services.
The University of Liverpool is a public university based in the city of Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its royal charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees and is also known to be one of the six original 'red brick' civic universities. It comprises three faculties organised into 35 departments and schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is AACSB accredited.
He was president of the British Orthopaedic Society and the Liverpool Medical Institution, and president-elect of the British Medical Association.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom. The association does not regulate or certify doctors, a responsibility which lies with the General Medical Council. The association's headquarters are located in BMA House, Tavistock Square, London. Additionally, the association has national offices in Cardiff, Belfast, and Edinburgh, a European office in Brussels and a number of offices in English regions. The BMA has a range of representative and scientific committees and is recognised by National Health Service (NHS) employers as sole contract negotiators for doctors.
His dexterity as a surgeon was noted; he was able to remove a meniscus in five minutes, and disarticulate a hip in little over ten. As a teacher, he upheld the principles of Hugh Owen Thomas, and built up a postgraduate school of orthopaedic surgery at the University of Liverpool.
A meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disk, only partly divides a joint cavity. In humans they are present in the knee, wrist, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints; in other animals they may be present in other joints.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
Hugh Owen Thomas was a Welsh surgeon. He is considered the father of orthopaedic surgery in Britain.
He died of a heart attack at a railway station in London while travelling to visit his son in South Africa.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes. The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired. About 30% of people have atypical symptoms. Women more often present without chest pain and instead have neck pain, arm pain, or feel tired. Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms. An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building (depot) providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts".
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans; to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European (White), Asian (Indian), and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedics, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.
Dallas Burton Phemister was an American surgeon and researcher who gave his name to several medical terms. During his career, he was the president of the American Surgical Association and the American College of Surgeons, and was a member of the editorial board of the journal Annals of Surgery.
The Master of Surgery is an advanced qualification in surgery. Depending upon the degree, it may be abbreviated Ch.M., M.Ch., M.Chir. or M.S. At a typical medical school the program lasts between two and three years. The possession of a medical degree is a prerequisite. The Ch.M. can be awarded on both clinical and academic competency or on academic competency. The regulations may ask for surgical experience and a thesis topic that is not purely medical.
Richard Quain was an English anatomist and surgeon, born at Fermoy, Ireland, a brother of Jones Quain. He studied medicine in London and in Paris. He was appointed demonstrator in 1828 and professor of anatomy in 1832 at the University of London, resigning in 1850, and assistant surgeon in 1834 and surgeon in 1848 to the North London Hospital, from which he resigned in 1866. He was president of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1868.
Jack Penn, M.B., Ch.B., F.R.C.S.(E.)., Mil. Dec. M.B.E., S.M., was a plastic and reconstructive surgeon, sculptor and author, who was also for a time a member of the President's Council in South Africa.
Sean Patrick Francis Hughes is Emeritus Professor of orthopaedic surgery at Imperial College London where he was previously Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and head of the department of surgery, anaesthetics and intensive care. Earlier in his career he had been Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Edinburgh.
Sir Robert Jones, 1st Baronet, was a Welsh orthopaedic surgeon who helped to establish the modern specialty of orthopaedic surgery in Britain. He was an early proponent of the use of radiography in orthopaedics, and described the eponymous Jones fracture.
John Chalmers is a Scottish orthopaedic surgeon.
Kantilal H. Sancheti is an orthopaedic physician who invented India's first indigenous knee implant, the Indus Knee, and founder of Maharashtra's first orthopaedic dedicated specialty hospital.
Sir Harry Platt, 1st Baronet, FRCS was an English orthopaedic surgeon, president of the Royal College of Surgeons of England (1954–1957). He was a founder of the British Orthopaedic Association, of which he became president in 1934–1935.
Brigadier Robert Neville Atkinson,, FAMA is an orthopaedic surgeon and retired senior officer of the Royal Australian Army Medical Corps, best known for his contributions to trauma and military surgery.
Lennox Ross Broster, OBE was a South African-born surgeon who spent most of his career as a consultant at Charing Cross Hospital, London. He served with the Royal Army Medical Corps during World War I, for which he was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire.
Puliyur Krishnaswamy Duraiswami (1912–1974) was an Indian orthopedic surgeon, medical writer and the Director General of Health Services under the Government of India. Besides being a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and a founder Fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences, he published several articles on orthopedics and was a recipient of Robert Jones Medal and the Presidential Merit Award of the British Orthopaedic Association. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 1966, for his contributions to the Medical Science.
Harold Chapman was a British orthodontist who was England's first exclusive orthodontic practitioner in 1921. He was also the President of the European Orthodontic Society and British Dental Association during his career.
Sir Reginald Watson Watson-Jones, FRCS was a prominent English orthopedic surgeon.
Sir Henry McIlltree Williamson Gray (1870–1938) was a Scottish surgeon who made very important contributions to the treatment of wounded soldiers during the First World War. He pioneered the operation of wound excision, which is a procedure to systematically remove all devitalised and contaminated tissue, leaving only healthy bleeding tissue behind. Wound excision saved limbs and lives by reducing the incidence of major wound infections, including gas gangrene. Gray was also an expert in the management of compound fractures of the femur, which carried a mortality of 80% in 1914-15.
John Ivor Pulsford James was a British orthopaedic surgeon. He was professor of orthopaedic surgery at the University of Edinburgh from 1958 to 1979. Most commonly known as "JIP", he was secretary then president of the British Orthopaedic Association which later awarded him its honorary fellowship. James attracted orthopaedic specialists to work in Edinburgh, encouraging them to develop an interest in a specialist area of orthopaedics, and in this way he was able to establish a comprehensive regional orthopaedic service. He made contributions to hand surgery and surgical treatment of scoliosis, and was a prime mover in promoting specialist training and qualification in orthopaedic surgery in the UK.
Sir Robert James Johnstone (1872–1938) was a Northern Ireland physician and politician.