Thomas Q. Ashburn (general)

Last updated
Thomas Q. Ashburn
Born(1874-11-17)November 17, 1874
Batavia, Ohio
DiedMay 2, 1941(1941-05-02) (aged 66)
Service/branch United States Army
Rank Major general
AwardsSilver Citation Star,
Croix de Guerre,
Legion of Honor,
Distinguished Service Medal
Relations Percy Moreau Ashburn, brother
Julius Penn, cousin

Thomas Q. Ashburn (November 17, 1874 – May 2, 1941) was a United States Army major general active during World War I. [1] Ashburn wrote a unit history of the 324th Field Artillery Brigade as well as articles on waterways, rivers, forest fires, and transportation.

Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Contents

Early life

Ashburn was born in Batavia, Ohio. He graduated number sixty-one of sixty-seven from the United States Military Academy in 1897. [2]

Batavia, Ohio Village in Ohio, United States

Batavia is a village in and the county seat of Clermont County, Ohio, United States. The population was 1,509 at the 2010 census.

United States Military Academy U.S. Armys federal service academy in West Point, New York

The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy, or simply The Point, is a four-year federal service academy in West Point, New York. It was originally established as a fort that sits on strategic high ground overlooking the Hudson River with a scenic view, 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City. It is one of the five U.S. service academies.

Career

Ashburn's first duty was with the 25th Infantry at Fort Missoula, in Montana, after which he was transferred to the artillery. Ashburn was commissioned a captain in the 34th United States Volunteer Infantry and was shipped to the Philippines.

Fort Missoula

Fort Missoula was established by the United States Army in 1877 on land that is now part of the city of Missoula, Montana, to protect settlers in Western Montana from possible threats from the Native American Indians, such as the Nez Perce.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

In May 1900, he commanded one column of the pursuit of Emilio Aguinaldo. He was made a brevet major for gallantry in action at San Jacinto on November 11, 1899. From 1901 to 1902, Ashburn was the aide to General Arthur MacArthur, after which he was stationed in Cuba to command the 18th, 19th, and 24th Companies of Coast Artillery. He returned from Cuba in 1903, graduated from the School of Submarine Defense in 1907, and served a second tour in the Philippines. During World War I, Ashburn commanded and took to France the 324th Field Artillery Brigade and the 158th Field Artillery in 1918. [1]

Emilio Aguinaldo First president of the Philippines, revolutionary leader

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino revolutionary, politician, and military leader who is officially recognized as the first and the youngest President of the Philippines (1899–1901) and first president of a constitutional republic in Asia. He led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of the Philippine Revolution (1896–1898), and then in the Spanish–American War (1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine–American War (1899–1901).

Arthur MacArthur Jr. United States Army Medal of Honor recipient

Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur, Jr., was a United States Army general. He became the military Governor-General of the American-occupied Philippines in 1900 but his term ended a year later due to clashes with the civilian governor, future-U.S. President William Howard Taft.

Cuba Country in the Caribbean

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is 110,860 square kilometers (42,800 sq mi). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of 105,006 square kilometers (40,543 sq mi), and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.

Ashburn became chairman of the advisory board of the Inland Waterways Corporation and was made a brigadier general in 1924. In 1927, he became a major general. In 1938, he retired from the army, but remained with the Inland Waterways Corporation until 1939. [3] [4]

Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).

Awards

Ashburn earned a Silver Citation Star and was commended publicly and personally by General John J. Pershing. He also received both the Croix de Guerre and Legion of Honor from France, as well as the Mexican Order of Military Merit and the Distinguished Service Medal from the United States. [5]

The Citation Star was a Department of War personal valor decoration issued as a ribbon device which was first established by the United States Congress on July 9, 1918. When awarded, a 316-inch (4.8 mm) silver star was placed on the suspension ribbon and service ribbon of the World War I Victory Medal to denote a Citation (certificate) for "Gallantry In Action" was awarded to a soldier, or to a marine or attached to the Army's Second Division, American Expeditionary Forces. The Citation Star was replaced in 1932 with the introduction of the Silver Star Medal.

<i>Croix de Guerre</i> class of French military award

The Croix de Guerre is a military decoration of France. It was first created in 1915 and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The decoration was awarded during World War I, again in World War II, and in other conflicts. The Croix de Guerre was also commonly bestowed on foreign military forces allied to France.

Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a high award of a nation.

Writings

Ashburn authored History of the 324th Field Artillery [6] [7] and numerous articles dealing with military matters, river transportation, and forest fires.

Death and legacy

Ashburn died at age 66 on May 2, 1941. [8] [9]

Family

Colonel Percy Moreau Ashburn was his brother. [10] Brigadier General Julius Penn was his cousin. [11]

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References

  1. 1 2 Marquis Who's Who, Inc. Who Was Who in American History, the Military. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1975.P.17 ISBN   0837932017 OCLC   657162692
  2. Davis, Henry Blaine. Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 1998. P. 13 ISBN   1571970886 OCLC   231779136
  3. Davis, Henry Blaine. Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 1998. P. 13-14 ISBN   1571970886 OCLC   231779136
  4. "Assistant Comptroller General Elliott to Lieutenant Colonel W.M. Dixon, United States Army, December 21, 1939". Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. 19: 597. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  5. "RPPC Thomas Q. Ashburn".
  6. Ashburn, T. Q. History of the 324th Field Artillery, United States Army. New York: George H. Doran Co, 1919. OCLC   4444243
  7. Ashburn, Thomas Q. (June 14, 1919). "History of the 324th Field Artillery, United States Army". George H. Doran Company via Google Books.
  8. Davis, Henry Blaine. Generals in Khaki. Raleigh, NC: Pentland Press, 1998. P. 14 ISBN   1571970886 OCLC   231779136
  9. "Thomas Q. Ashburn (1820-1890) - Find A Grave Memorial".
  10. Coyle, William (1962). Ohio Authors and Their Books: Biographical Data and Selective Bibliographies for Ohio Authors, Native and Resident, 1796-1950. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing Company. p. 18.
  11. Association of Graduates of the United States Military Academy (1935). Sixty-Sixth Annual Report. Newburgh, NY: Moore Printing Company. p. 137.

Bibliography